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Dataset Title:  Right Whales aerial sightings in Cape Cod Bay and adjacent waters from the R/V
Shearwater NEC-MB2002-1, 2002 (NEC-CoopRes project)
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Institution:  BCO-DMO   (Dataset ID: bcodmo_dataset_2988)
Information:  Summary ? | License ? | ISO 19115 | Metadata | Background (external link) | Files | Make a graph
Variable ?   Optional
Constraint #1 ?
Constraint #2 ?
   Minimum ?
   Maximum ?
 region ?          "Adjacent_CCB"    "all"
 survey_id ?          "CCS260"    "total_CapeCodBay"
 year ?          2002    2002
 month_local ?          "01"    "NaN"
 day_local ?          "01"    "NaN"
 yrday_local ?          6    132
 duration (hours) ?          1.0    105.5
 distance_nm (nautical miles) ?          94.0    8725.5
 tracks_completed ?          "1-11;16"    "Stellwagen_Bank/Wi..."
 taxon ?          "Balaenoptera_acuto..."    "unidentified_small..."
 count ?          0.0    8725.5
 comments ?          "NaN"    "extended Race Pt. ..."
Server-side Functions ?
 distinct() ?
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The Dataset Attribute Structure (.das) for this Dataset

Attributes {
 s {
  region {
    String bcodmo_name "region";
    String description "Cape Cod Bay or waters adjacent to Cape Cod Bay";
    String long_name "Region";
  survey_id {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "code descriptor for a survey";
    String long_name "Survey Id";
  year {
    Int16 _FillValue 32767;
    Int16 actual_range 2002, 2002;
    String bcodmo_name "year";
    String description "year";
    String long_name "Year";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/YEARXXXX/";
  month_local {
    String bcodmo_name "month_local";
    String description "local month";
    String long_name "Month Local";
  day_local {
    String bcodmo_name "day_local";
    String description "local day";
    String long_name "Day Local";
  yrday_local {
    Int16 _FillValue 32767;
    Int16 actual_range 6, 132;
    String bcodmo_name "yrday_local";
    String description "local year day";
    String long_name "Yrday Local";
  duration {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 1.0, 105.5;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "duration of survey";
    String long_name "Duration";
    String units "hours";
  distance_nm {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 94.0, 8725.5;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "distance covered in survey";
    String long_name "Distance Nm";
    String units "nautical miles";
  tracks_completed {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "trackline numbers completed on survey (see map)";
    String long_name "Tracks Completed";
  taxon {
    String bcodmo_name "taxon";
    String description "taxonomic description of animals";
    String long_name "Taxon";
  count {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.0, 8725.5;
    String bcodmo_name "count";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 100.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum 0.0;
    String description "number of animals sighted";
    String long_name "Count";
  comments {
    String bcodmo_name "comment";
    String description "free text comments";
    String long_name "Comments";
    String access_formats ".htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv";
    String acquisition_description 
 I) Aerial Surveys
Aerial surveys were conducted from January through mid-May 2002 in the Cape
Cod Bay Critical Habitat and adjacent waters (Figures 1a-e, Tables 1a-e). The
aerial survey protocol for Cape Cod Bay, as described in Kraus et al (1997),
was adopted with some modifications. Fifteen tracklines were flown
latitudinally (east - west) at 1.5 nautical mile (nm) intervals from the
mainland to the Cape Cod Bay shoreline (Figure 1a). An additional trackline,
25 nm in length, paralleled the outer coast of Cape Cod from east of Chatham
to the eastern end of trackline one at a distance of about three nm from shore
(Figure 1a, trackline number 16). The east-west flight pattern in Cape Cod Bay
was chosen for scientific and safety reasons. In these latitudes, winter
aerial surveys are hampered by low sun angles in the early and late hours of a
survey day and glare is a significant factor in sightability of marine
mammals. On east-west tracklines, although glare was a factor in one of the
forward quadrants, there was always a section of the survey swath that could
be observed without being compromised by glare. It was also safer to have the
aerial survey tracklines begin and end near land. A total of 320 nm of 'on-
trackline' miles were flown during each completed survey (Table 1a). \\\"On-
trackline\\\" miles were those miles flown while surveying due east or due west
in Cape Cod Bay and along the outer coast of Cape Cod, but excludes all miles
flown between tracklines (cross legs) or while circling.
The surveys were flown under VFR (visual flight rules) conditions up to and
including Beaufort sea state four. Surveys were aborted in Beaufort sea state
five and/or when visibility decreased below two miles in fog, rain or snow.
All aerial surveys originated at Chatham Airport, Chatham, MA. They were
conducted in a Cessna 337 Skymaster (5382S), a twin engine, high-wing aircraft
with retractable landing gear. The aircraft was equipped with two GPS (global
positioning system) navigation systems, full IFR (instrument flight rules)
instrumentation, marine VHF radio with external antenna, and wing-tip mounted
VHF tracking antennas. Safety equipment included a life raft, four survival
suits, signal flares, a medical kit, a waterproof VHF radio, a portable EPIRB,
and an aircraft mounted ELT (emergency locator transmitter). All occupants
wore aircraft approved PFDs (personal floatation device) during the entire
Surveys were conducted at a standard altitude of 750 feet (229 meters) and a
ground speed of approximately 100 knots, using methodology developed by CeTAP
(Scott and Gilbert 1982, CeTAP 1982). The survey team consisted of a pilot,
data recorder, and two observers positioned on each side of the aircraft in
the rear seats. The two rear seat observers scanned the water surface from
0\\u00b0 - 90\\u00b0, out to at least two nautical miles and reported sightings
when they were abeam of the aircraft. In order to maintain a standardized
sighting effort, the pilot and data recorder were instructed not to alert the
observers to any sightings of marine mammals until after it had been passed by
the aircraft and clearly missed by the observers. The turn at the end of each
trackline was initiated and completed about 1.5 nm from shore in Cape Cod Bay
to maximize the opportunity to observe any whales near shore.
All sightings of marine animals except birds were recorded. Sightings
identified as species other than right whales were counted, logged and passed
without breaking the trackline and circling in order to maximize flight time
available for investigating right whale sightings. Sightings of all vessels in
the area were recorded by location and type. At sightings identified as right
whales, as well as sightings of large whales, which were not immediately
identified by species, the aircraft broke track at right angles to the
sighting and circled over the animal to obtain photographs. Photographs were
obtained of as many individual right whales within a given aggregation as
possible. For each right whale, behavior and interaction with other whales or
any nearby vessels or fishing gear was noted. In a few instances, when right
whales were spotted from the plane in close from the vessel so that the plane
could devote more time to surveying. The right angle distance of each sighting
from the flight track was determined from GPS positions.
At the conclusion of photographic effort at each sighting, the aircraft
returned to the trackline at the point of departure using the GPS position
recorded in the log. These methods conform to research protocols followed by
the North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium (CCS, NEAq, URI, and WHOI) and
approved by the US NMFS. Trackline and sighting data from the daily logs were
entered into the Right Whale Initiative DBase program designed for
compatibility with the Right Whale Consortium database. Copies of the daily
logs from the aerial surveys are on file at CCS and URI.
Photographic Methods  
 i) Identification Photographs:  
 During aerial and shipboard surveys, photographs were taken on Kodak
Kodachrome 200ASA color slide film, using hand-held 35-mm cameras equipped
with 300-mm telephoto lenses and motor drives. From the air, photographers
attempted to obtain good perpendicular photographs of the entire rostral
callosity pattern and back of every right whale encountered as well as any
other scars or markings. From the boat, photographers attempted to collect
good oblique photographs of both sides of the head and chin, the body and the
flukes. The data recorder on both platforms was responsible for keeping a
written record of the roll and frame numbers shot by each photographer in the
daily log.
ii) Photo-analysis and Matching:  
 Photographs of right whale callosity patterns are used as a basis for
identification and cataloging of individuals, following methods developed by
Payne et al (1983) and Kraus et al (1986). The cataloging of individually
identified animals is based on using high quality photographs of distinctive
callosity patterns (raised patches of roughened skin on the top and sides of
the head), ventral pigmentation, lip ridges, and scars (Kraus et al 1986).
NEAq has curated the catalogue since 1980 and to the best of their knowledge,
all photographs of right whales taken in the North Atlantic since 1935 have
been included in NEAq's files. This catalogue allows scientists to enumerate
the population, and, from resightings of known individuals, to monitor the
animals' reproductive status, births, deaths, scarring, distribution and
migrations. Since 1980, a total of 26,275 sightings of 436 individual right
whales have been archived, of which 327 are thought to be alive, as of
December 2001 (A. Knowlton, NEAq, pers. comm.)
The matching process consists of separating photographs of right whales into
individuals and inter-matching between days within the season. To match
different sightings of the same whale, composite drawings and photographs of
the callosity patterns of individual right whales are compared to a limited
subset of the catalogue that includes animals with a similar appearance. For
whales that look alike in the first sort, the original photographs of all
probable matches are examined for callosity similarities and supplementary
features, including scars, pigmentation, lip crenulations, and morphometric
ratios. A match between different sightings is considered positive when the
callosity pattern and at least one other feature can be independently matched
by at least two experienced researchers (Kraus et al 1986). Exceptions to this
multiple identifying feature requirement include whales that have unusual
callosity patterns, large scars or birthmarks, or deformities so unique that
matches from clear photographs can be based on only one feature. Preliminary
photo-analysis and inter-matching was carried out at CCS, with matches
confirmed using original photographs cataloged and archived at NEAq.
iii) Photographic Data Archiving  
 Upon completion of the matching process, all original slides were returned
to CCS and incorporated into the CCS catalogue of identified right whales to
update existing files, using the same numbering system as NEAq, in archival
quality slide sheets. New England Aquarium (NEAq) archives copies of
photographs representing each sighting. Copies of photographs of individuals
that are better than existing records, and photographs of newly identified
whales, will be included in the NEAq master files as \\\"type specimens\\\" for
future reference. The master files are maintained in fireproof safes at NEAq.
All catalogue files are available for inspection and on-site use by
contributors and collaborators.";
    String awards_0_award_nid "55048";
    String awards_0_award_number "unknown NEC-CoopRes NOAA";
    String awards_0_funder_name "National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration";
    String awards_0_funding_acronym "NOAA";
    String awards_0_funding_source_nid "352";
    String cdm_data_type "Other";
    String comment 
"Whales as seen from the air 
    PI: Moira Brown 
  Surveillance of North Atlantic Right Whales in 
    Cape Cod Bay and Adjacent Waters, 2002. 
    Number of marine mammals and other animals seen, 
    hours and trackline miles surveyed during aerial  
    surveillance of Cape Cod Bay and adjacent waters, 
      January to mid-May 2002. (report table 2)";
    String Conventions "COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3";
    String creator_email "info@bco-dmo.org";
    String creator_name "BCO-DMO";
    String creator_type "institution";
    String creator_url "https://www.bco-dmo.org/";
    String data_source "extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3  19 Dec 2019";
    String date_created "2010-06-16T20:40:39Z";
    String date_modified "2019-03-14T18:44:14Z";
    String defaultDataQuery "&time<now";
    String doi "10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.2988.1";
    String history 
"2022-08-08T23:02:30Z (local files)
2022-08-08T23:02:30Z https://erddap.bco-dmo.org/erddap/tabledap/bcodmo_dataset_2988.html";
    String infoUrl "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/2988";
    String institution "BCO-DMO";
    String instruments_0_acronym "camera";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description "35mm camera";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid "4729";
    String instruments_0_description "All types of photographic equipment including stills, video, film and digital systems.";
    String instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/311/";
    String instruments_0_instrument_name "Camera";
    String instruments_0_instrument_nid "520";
    String instruments_0_supplied_name "Camera";
    String keywords "bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, comments, completed, count, data, dataset, day, day_local, distance, distance_nm, dmo, duration, erddap, local, management, month, month_local, oceanography, office, preliminary, region, survey, survey_id, taxon, tracks, tracks_completed, year, yrday, yrday_local";
    String license "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/2988/license";
    String metadata_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/2988";
    String param_mapping "{'2988': {}}";
    String parameter_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/2988/parameters";
    String people_0_affiliation "Provincetown Center for Coastal Studies";
    String people_0_affiliation_acronym "PCCS";
    String people_0_person_name "Dr Charles Mayo";
    String people_0_person_nid "51015";
    String people_0_role "Co-Chief Scientist";
    String people_0_role_type "originator";
    String people_1_affiliation "Provincetown Center for Coastal Studies";
    String people_1_affiliation_acronym "PCCS";
    String people_1_person_name "Dr Moira Brown";
    String people_1_person_nid "51013";
    String people_1_role "Principal Investigator";
    String people_1_role_type "originator";
    String people_2_affiliation "Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries";
    String people_2_person_name "Dr Daniel McKiernan";
    String people_2_person_nid "51014";
    String people_2_role "Principal Investigator";
    String people_2_role_type "originator";
    String people_3_affiliation "Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution";
    String people_3_affiliation_acronym "WHOI BCO-DMO";
    String people_3_person_name "Nancy Copley";
    String people_3_person_nid "50396";
    String people_3_role "BCO-DMO Data Manager";
    String people_3_role_type "related";
    String project "NEC-CoopRes";
    String projects_0_acronym "NEC-CoopRes";
    String projects_0_description 
"The Northeast Consortium encourages and funds cooperative research and monitoring projects in the Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank that have effective, equal partnerships among fishermen, scientists, educators, and marine resource managers.
The Northeast Consortium seeks to fund projects that will be conducted in a responsible manner. Cooperative research projects are designed to minimize any negative impacts to ecosystems or marine organisms, and be consistent with accepted ethical research practices, including the use of animals and human subjects in research, scrutiny of research protocols by an institutional board of review, etc.";
    String projects_0_geolocation "Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine";
    String projects_0_name "Northeast Consortium: Cooperative Research";
    String projects_0_project_nid "2045";
    String projects_0_project_website "http://northeastconsortium.org/";
    String projects_0_start_date "1999-01";
    String publisher_name "Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)";
    String publisher_type "institution";
    String sourceUrl "(local files)";
    String standard_name_vocabulary "CF Standard Name Table v55";
    String summary "Right Whales aerial sightings in Cape Cod Bay and adjacent waters from the R/V Shearwater NEC-MB2002-1, 2002 (Northeast Consortium Cooperative Research project).";
    String title "Right Whales aerial sightings in Cape Cod Bay and adjacent waters from the R/V Shearwater NEC-MB2002-1, 2002 (NEC-CoopRes project)";
    String version "1";
    String xml_source "osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3";


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tabledap lets you request a data subset, a graph, or a map from a tabular dataset (for example, buoy data), via a specially formed URL. tabledap uses the OPeNDAP (external link) Data Access Protocol (DAP) (external link) and its selection constraints (external link).

The URL specifies what you want: the dataset, a description of the graph or the subset of the data, and the file type for the response.

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Thus, the query is often a comma-separated list of desired variable names, followed by a collection of constraints (e.g., variable<value), each preceded by '&' (which is interpreted as "AND").

For details, see the tabledap Documentation.

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