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Dataset Title:  Fish species counts in 3, 20x40 m transects, Panama, 1980-2010 (EPac Corals
projects I-VII)
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Institution:  BCO-DMO   (Dataset ID: bcodmo_dataset_516234)
Range: longitude = -81.75894 to -81.75886°E, latitude = 7.81461 to 7.81483°N
Information:  Summary ? | License ? | ISO 19115 | Metadata | Background (external link) | Data Access Form | Files
 
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The Dataset Attribute Structure (.das) for this Dataset

Attributes {
 s {
  year {
    Int16 _FillValue 32767;
    Int16 actual_range 1980, 2010;
    String bcodmo_name "year";
    String description "year of sampling in the format YYYY";
    String long_name "Year";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/YEARXXXX/";
    String units "unitless";
  }
  transect {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 1, 3;
    String bcodmo_name "transect";
    String description "transect number";
    String long_name "Transect";
    String units "integer";
  }
  latitude {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Lat";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range 7.81461, 7.81483;
    String axis "Y";
    String bcodmo_name "lat_begin";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 90.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -90.0;
    String description "latitude at transect inner reef end";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Latitude";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ALATZZ01/";
    String source_name "lat_inner";
    String standard_name "latitude";
    String units "degrees_north";
  }
  longitude {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Lon";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range -81.75894, -81.75886;
    String axis "X";
    String bcodmo_name "lon_begin";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 180.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -180.0;
    String description "longitude at transect inner reef end";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Longitude";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ALONZZ01/";
    String source_name "lon_inner";
    String standard_name "longitude";
    String units "degrees_east";
  }
  lat_outer {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 7.81467, 7.8149;
    String bcodmo_name "lat_end";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 90.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -90.0;
    String description "latitude at transect outer reef end";
    String long_name "Latitude";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/";
    String standard_name "latitude";
    String units "decimal degrees";
  }
  lon_outer {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range -81.75916, -81.75907;
    String bcodmo_name "lon_end";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 180.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -180.0;
    String description "longitude at transect outer reef end";
    String long_name "Longitude";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/";
    String standard_name "longitude";
    String units "decimal degrees";
  }
  day {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 1, 31;
    String bcodmo_name "day";
    String description "day of month of sampling";
    String long_name "Day";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/DAYXXXXX/";
    String units "DD";
  }
  month {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 1, 11;
    String bcodmo_name "month";
    String description "month of year of sampling";
    String long_name "Month";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/MNTHXXXX/";
    String units "MM";
  }
  season {
    String bcodmo_name "season";
    String description "dry season: Jan-Apr; wet season: May-Dec";
    String long_name "Season";
    String units "unitless";
  }
  time_start {
    Int16 _FillValue 32767;
    Int16 actual_range 840, 1643;
    String bcodmo_name "time_start";
    String description "start time of transect sampling";
    String long_name "Time Start";
    String units "HHmm";
  }
  time_end {
    Int16 _FillValue 32767;
    Int16 actual_range 847, 1649;
    String bcodmo_name "time_end";
    String description "end time of transect sampling";
    String long_name "Time End";
    String units "HHmm";
  }
  species_code {
    String bcodmo_name "taxon_code";
    String description "species code";
    String long_name "Species Code";
    String units "unitless";
  }
  species {
    String bcodmo_name "species";
    String description "fish species";
    String long_name "Species";
    String units "unitless";
  }
  count {
    Int16 _FillValue 32767;
    Int16 actual_range 1, 332;
    String bcodmo_name "count";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 100.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum 0.0;
    String description "Number of fish observed per visual belt transect";
    String long_name "Count";
    String units "integer";
  }
 }
  NC_GLOBAL {
    String access_formats ".htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson";
    String acquisition_description 
"Fish species richness and abundances were quantified by snorkeling along the
NW (seaward) side of the Uva Island patch reef. During each survey, 3
permanent 20x40 m transects were sampled with the longest axis oriented in the
NW-SE direction, i.e. along the depth gradient and perpendicular to the
zonation of forereef corals. The mean transect width estimate for visual
measurement was ~10 m. \\u00a0Substrate type and depth (relative to MLLW tidal
datum) in each transect were mapped in situ at the beginning and end of the
study. The shallow ends of the transects were located in abundant pocilloporid
stands (with scattered reef frame blocks) of relatively high relief; the
central sections were dominated by live stands of\\u00a0Pocillopora\\u00a0spp.
of low relief; the deep ends contained mostly coral rubble with a few isolated
patches of massive corals.\\u00a0In the 1980s, 3 of the permanent transects
were surveyed; this was increased to 9 (over a period of 2-3 days the same 3
transects were re-sampled)\\u00a0in the 1990s and early 2000s.
 
Fish counts were made from the surface by snorkeling slowly, avoiding quick
movements or splashing, down the long axis of each transect. Species and
abundance of all visible (non-cryptic) individuals at least 15 cm total body
length present within the transects were recorded. Whitetip and bull sharks
were infrequently observed on the reef but did not enter the transects during
the survey periods. Sampling time was standardized at 8 min per transect (per
800 m2). The sides of adjacent transects were separated by 3 m, and the time
interval be tween successive visual sampling was ~5 min. Fishes were not
observed to be attracted to or repelled by the observer.";
    String awards_0_award_nid "514213";
    String awards_0_award_number "OCE-8415615";
    String awards_0_data_url "http://nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=8415615";
    String awards_0_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_0_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_0_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_0_program_manager "Emma  R Dieter";
    String awards_0_program_manager_nid "51484";
    String awards_1_award_nid "514214";
    String awards_1_award_number "OCE-8716726";
    String awards_1_data_url "http://nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=8716726";
    String awards_1_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_1_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_1_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_1_program_manager "Phillip R. Taylor";
    String awards_1_program_manager_nid "50451";
    String awards_2_award_nid "514232";
    String awards_2_award_number "OCE-9018392";
    String awards_2_data_url "http://nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=9018392";
    String awards_2_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_2_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_2_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_2_program_manager "Phillip R. Taylor";
    String awards_2_program_manager_nid "50451";
    String awards_3_award_nid "514233";
    String awards_3_award_number "OCE-9314798";
    String awards_3_data_url "http://nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=9314798";
    String awards_3_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_3_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_3_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_3_program_manager "Phillip R. Taylor";
    String awards_3_program_manager_nid "50451";
    String awards_4_award_nid "514234";
    String awards_4_award_number "OCE-9711529";
    String awards_4_data_url "http://nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=9711529";
    String awards_4_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_4_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_4_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_4_program_manager "Phillip R. Taylor";
    String awards_4_program_manager_nid "50451";
    String awards_5_award_nid "514235";
    String awards_5_award_number "OCE-0002317";
    String awards_5_data_url "http://nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=0002317";
    String awards_5_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_5_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_5_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_5_program_manager "Phillip R. Taylor";
    String awards_5_program_manager_nid "50451";
    String awards_6_award_nid "514236";
    String awards_6_award_number "OCE-0526361";
    String awards_6_data_url "http://nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=0526361";
    String awards_6_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_6_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_6_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_6_program_manager "David L. Garrison";
    String awards_6_program_manager_nid "50534";
    String cdm_data_type "Other";
    String comment 
"version: 24 April 2014 
    
   P. Glynn (UM-RSMAS) 
    
   fish species counts, Uva Island reef";
    String Conventions "COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3";
    String creator_email "info@bco-dmo.org";
    String creator_name "BCO-DMO";
    String creator_type "institution";
    String creator_url "https://www.bco-dmo.org/";
    String data_source "extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3  19 Dec 2019";
    String date_created "2014-05-30T18:41:27Z";
    String date_modified "2020-03-04T20:59:43Z";
    String defaultDataQuery "&time<now";
    String doi "10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.516234.1";
    Float64 Easternmost_Easting -81.75886;
    Float64 geospatial_lat_max 7.81483;
    Float64 geospatial_lat_min 7.81461;
    String geospatial_lat_units "degrees_north";
    Float64 geospatial_lon_max -81.75886;
    Float64 geospatial_lon_min -81.75894;
    String geospatial_lon_units "degrees_east";
    String history 
"2022-08-13T00:17:53Z (local files)
2022-08-13T00:17:53Z https://erddap.bco-dmo.org/tabledap/bcodmo_dataset_516234.das";
    String infoUrl "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/516234";
    String institution "BCO-DMO";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid "805333";
    String instruments_0_description 
"A diving mask (also half mask, dive mask or scuba mask) is an item of diving equipment that allows underwater divers, including, scuba divers, free-divers, and snorkelers to see clearly underwater.

Snorkel: A breathing apparatus for swimmers and surface divers that allows swimming or continuous use of a face mask without lifting the head to breathe, consisting of a tube that curves out of the mouth and extends above the surface of the water.";
    String instruments_0_instrument_name "Diving Mask and Snorkel";
    String instruments_0_instrument_nid "645675";
    String keywords "bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, code, count, data, dataset, day, dmo, end, erddap, lat_outer, latitude, lon_outer, longitude, management, month, oceanography, office, preliminary, season, species, species_code, start, time, time_end, time_start, transect, year";
    String license "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/516234/license";
    String metadata_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/516234";
    Float64 Northernmost_Northing 7.81483;
    String param_mapping "{'516234': {'lon_inner': 'flag - longitude', 'lat_inner': 'flag - latitude'}}";
    String parameter_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/516234/parameters";
    String people_0_affiliation "University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science";
    String people_0_affiliation_acronym "UM-RSMAS";
    String people_0_person_name "Peter Glynn";
    String people_0_person_nid "514244";
    String people_0_role "Principal Investigator";
    String people_0_role_type "originator";
    String people_1_affiliation "University of California-Los Angeles";
    String people_1_affiliation_acronym "UCLA";
    String people_1_person_name "Peggy Fong";
    String people_1_person_nid "514245";
    String people_1_role "Co-Principal Investigator";
    String people_1_role_type "originator";
    String people_2_affiliation "University of California-Los Angeles";
    String people_2_affiliation_acronym "UCLA";
    String people_2_person_name "Peggy Fong";
    String people_2_person_nid "514245";
    String people_2_role "Contact";
    String people_2_role_type "related";
    String people_3_affiliation "Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution";
    String people_3_affiliation_acronym "WHOI BCO-DMO";
    String people_3_person_name "Nancy Copley";
    String people_3_person_nid "50396";
    String people_3_role "BCO-DMO Data Manager";
    String people_3_role_type "related";
    String project "EPac Corals 1982/83 El Nino: I,EPac Corals 1982/83 El Nino: II,EPac Corals 1982/83 El Nino: IV,EPac Corals 1982/83 El Nino: III,EPac Corals 1982/82 El Nino: V,EPac Corals 1982/82 El Nino: VI,EPac Corals 1982/82 El Nino: VII";
    String projects_0_acronym "EPac Corals 1982/83 El Nino: I";
    String projects_0_end_date "1988-07";
    String projects_0_geolocation "Eastern Pacific";
    String projects_0_name "Ecological Effects of the 1982/83 El Nino-Associated Disturbance to Eastern Pacific Coral Reefs";
    String projects_0_project_nid "514447";
    String projects_0_start_date "1985-02";
    String projects_1_acronym "EPac Corals 1982/83 El Nino: II";
    String projects_1_description "The severe 1982-83 ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) event caused historically unprecedented and catastrophic disturbances to the Eastern Pacific coral reefs. In the aftermath of this event, disturbances to the reefs have continued and may have accelerated. Coupled with low coral recruitment, reef recovery could well take many years. The ecological effects and cause(s) of this regional disturbance have been investigated by a team of Latin and North American colleagues and students in Costa Rica, Panama, and Ecuador (Galapagos Islands) from 1983 to 1984 (Smithsonian Institution support) and from 1985 to 1987 (NSF support). This proposal focuses on coral reef recovery, disturbance processes per se, and retrospective analyses to be studied by a multidisciplinary, international team. Secondary or delayed disturbance effects that will be studied are (a) the disruption of biotic barriers allowing predator (Acanthaster planci) entry to coral prey refugia, (b) predator (corallivore) concentration on surviving coral prey, (c) post-El Nino sea urchin bioerosion of damaged reef frames, (d) damselfish colonization of damaged massive corals, and (e) damselfish/sea urchin/corallivore interactions vis-a-vis massive coral survival. Recovery processes will be studied chiefly with respect to the recruitment of calcifying organisms (corals and coralline algae) onto formerly occupied reef surfaces including examiniation of patch size, character of colonists (asexual or sexual propagules), and relative abundances of surrounding species. Retrospective studies (sclerochronology, oxygen and carbon stable isotope analyses, cadmium analysis, and fluorescent banding patterns) will also be performed on coral cores dating back at least to 1601 to provide a long-term record of ENSO disturbances. Since it is likely that major El Nino disturbances are recurring events, such information should provide a firm basis for understanding the processes controlling coral reef development and distribution in the tropical eastern Pacific.";
    String projects_1_end_date "1991-12";
    String projects_1_geolocation "Eastern Pacific";
    String projects_1_name "Effects of the 1982-83 El Nino Event on Tropical, Eastern Pacific Coral Reefs: Disturbance, Recovery and Retrospective Analyses";
    String projects_1_project_nid "514456";
    String projects_1_start_date "1988-01";
    String projects_2_acronym "EPac Corals 1982/83 El Nino: IV";
    String projects_2_description "This research will continue a long-term study that has focused on ecological disturbances to eastern Pacific coral reefs that accompanied the sever and historically unprecedented 1982-83 El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The study involves international collaboration with host- county research teams and primary field sites in Costa Rica, Panama, and the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador), areas heavily impacted by the 1982-83 ENSO. Dr. Glynn will lead the research to continue (a) with the physical and biotic monitoring of eastern Pacific coral reefs initiated in the early-mid 1970s, (b) investigating the responses of different coral species to ENSO stressors, (c) studying coral reproductive ecology as it relates to recruitment success, and (d) documenting coral community recovery. New research directions include (e) remote sensing, which will attempt to link coral bleaching/mortality with local and global scale sea surface temperatures by means of synoptic and repeated measurements, and (f) modeling of coral population and community dynamics based on mechanistic relationships between temperature, predation, coral growth, and survivorship derived from field monitoring and experimental results. Because important secondary disturbances are still occurring and reef recovery has been slow, it is necessary to continue this study in order to understand the variety of changes involved and the full impact of a major disturbance on eastern Pacific coral survival and reef building. We are hopeful that ENSO warming disturbances can provide some insight to the probable changes in coral reefs worldwide if projected global warming causes repeated and/or protracted sea temperature increases comparable to the 1982-83 ENSO.";
    String projects_2_end_date "1997-05";
    String projects_2_geolocation "Eastern Pacific";
    String projects_2_name "El Nino Impacted Coral Reefs In The Tropical Eastern Pacific: Secondary Disturbances, Recovery and Modeling of Population and Community Responses.";
    String projects_2_project_nid "514461";
    String projects_2_start_date "1994-06";
    String projects_3_acronym "EPac Corals 1982/83 El Nino: III";
    String projects_3_description "This long-term study focuses on the ecological disturbances to eastern Pacific coral reefs that accompanied the severe and historically unprecedented 1982-83 ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) event. During the first 3-year segment (1985-87) of the study a strong causative link was established between prolonged sea warming and numerous kinds of primary disturbances. During the first and second 3-year (1988-90) study periods the team of workers involved in this study have (a) demonstrated the importance of several secondary (long-term) disturbance processes, (b) revealed the extent of recovery and continuing reef destruction to date, and (c) provided some indication of the frequency of severe El Nino disturbances to coral reefs in an historical context. Because some important secondary disturbances are still occurring, and reef recovery has been slow (Costa Rica, Panama) or non-existent (Galapagos Islands), it is necessary to continue with this study in order to understand the variety of changes involved and the full impact of a major disturbance on coral reef survival and the potential for continued reef building. ENSO warming disturbances can provide some clues to the probable changes in coral reefs worldwide if global warming causes repeated and/or protracted sea temperature increases comparable to the 1982-83 El Nino event.";
    String projects_3_end_date "1995-03";
    String projects_3_geolocation "Eastern Pacific";
    String projects_3_name "Effects of the 1982-83 El Nino Event on Tropical Eastern Pacific Coral Reefs: Disturbances, Causes, Recovery and Retrospective Analyses";
    String projects_3_project_nid "514465";
    String projects_3_start_date "1991-04";
    String projects_4_acronym "EPac Corals 1982/82 El Nino: V";
    String projects_4_description "This project will long term study that has focused on ecological disturbances, causes, and the responses of eastern Pacific reef coral populations and reef communities during and following the severe and historically unprecedented 1982 1983 El Nino / Southrn Oscillation (ENSO) event. This study involves strong international collaboration with host country research teams working at several field sites in Costa Rica, Panama, and the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador), all areas that were severely affected during the 1982 1983 ENSO disturbance. This study will continue with (a) monitoring the physical and biological conditions of eastern Pacific coral reefs initiated in the early to mid 1970s, (b) investigating the responses of different coral species to ENSO stressors (chiefly positive sea temperature anomalies) under controlled microcosm conditions, (c) studying coral reproductive ecology as it relates to recruitment success in field surveys, and (d) documenting coral community recovery or changes leading to alternate, non reef building communities. New research directions initiated in 1994 will be pursued, namely (e) an attempt to link coral bleaching/mortality with local and global scale sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, and (f) modeling the size structure of coral populations and coral community dynamics based on mechanistic relationships between temperature, predation, coral growth, and survivorship derived from field monitoring and experimental results. In addition, (g) analyses of the molecular genetic structure of the different zooxanthella taxa found in eastern Pacific corals to assess the importance of zooxanthellae diversity in explaining the variability in patterns of coral bleaching, and (h) recovering coral populations, to assess their genetic structure and diversity in relation to population size and distance from source populations, will be investigated.";
    String projects_4_end_date "2000-08";
    String projects_4_geolocation "Eastern Pacific";
    String projects_4_name "El Nino Impacted Coral Reefs in the Tropical Eastern Pacific: Secondary Disturbances, Recovery and Effects on Community Diversity and Reef Growth";
    String projects_4_project_nid "514469";
    String projects_4_start_date "1997-09";
    String projects_5_acronym "EPac Corals 1982/82 El Nino: VI";
    String projects_5_description "This project will occur over a five year period to continue and conclude a long-term study that has focused on ecological disturbances, causes, responses and recovery of eastern tropical Pacific (ETP) reef?building coral populations and reef communities in relation to the severe 1982?1983 El Nino?Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. With the occurrence of the very strong 1997?1998 ENSO, two \"one hundred year events\" only 15 years apart, an unprecedented opportunity is at hand to study and compare the effects of consecutive major perturbations on community responses and recovery. This study involves strong international collaboration with host?country research teams working at several field sites in Costa Rica, Panam.6, and Ecuador (including the Gal6pagos Islands), all areas that were severely affected during the ENSO disturbances of 1982?83 and 1997?98. Several aspects of this study will be continued, namely (a) monitoring the physical and biological conditions of eastern Pacific coral reefs initiated in the early?to?mid 1970s~ (b) investigating the responses of selected zooxanthellate coral species to ENSO stressors (chiefly positive sea temperature anomalies), (c) retrospective climate studies from coral skeletal isotopic signatures, (d) coral reproductive ecology as it relates to recruitment success in disturbed communities, (e) coral community recovery or changes leading to alternate, non?reef building communities, (f) the linking of coral bleaching/mortality with local and global-scale sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, including both high and low temperature extremes, and (g) modeling the size structure of coral populations and coral community dynamics based on mechanistic relationships between temperature, predation, coral growth and survivorship derived from field monitoring and experimental results. Additionally, studies initiated in 1997 will also be continued, namely (h) analysis of the molecular genetic structure of zooxanthella taxa symbiotic with eastern Pacific corals to assess the importance of zooxanthella diversity in explaining the variability in patterns of coral bleaching and mortality/survivorship of host corals, and (i) assessment of the genetic structure and diversity of recovering and recently stressed coral populations in relation to stress resistance, population size and distance from source populations. New initiatives will include (j) coral?algal?herbivore interactions, and (k) trophodynamic/benthic community structure modeling in high SST?stressed upwelling and non-upwelling environments in order to assess the effects of ENSO perturbations and recovery processes on coral reef framework growth.";
    String projects_5_end_date "2005-08";
    String projects_5_geolocation "Eastern Pacific";
    String projects_5_name "El Nino-Southern Oscillation 1982-83 and 1997-98 Impacted Coral Reefs in the Equatorial Eastern Pacific Region: Effects, Recovery and Inter-ENSO Comparisons";
    String projects_5_project_nid "514473";
    String projects_5_start_date "2000-09";
    String projects_6_acronym "EPac Corals 1982/82 El Nino: VII";
    String projects_6_description 
"This comprehensive and interdisciplinary study, focusing on El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) disturbances to eastern Pacific coral reefs, will broaden understanding of the impact and responses of coral reef ecosystems to climate change, particularly sea warming events and associated perturbations. The project is led by Dr. Peter Glynn and builds on a 35-year database of physical and biological studies, and involves a coordinated Latin American/U.S. network of teams working principally in Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, and Ecuador (mainland and Galapagos Islands). 
Intellectual merit. The chief objectives of this project are to continue and expand investigation into the causes of coral reef decline (both immediate and long-term), and the responses of reef coral populations, communities and ecosystem function in relation to ENSO disturbances. Key directions are investigations into mechanisms supporting documented rapid recovery, limitations to recovery that provide insight into ecosystem function, and the potential for eastern Pacific reefs to act as model systems to understand future impacts of global change in other reef systems. 
Three elements of special significance that justify continuation of this multifaceted study are:
(1) the long-term data base of eastern Pacific coral reef structure and reef-associated community composition pre-dating the first documented coral bleaching events of the 1980s, 
(2) the causal relationship between global warming and reef degradation with demonstrable effects on coral community structure, coral growth and reef accretion, and coral framework erosion, and 
(3) assessing future response potential and the capacity for acclimatization/adaptation in light of cumulative past responses. 
New initiatives in the continuing project include (a) experiments relating coral reproduction and algal symbiont community structure during periods of temperature change, (b) characterization of deep reef thermal conditions vis-a-vis coral refugia, (c) field observations/experiments to compare effects of reef framework loss on metazoan recruitment, species diversity, and feeding rates, (d) coring reef frames to reveal taphonomic signatures of known ENSO events in order to determine the frequency of previous events, (e) relating carbonate chemistry of reef waters, e.g., pH, alkalinity and aragonite saturation states, to coral skeletal growth and density, (f) investigations into trophic structure complexity using N, C and S isotopes, (g) genetic structure of coral host and symbiont populations utilizing molecular and ribosomal DNA and protein electrophoresis to document shifts in thermally-tolerant groups, and (h) modeling of energy flow and ecosystem trophic processes and complexity. 
Broader impacts. Peer reviewed publications now number 60, contributing to the disciplines of oceanography, paleoecology/paleoclimatology, geology, disturbance ecology (community recovery, phase shifts), trophodynamics, population dynamics (coral reproduction and recruitment, modeling, genetic structure and connectivity), and symbiont ecology. To date, 107 graduate and undergraduate students from Panama, Ecuador, Costa Rica, Colombia and the USA (plus 9 other countries) have participated in the project, resulting in the completion of 39 Ph.D. dissertations, M.S. theses and Honors reports. Students are trained in field methods for physical and biological sampling, species identifications, underwater and laboratory experiments (including instrumentation, design and data analysis), and train others in their respective countries. 
These studies of ecological processes have aided in the establishment and management efforts of marine protected areas in Costa Rica (Cano Island National Park), Panama (Coiba National Park), and Ecuador (Galapagos National Park). In addition to international efforts, collaborator Peggy Fong has mentored 2 to 6 undergraduate researchers per quarter at UCLA over the last 10 years, many of whom are under-represented minorities in the federally supported outreach program.";
    String projects_6_end_date "2012-09";
    String projects_6_geolocation "Eastern Pacific";
    String projects_6_name "El Nino-Southern Oscillation Disturbances On Eastern Pacific Coral Reefs: Patterns And Mechanisms Of Recovery";
    String projects_6_project_nid "514477";
    String projects_6_start_date "2005-10";
    String publisher_name "Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)";
    String publisher_type "institution";
    String sourceUrl "(local files)";
    Float64 Southernmost_Northing 7.81461;
    String standard_name_vocabulary "CF Standard Name Table v55";
    String summary "This dataset present fish species counts in three 20x40 m transects. The surveys were conducted at the Uva Island coral reef (7o48\\u201946\\u201dN, 81o45\\u201935\\u201dW), Gulf of Chiriqu\\u00ed, Panama from 1980 to 2010 during both the wet and dry seasons.";
    String title "Fish species counts in 3, 20x40 m transects, Panama, 1980-2010 (EPac Corals projects I-VII)";
    String version "1";
    Float64 Westernmost_Easting -81.75894;
    String xml_source "osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3";
  }
}

 

Using tabledap to Request Data and Graphs from Tabular Datasets

tabledap lets you request a data subset, a graph, or a map from a tabular dataset (for example, buoy data), via a specially formed URL. tabledap uses the OPeNDAP (external link) Data Access Protocol (DAP) (external link) and its selection constraints (external link).

The URL specifies what you want: the dataset, a description of the graph or the subset of the data, and the file type for the response.

Tabledap request URLs must be in the form
https://coastwatch.pfeg.noaa.gov/erddap/tabledap/datasetID.fileType{?query}
For example,
https://coastwatch.pfeg.noaa.gov/erddap/tabledap/pmelTaoDySst.htmlTable?longitude,latitude,time,station,wmo_platform_code,T_25&time>=2015-05-23T12:00:00Z&time<=2015-05-31T12:00:00Z
Thus, the query is often a comma-separated list of desired variable names, followed by a collection of constraints (e.g., variable<value), each preceded by '&' (which is interpreted as "AND").

For details, see the tabledap Documentation.


 
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