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Dataset Title:  Nitrate + nitrite concentration and d15N from the Eastern Tropical South
Pacific collected on the R/V Atlantis (AT15-61) and R/V Melville (MV1104) in
2010-2011 (N2 fixation ETSP project, Microbial Nitrification project)
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Institution:  BCO-DMO   (Dataset ID: bcodmo_dataset_555691)
Information:  Summary ? | License ? | ISO 19115 | Metadata | Background (external link) | Files | Make a graph
Variable ?   Optional
Constraint #1 ?
Constraint #2 ?
   Minimum ?
   Maximum ?
 cruise_id (unitless) ?          "AT15-61"    "MV1104"
 date (unitless) ?          "2010-02-01"    "2011-04-19"
 latitude (degrees_north) ?          -20.0    -15.0
  < slider >
 longitude (degrees_east) ?          -100.0    -80.0
  < slider >
 station (unitless) ?          1    13
 depth (m) ?          0.0    400.0
  < slider >
 sigma_theta (Sea Water Sigma Theta, unitless) ?          24.223    28.75
 NO3_NO2 (micro mols N per liter) ?          0.0    41.9
 NO3_NO2_sd (micro mols N per liter) ?          0.0    2.0
 del15N_NO3NO2 (per mil versus air) ?          8.1    19.8
 del15N_NO3NO2_sd (per mil versus air) ?          0.0    1.3
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The Dataset Attribute Structure (.das) for this Dataset

Attributes {
 s {
  cruise_id {
    String bcodmo_name "cruise_id";
    String description "cruise_id";
    String long_name "Cruise Id";
    String units "unitless";
  date {
    String bcodmo_name "date_local";
    String description "sample collection date (local) in yyyy-mm-dd format";
    String long_name "Date";
    String source_name "date";
    String time_precision "1970-01-01";
    String units "unitless";
  latitude {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Lat";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range -20.0, -15.0;
    String axis "Y";
    String bcodmo_name "latitude";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 90.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -90.0;
    String description "latitude; north is positive";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Latitude";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/";
    String standard_name "latitude";
    String units "degrees_north";
  longitude {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Lon";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range -100.0, -80.0;
    String axis "X";
    String bcodmo_name "longitude";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 180.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -180.0;
    String description "longitude; east is positive";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Longitude";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/";
    String standard_name "longitude";
    String units "degrees_east";
  station {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 1, 13;
    String bcodmo_name "sta";
    String description "station";
    String long_name "Station";
    String units "unitless";
  depth {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Height";
    String _CoordinateZisPositive "down";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range 0.0, 400.0;
    String axis "Z";
    String bcodmo_name "depth";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 8000.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -8000.0;
    String colorBarPalette "TopographyDepth";
    String description "sample depth";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Depth";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/DEPH/";
    String positive "down";
    String standard_name "depth";
    String units "m";
  sigma_theta {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 24.223, 28.75;
    String bcodmo_name "sigma_theta";
    String description "seawater density";
    String long_name "Sea Water Sigma Theta";
    String units "unitless";
  NO3_NO2 {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.0, 41.9;
    String bcodmo_name "NO3_NO2";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 50.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum 0.0;
    String description "nitrate + nitrite concentration";
    String long_name "Mole Concentration Of Nitrate In Sea Water";
    String units "micro mols N per liter";
  NO3_NO2_sd {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.0, 2.0;
    String bcodmo_name "standard deviation";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 50.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum 0.0;
    String description "nitrate + nitrite concentration standard deviation";
    String long_name "NO3 NO2 Sd";
    String units "micro mols N per liter";
  del15N_NO3NO2 {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 8.1, 19.8;
    String bcodmo_name "15N of nitrate plus nitrite";
    String description "delta 15N of nitrate + nitrite, reported in units of permil vs. atmospheric N2";
    String long_name "Del15 N NO3 NO2";
    String units "per mil versus air";
  del15N_NO3NO2_sd {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.0, 1.3;
    String bcodmo_name "standard deviation";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 50.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum 0.0;
    String description "delta 15N of nitrate + nitrite; 1 standard deviation, reported in units of permil vs. atmospheric N2";
    String long_name "Del15 N NO3 NO2 Sd";
    String units "per mil versus air";
    String access_formats ".htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson";
    String acquisition_description 
"Water column sample collection:\\u00a0Samples were collected on the R/V
Atlantis in January through February 2010, and the R/V Melville in March
through April 2011 on a zonal transect along 20\\u00ba S between 80\\u00ba W and
100\\u00ba W, with exact station locations and sample depths, nutrient
concentrations and isotopic compositions reported below. Water column samples
were collected by Niskin bottles deployed on a rosette equipped with
conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensors. All samples were collected into
acid-washed, sample-rinsed HDPE bottles, and samples from the upper 400 m
passed a 0.2 \\u00b5m filter before collection. All samples were stored at
-20\\u00ba C until analysis on land.
Nitrate plus nitrite (NO3-+NO2-) concentration: The concentration of NO3-+NO2-
([NO3-+NO2-]) was determined using chemiluminescent analysis (in a
configuration with a detection limit of 0.05 \\u00b5M, + 0.1 \\u00b5M 1 S.D.).
Reference: Braman, R. S. & Hendrix, S. A. Nanogram Nitrite and Nitrate
Determination in Environmental and Biological-Materials by Vanadium(Iii)
Reduction with Chemi-Luminescence Detection. Analytical Chemistry 61,
2715-2718 (1989).
NO3+NO2 d15N: The d15N of NO3+NO2 was determined using the denitrified method
on samples with >0.3 \\u00b5M NO3+NO2 with a standard deviation <0.2 per mil.
Sigman, D. M. et al. A bacterial method for the nitrogen isotopic analysis of
nitrate in seawater and freshwater. Analytical Chemistry 73, 4145-4153 (2001).
Casciotti, K. L., Sigman, D. M., Hastings, M. G., Bohlke, J. K. & Hilkert, A.
Measurement of the oxygen isotopic composition of nitrate in seawater and
freshwater using the denitrifier method. Analytical Chemistry 74, 4905-4912
McIlvin, M. R. & Casciotti, K. L. Technical Updates to the Bacterial Method
for Nitrate Isotopic Analyses. Analytical Chemistry 83, 1850-1856 (2011).";
    String awards_0_award_nid "55039";
    String awards_0_award_number "OCE-0850801";
    String awards_0_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=0850801";
    String awards_0_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_0_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_0_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_0_program_manager "Donald L. Rice";
    String awards_0_program_manager_nid "51467";
    String awards_1_award_nid "55105";
    String awards_1_award_number "OCE-0850905";
    String awards_1_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=0850905";
    String awards_1_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_1_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_1_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_1_program_manager "Donald L. Rice";
    String awards_1_program_manager_nid "51467";
    String awards_2_award_nid "555515";
    String awards_2_award_number "OCE-0961098";
    String awards_2_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=0961098";
    String awards_2_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_2_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_2_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_2_program_manager "Donald L. Rice";
    String awards_2_program_manager_nid "51467";
    String cdm_data_type "Other";
    String comment 
"nitrates and nitrites 
   A. Knapp (FSU) et al 
   version: 2015-04-09";
    String Conventions "COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3";
    String creator_email "info@bco-dmo.org";
    String creator_name "BCO-DMO";
    String creator_type "institution";
    String creator_url "https://www.bco-dmo.org/";
    String data_source "extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3  19 Dec 2019";
    String date_created "2015-04-10T15:02:51Z";
    String date_modified "2016-08-20T03:10:46Z";
    String defaultDataQuery "&amp;time&lt;now";
    String doi "10.1575/1912/7227";
    Float64 Easternmost_Easting -80.0;
    Float64 geospatial_lat_max -15.0;
    Float64 geospatial_lat_min -20.0;
    String geospatial_lat_units "degrees_north";
    Float64 geospatial_lon_max -80.0;
    Float64 geospatial_lon_min -100.0;
    String geospatial_lon_units "degrees_east";
    Float64 geospatial_vertical_max 400.0;
    Float64 geospatial_vertical_min 0.0;
    String geospatial_vertical_positive "down";
    String geospatial_vertical_units "m";
    String history 
"2022-08-16T03:52:44Z (local files)
2022-08-16T03:52:44Z https://erddap.bco-dmo.org/erddap/tabledap/bcodmo_dataset_555691.html";
    String infoUrl "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/555691";
    String institution "BCO-DMO";
    String instruments_0_acronym "CTD";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid "555710";
    String instruments_0_description "The Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) unit is an integrated instrument package designed to measure the conductivity, temperature, and pressure (depth) of the water column.  The instrument is lowered via cable through the water column and permits scientists observe the physical properties in real time via a conducting cable connecting the CTD to a deck unit and computer on the ship. The CTD is often configured with additional optional sensors including fluorometers, transmissometers and/or  radiometers.  It is often combined with a Rosette of water sampling bottles (e.g. Niskin, GO-FLO) for collecting discrete water samples during the cast.  This instrument designation is used when specific make and model are not known.";
    String instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/130/";
    String instruments_0_instrument_name "CTD profiler";
    String instruments_0_instrument_nid "417";
    String instruments_0_supplied_name "CTD";
    String keywords "bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, chemistry, concentration, cruise, cruise_id, data, dataset, date, del15, del15N_NO3NO2, del15N_NO3NO2_sd, density, depth, dmo, earth, Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Chemistry > Nitrate, Earth Science > Oceans > Salinity/Density > Density, erddap, latitude, longitude, management, mole, mole_concentration_of_nitrate_in_sea_water, n02, nitrate, nitrite, no2, no3, NO3_NO2, NO3_NO2_sd, ocean, oceanography, oceans, office, preliminary, salinity, science, sea, sea_water_sigma_theta, seawater, sigma, sigma_theta, station, theta, time, water";
    String keywords_vocabulary "GCMD Science Keywords";
    String license "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/555691/license";
    String metadata_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/555691";
    Float64 Northernmost_Northing -15.0;
    String param_mapping "{'555691': {'lat': 'master - latitude', 'depth': 'master - depth', 'lon': 'master - longitude'}}";
    String parameter_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/555691/parameters";
    String people_0_affiliation "University of Southern California";
    String people_0_affiliation_acronym "USC-WIES";
    String people_0_person_name "Douglas G. Capone";
    String people_0_person_nid "50669";
    String people_0_role "Lead Principal Investigator";
    String people_0_role_type "originator";
    String people_1_affiliation "University of Southern California";
    String people_1_affiliation_acronym "USC-WIES";
    String people_1_person_name "William M. Berelson";
    String people_1_person_nid "50600";
    String people_1_role "Principal Investigator";
    String people_1_role_type "originator";
    String people_2_affiliation "Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution";
    String people_2_affiliation_acronym "WHOI";
    String people_2_person_name "Karen L. Casciotti";
    String people_2_person_nid "50980";
    String people_2_role "Principal Investigator";
    String people_2_role_type "originator";
    String people_3_affiliation "University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science";
    String people_3_affiliation_acronym "UM-RSMAS";
    String people_3_person_name "Dennis Hansell";
    String people_3_person_nid "50539";
    String people_3_role "Principal Investigator";
    String people_3_role_type "originator";
    String people_4_affiliation "University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science";
    String people_4_affiliation_acronym "UM-RSMAS";
    String people_4_person_name "Angela N. Knapp";
    String people_4_person_nid "555499";
    String people_4_role "Co-Principal Investigator";
    String people_4_role_type "originator";
    String people_5_affiliation "Florida State University";
    String people_5_affiliation_acronym "FSU - EOAS";
    String people_5_person_name "Angela N. Knapp";
    String people_5_person_nid "555499";
    String people_5_role "Contact";
    String people_5_role_type "related";
    String people_6_affiliation "Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution";
    String people_6_affiliation_acronym "WHOI BCO-DMO";
    String people_6_person_name "Nancy Copley";
    String people_6_person_nid "50396";
    String people_6_role "BCO-DMO Data Manager";
    String people_6_role_type "related";
    String project "N2 fixation ETSP,Microbial Nitrification";
    String projects_0_acronym "N2 fixation ETSP";
    String projects_0_description 
"Description from NSF award abstract:
Several independent lines of geochemical and remote sensing evidence suggest that dinitrogen (N2) fixation may be associated with surface waters downstream of major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) and in particular in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP). However, little direct evidence supports these inferences. Besides substantiating these indirect assessments, documenting significant N2 fixation in the ETSP would provide insight into two longstanding controversies: Is the marine N budget balanced, as implied by modeling and paleoceanographic data, and if so, how are the processes that add and remove N spatially, and thus temporally coupled?
In this project researchers at the University of Southern California and the University of Miami will test the hypothesis that fixation occurs in the ETSP at areal rates that equal or exceed those previously documented in more well-studied regions such as the oligotrophic waters of the sub/tropical North Atlantic. If scaled to the surface area of ETSP waters, this could add an additional 10-50 Tg N per year of inputs to the global marine N budget. They will undertake two cruises in the ETSP during early and late summer in two consecutive years to assess the quantitative significance of N2 fixation as a source of new N to surface waters using complementary biological and geochemical tools. N2 fixation rates will be evaluated on two temporal/spatial scales: daily/local (bottle 15N2 incubations and floating sediment traps); and seasonal/regional (d15N budget using moored sediment traps and water column TDN d15N). These estimates provide detailed observations of potential N2 fixation during station occupation in two summer seasons, when rates are expected to be greatest, as well as prolonged observation over lower expected N2 fixation periods. A combination of these different estimates will aim to determine if N2 fixation in this region can help balance the marine N budget. If all goes as planned, this study will determine the quantitative importance of N2 fixation in the ETSP, and whether these previously undocumented rates can help resolve the marine N budget. Implications include the ability of the marine N cycle to maintain homeostasis, and thus the global C cycle on glacial/interglacial time scales.";
    String projects_0_end_date "2012-07";
    String projects_0_geolocation "Eastern Tropical South Pacific";
    String projects_0_name "Collaborative Research: Documenting N2 fixation in N deficient waters of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific";
    String projects_0_project_nid "555496";
    String projects_0_start_date "2009-08";
    String projects_1_acronym "Microbial Nitrification";
    String projects_1_description 
"Description from NSF award abstract:
Closing the marine budgets of nitrate and nitrous oxide are central goals for researchers interested in nutrient-driven changes in primary productivity and climate change. With the implementation of new methods for oxygen isotopic analysis of seawater nitrate, it will be possible to construct a budget for nitrate based on its oxygen isotopic distribution that is complementary to nitrogen isotope budgets. Before we can effectively use oxygen isotopes in nitrate to inform the current understanding of the marine nitrogen cycle, we must first understand how different processes that produce (nitrification) and consume (assimilation, denitrification) nitrate affect its oxygen isotopic signature.
In this study, researchers at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution will provide a quantitative assessment of the oxygen isotopic systematics of nitrification in the field and thus fill a key gap in our understanding of 18O variations in nitrate, nitrite, and nitrous oxide. The primary goal is to develop a quantitative prediction of the oxygen isotopic signatures of nitrite and nitrate produced during nitrification in the sea. The researchers hypothesize that oxygen isotopic fractionation during nitrification is the primary factor setting the 18O values of newly produced nitrate and nitrite. Secondly, they hypothesize that oxygen atom exchange is low where ammonia oxidation and nitrite oxidation are tightly coupled, but may increase in regions with nitrite accumulation, such as in the primary and secondary nitrite maxima. They will test these hypotheses with a series of targeted laboratory and field experiments, as well as with measurements of nitrite and nitrate isotopic distributions extending through the euphotic zone, primary nitrite maximum, and secondary nitrite maximum of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific. The results of these experiments are expected to provide fundamental information required for the interpretation of 18O isotopic signatures in nitrite, nitrate, and N2O in the context of underlying microbial processes. A better understanding of these features and the processes involved is important for quantifying new production, controls on the N budget, and N2O production in the ocean -- which should lead to a better understanding of the direct and indirect interactions among the nitrogen cycle, marine chemistry, and climate.";
    String projects_1_end_date "2011-07";
    String projects_1_geolocation "Eastern Tropical South Pacific";
    String projects_1_name "Expression of Microbial Nitrification in the Stable Isotopic Systematics of Oceanic Nitrite and Nitrate";
    String projects_1_project_nid "555516";
    String projects_1_start_date "2010-04";
    String publisher_name "Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)";
    String publisher_type "institution";
    String sourceUrl "(local files)";
    Float64 Southernmost_Northing -20.0;
    String standard_name_vocabulary "CF Standard Name Table v55";
    String summary "Nitrate + nitrite concentration and d15N from the Eastern Tropical South Pacific, 2010-2011";
    String title "Nitrate + nitrite concentration and d15N from the Eastern Tropical South Pacific collected on the R/V Atlantis (AT15-61) and R/V Melville (MV1104) in 2010-2011 (N2 fixation ETSP project, Microbial Nitrification project)";
    String version "1";
    Float64 Westernmost_Easting -100.0;
    String xml_source "osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3";


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