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Dataset Title:  Dissolved lead data collected from the R/V Pourquoi pas (GEOVIDE) in the North
Atlantic, Labrador Sea (section GA01) during 2014
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Institution:  BCO-DMO   (Dataset ID: bcodmo_dataset_651880)
Range: longitude = -51.09588 to -10.036°E, latitude = 40.33325 to 59.79927°N
Information:  Summary ? | License ? | ISO 19115 | Metadata | Background (external link) | Subset | Data Access Form | Files
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Things You Can Do With Your Graphs

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The Dataset Attribute Structure (.das) for this Dataset

Attributes {
 s {
  cruise_id {
    String bcodmo_name "cruise_id";
    String description "Cruise identification";
    String long_name "Cruise Id";
    String units "unitless";
    String bcodmo_name "cruise_part";
    String description "Cruise section identifier";
    String long_name "SECT ID";
    String units "unitless";
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 1, 77;
    String bcodmo_name "station";
    String description "Station number";
    String long_name "STNNBR";
    String units "unitless";
    Int32 _FillValue 2147483647;
    Int32 actual_range 20140519, 20140625;
    String bcodmo_name "date";
    String description "Date (yyyymmdd) when the bottle was fired according to the bottle file.";
    String long_name "BTL DATE";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/";
    String units "unitless";
  latitude {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Lat";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range 40.33325, 59.79927;
    String axis "Y";
    String bcodmo_name "latitude";
    String description "Latitude of bottle firing; north is positive.";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "BTL LAT";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/";
    String standard_name "latitude";
    String units "degrees_north";
  longitude {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Lon";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range -51.09588, -10.036;
    String axis "X";
    String bcodmo_name "longitude";
    String description "Lonitude of bottle firing; east is positive.";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "BTL LON";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/";
    String standard_name "longitude";
    String units "degrees_east";
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 1, 24;
    String bcodmo_name "bottle";
    String description "Bottle number; typically 1-24";
    String long_name "BTLNBR";
    String units "unitless";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range 11.1, 5436.9;
    String bcodmo_name "pressure";
    String description "CTD pressure";
    String long_name "CTDPRS";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/PRESPR01/";
    String units "decibars";
    Int16 _FillValue 32767;
    Int16 actual_range 1, 560;
    String bcodmo_name "bottle";
    String description "Sequential sample number within the cast (usually corresponds to the bottle number)";
    String long_name "SAMPNO";
    String units "unitless";
    Int16 _FillValue 32767;
    Int16 actual_range 10003, 10516;
    String bcodmo_name "bottle";
    String description "PI issued sample number for when a standard SAMPNO was not appropriate.";
    String long_name "PI SAMPNO";
    String units "unitless";
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 5.1, 101.0;
    String bcodmo_name "trace_metal_conc";
    String description "Pb passing through a 0.2um SARTOBRAN or 0.45 um Supor filter; Sample size was quantified volumetrically at room temperature, then converted to weight units assuming a density of 1.027 g/cc.";
    String long_name "Pb D CONC BOTTLE";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P03/current/C035/";
    String units "picomoles per kilogram";
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.0, 4.4;
    String bcodmo_name "standard deviation";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 50.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum 0.0;
    String description "Standard deviation of Pb_D_BOTTLE";
    String long_name "Pb D CONC BOTTLE SD";
    String units "picomoles per kilogram";
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 2, 7;
    String bcodmo_name "number";
    String description "Number of samples collected";
    String long_name "NBR OF SAMPLES";
    String units "unitless";
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 1, 4;
    String bcodmo_name "flag";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 150.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum 0.0;
    String description "Quality flag for parameter Pb_D_CONC_BOTTLE; follows the convention: 1 = good; 3 = questionable; 4 = bad";
    String long_name "Pb D CONC BOTTLE FLAG";
    String units "unitless";
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 2, 10;
    String bcodmo_name "cast";
    String description "Cast number";
    String long_name "CASTNO";
    String units "unitless";
    String access_formats ".htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson";
    String acquisition_description 
"Sample storage bottle lids and threads were soaked overnight in 2N reagent
grade HCl, then filled with 1N reagent grade HCl to be heated in an oven at 60
degrees celcius\\u00a0overnight, inverted, heated for a second day, and rinsed
5X with pure distilled water.\\u00a0 The bottles were then filled with trace
metal clean dilute HCl (0.01N HCl) and again heated in the oven for one day on
either end.\\u00a0 Clean sample bottles were emptied, and double-bagged prior
to rinsing and filling with sample.
As stated in the cruise report, trace metal clean seawater samples were
collected using the French GEOTRACES clean rosette (General Oceanics Inc.
Model 1018 Intelligent Rosette), equipped with twenty-two new 12L GO-FLO
bottles (two bottles were leaking and were never deployed during the cruise).
The 22 new GO-FLO bottles were initially cleaned in LEMAR laboratory following
the GEOTRACES procedures (Cutter and Bruland, 2012). The rosette was deployed
on a 6mm Kevlar cable with a dedicated custom designed clean winch.
Immediately after recovery, GO-FLO bottles were individually covered at each
end with plastic bags to minimize contamination. They were then transferred
into a clean container (class-100) for sampling. On each trace metal cast,
nutrient and/or salinity samples were taken to check potential leakage of the
Go-Flo bottles. Prior to filtration, GO-FLO bottles were mixed manually three
times. GO-FLO bottles were pressurized to less than\\u00a08 psi with 0.2-um
filtered N2\\u00a0(Air Liquide). For Stations 1, 11, 15, 17, 19, 21, 25, 26,
29, 32 GO-FLO spigots were fitted with an acid-cleaned piece of Bev-a-Line
tubing that fed into a 0.2 um capsule filters (SARTOBRAN\\u00a0300, Sartorius).
For all other stations (13, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 44, 49, 60, 64, 68, 69, 71,
77) seawater was filtered directly through paired filters (Pall Gelman Supor
0.45um polystersulfone, and Millipore mixed ester cellulose MF 5 um) mounted
in Swinnex polypropylene filter holders, following the Planquette and Sherrell
(2012) method. Filters were cleaned following the protocol described in
Planquette and Sherrell (2012) and kept in acid-cleaned 1L LDPE bottles
(Nalgene) filled with ultrapure water (Milli-Q, 18.2 megaohm/cm) until use.
Subsamples were taken into acid-cleaned (see above) Nalgene HDPE bottles after
a triple rinse with the sample. All samples were acidified back in the Boyle
laboratory at 2mL per liter seawater (pH 2) with trace metal clean 6N HCl.
On this cruise, only the particulate samples were assigned GEOTRACES numbers.
In this dataset, the dissolved Pb samples collected at the same depth
(sometimes on a different cast) as the particulate samples have been assigned
identifiers as \\u201cSAMPNO\\u201d which corresponds to the particulate
GEOTRACES number. In cases where there were no corresponding particulate
samples, a number was generated as \\u201cPI_SAMPNO\\u201d.
Upon examining the data, we observed that the sample taken from rosette
position 1 (usually the near-bottom sample) was always higher in [Pb] than the
sample taken immediately above that, and that the excess decreased as the
cruise proceeded. The Pb isotope ratio of these samples were higher than the
comparison bottles as well. A similar situation was seen for the sample taken
from rosette positions 5, 20 and 21 when compared to the depth-interpolated
[Pb] from the samples immediately above and below. Also, at two stations where
our near-bottom sample was taken from rosette position 2, there was no [Pb]
excess over the samples immediately above. We believe that this evidence
points to sampler-induced contamination that was being slowly washed out
during the cruise, but never completely. So we have flagged all of these
analyses with a \\u201c3\\u201d indicating that we do not believe that these
samples should be trusted as reflecting the true ocean [Pb].
In addition, we observed high [Pb] in the samples at Station 1 and very
scattered Pb isotope ratios. The majority of these concentrations were far in
excess of those values observed at nearby Station 11, and also the nearby
USGT10-01. Discussion among other cruise participants revealed similarly
anomalous data for other trace metals (e.g., Hg species). After discussion at
the 2016 GEOVIDE Workshop, we came to the conclusion that this is*- evidence
of GoFlo bottles not having sufficient time to \\u201cclean up\\u201d prior to
use, and that most or all bottles from Station 1 were contaminated. We flagged
all Station 1 data with a \\u201c3\\u201d indicating that we do not believe
these values reflect the true ocean [Pb].
Samples were analyzed at least 1 month after acidification over 36 analytical
sessions by a resin pre-concentration method. This method utilized the
isotope-dilution ICP-MS method described in Lee et al. 2011, which includes
pre-concentration on nitrilotriacetate (NTA) resin and analysis on a Fisons
PQ2+ using a 400uL/min nebulizer. Briefly, samples were poured into 30mL
subsample bottles. Then, triplicate 1.5mL polypropylene vials (Nalgene) were
rinsed three times with the 30mL subsample.\\u00a0 Each sample was pipetted
(1.3mL) from the 30mL subsample to the 1.5mL vial.\\u00a0 Pipettes were
calibrated daily to the desired volume.\\u00a0 25 ul of a 204Pb spike were
added to each sample, and the pH was raised to 5.3 using a trace metal clean
ammonium acetate buffer, prepared at a pH of between 7.95 and 7.98.\\u00a0 2400
beads of NTA Superflow resin (Qiagen Inc., Valencia, CA) were added to the
mixture, and the vials were set to shake on a shaker for 3 \\u2013 6 days to
allow the sample to equilibrate with the resin.\\u00a0 After equilibration, the
beads were centrifuged and washed 3 times with pure distilled water, using a
trace metal clean siphon tip to remove the water wash from the sample vial
following centrifugation.\\u00a0 After the last wash, 350\\u03bcl of a 0.1N
solution of trace metal clean HNO3 was added to the resin to elute the metals,
and the samples were set to shake on a shaker for 1 \\u2013 2 days prior to
analysis by ICP-MS.
NTA Superflow resin was cleaned by batch rinsing with 0.1N trace metal clean
HCl for a few hours, followed by multiple washes until the pH of the solution
was above 4.\\u00a0 Resin was stored at 4 degrees celcius\\u00a0in the dark
until use, though it was allowed to equilibrate to room temperature prior to
the addition to the sample.
Nalgene polypropylene (PPCO) vials were cleaned by heated submersion for 2
days at 60 degrees celcius\\u00a0in 1N reagent grade HCl, followed by a bulk
rinse and 4X individual rinse of each vial with pure distilled water. Each
vial was then filled with trace metal clean dilute HCl (0.01N HCl) and heated
in the oven at 60 degrees celcius\\u00a0for one day on either end.\\u00a0 Vials
were kept filled until just before usage.
On each day of sample analysis, procedure blanks were determined. Replicates
(12) of 300uL of an in-house standard reference material seawater (low Pb
surface water) were used, where the amount of Pb in the 300uL was verified as
negligible. The procedural blank over the relevant sessions for resin
preconcentration method ranged from 2.2 \\u2013 9.9pmol/kg, averaging 4.6
+/-\\u00a01.7pmol/kg. Within a day, procedure blanks were very reproducible
with an average standard deviation of 0.7pmol/kg, resulting in detection
limits (3x this standard deviation) of 2.1pmol/kg. Replicate analyses of three
different large-volume seawater samples (one with 11pmol/kg, another with
24pmol/kg, and a third with 38pmol/kg) indicated that the precision of the
analysis is 4% or 1.6pmol/kg, whichever is larger.
Triplicate analyses of an international reference standard gave SAFe D2: 27.2
+/-\\u00a01.7 pmol/kg. However, this standard run was linked into our own long-
term quality control standards that are run on every analytical day to
maintain long-term consistency. \\u00a0
For the most part, the reported numbers are simply as calculated from the
isotope dilution equation on the day of the analysis. For some analytical
days, however, quality control samples indicated offsets in the blank used to
correct the samples. For the upper 5 depths of Station 29, all depths of
Station 40, and the deepest 2 depths of Station 42, the quality control
samples indicated our blank was overcorrecting by 3.4pM, and we applied a
-3.4pM correction to our Pb concentrations for that day. For the deepest 11
depths of Station 34, the quality control samples indicated our blank was
overcorrecting by 10.2pM (due to contamination of the low trace metal seawater
stock), and we applied a -10.2 pM correction to our Pb concentrations for that
day. With these corrections, the overall internal comparability of the Pb
collection should be better than 4%.
The errors associated with these Pb concentration measurements are on average
3.2% of the concentration (0.1 \\u2013 4.4pmol/kg). Although there was a formal
crossover station (1) that overlaps with USGT10-01 (GA-03), sample quality on
the first station of GEOVIDE appears problematical making the comparison
unhelpful. However, GEOVIDE station 11 (40.33 degrees North, 12.22
degrees\\u00a0West) is not too far from USGT10-01 (38.325 degrees\\u00a0North,
9.66 degrees\\u00a0West) and makes for a reasonable comparison. It should also
be noted that the MIT lab has intercalibrated Pb with other labs on the 2008
IC1 cruise, on the 2011 USGT11 (GA-03) cruise, and on the EPZT (GP-16)
cruises, and maintains in-lab quality control standards for long-term data
quality evaluation.
Ten percent of the samples were analyzed by Rick Kayser and the remaining
ninety percent of the samples were analyzed by Cheryl Zurbrick. There was no
significant difference between them for the lowest concentration large-volume
seawater reference sample (RK averaged 11.0 +/-\\u00a01.6 pmol/kg; CZ averaged
11.6 +/-\\u00a01.6 pmol/kg).";
    String awards_0_award_nid "651714";
    String awards_0_award_number "OCE-1357224";
    String awards_0_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1357224";
    String awards_0_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_0_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_0_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_0_program_manager "Henrietta N Edmonds";
    String awards_0_program_manager_nid "51517";
    String cdm_data_type "Other";
    String comment 
"Dissolved Pb 
  E. Boyle and C. Zubrick, PIs 
  Version 3 October 2017";
    String Conventions "COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3";
    String creator_email "info@bco-dmo.org";
    String creator_name "BCO-DMO";
    String creator_type "institution";
    String creator_url "https://www.bco-dmo.org/";
    String data_source "extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3  19 Dec 2019";
    String date_created "2016-07-15T13:45:22Z";
    String date_modified "2020-03-24T13:50:40Z";
    String defaultDataQuery "&time<now";
    String doi "10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.651880.1";
    Float64 Easternmost_Easting -10.036;
    Float64 geospatial_lat_max 59.79927;
    Float64 geospatial_lat_min 40.33325;
    String geospatial_lat_units "degrees_north";
    Float64 geospatial_lon_max -10.036;
    Float64 geospatial_lon_min -51.09588;
    String geospatial_lon_units "degrees_east";
    String history 
"2024-04-25T13:49:48Z (local files)
2024-04-25T13:49:48Z https://erddap.bco-dmo.org/tabledap/bcodmo_dataset_651880.das";
    String infoUrl "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/651880";
    String institution "BCO-DMO";
    String instruments_0_acronym "ICP Mass Spec";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description "Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid "652123";
    String instruments_0_description "An ICP Mass Spec is an instrument that passes nebulized samples into an inductively-coupled gas plasma (8-10000 K) where they are atomized and ionized. Ions of specific mass-to-charge ratios are quantified in a quadrupole mass spectrometer.";
    String instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB15/";
    String instruments_0_instrument_name "Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer";
    String instruments_0_instrument_nid "530";
    String instruments_0_supplied_name "ICP-MS";
    String instruments_1_acronym "Bottle";
    String instruments_1_dataset_instrument_description "The General Oceanics Inc Model 1018 Intelligent Rosette was equipped with 22 new 12L GO-FLO bottles.";
    String instruments_1_dataset_instrument_nid "651959";
    String instruments_1_description "A container, typically made of glass or plastic and with a narrow neck, used for storing drinks or other liquids.";
    String instruments_1_instrument_name "Bottle";
    String instruments_1_instrument_nid "542498";
    String instruments_1_supplied_name "12L GO-FLO";
    String keywords "bco, bco-dmo, biological, bottle, btl, BTL_DATE, BTL_LAT, BTL_LON, btlnbr, castno, chemical, conc, cruise, cruise_id, ctdprs, data, dataset, date, dmo, erddap, flag, management, nbr, NBR_OF_SAMPLES, oceanography, office, Pb_D_CONC_BOTTLE, Pb_D_CONC_BOTTLE_FLAG, Pb_D_CONC_BOTTLE_SD, PI_SAMPNO, preliminary, samples, sampno, sect, SECT_ID, stnnbr";
    String license "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/651880/license";
    String metadata_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/651880";
    Float64 Northernmost_Northing 59.79927;
    String param_mapping "{'651880': {'BTL_LON': 'flag - longitude', 'CTDPRS': 'flag - depth', 'BTL_LAT': 'flag - latitude'}}";
    String parameter_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/651880/parameters";
    String people_0_affiliation "Massachusetts Institute of Technology";
    String people_0_affiliation_acronym "MIT-EAPS";
    String people_0_person_name "Edward A. Boyle";
    String people_0_person_nid "50984";
    String people_0_role "Principal Investigator";
    String people_0_role_type "originator";
    String people_1_affiliation "Massachusetts Institute of Technology";
    String people_1_affiliation_acronym "MIT";
    String people_1_person_name "Rick Kayser";
    String people_1_person_nid "651719";
    String people_1_role "Co-Principal Investigator";
    String people_1_role_type "originator";
    String people_2_affiliation "Massachusetts Institute of Technology";
    String people_2_affiliation_acronym "MIT-EAPS";
    String people_2_person_name "Cheryl Zurbrick";
    String people_2_person_nid "644617";
    String people_2_role "Co-Principal Investigator";
    String people_2_role_type "originator";
    String people_3_affiliation "Massachusetts Institute of Technology";
    String people_3_affiliation_acronym "MIT-EAPS";
    String people_3_person_name "Edward A. Boyle";
    String people_3_person_nid "50984";
    String people_3_role "Contact";
    String people_3_role_type "related";
    String people_4_affiliation "Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution";
    String people_4_affiliation_acronym "WHOI BCO-DMO";
    String people_4_person_name "Hannah Ake";
    String people_4_person_nid "650173";
    String people_4_role "BCO-DMO Data Manager";
    String people_4_role_type "related";
    String project "GEOVIDE_Pb";
    String projects_0_acronym "GEOVIDE_Pb";
    String projects_0_description "Lead is a trace metal that has historically been emitted into the atmosphere through human activities such as coal burning and the use of leaded gasoline followed by deposition into the ocean. Once introduced into the marine environment, lead is dispersed via currents and removed by biota and other sinking particles. This century-scale growth of lead emissions followed by a decline upon the phase-out of leaded gasoline is one of the great global geochemical experiments. In this study, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology will analyze archived seawater samples to improve our knowledge on the spatial and temporal variability of lead concentrations and lead isotope ratios. This data will yield new insights into the sources and transport of lead and other metals, document the time-evolving human footprint on the ocean, and assist with validating models.";
    String projects_0_end_date "2017-02";
    String projects_0_geolocation "Subpolar North Atlantic; Labrador Sea; Greenland";
    String projects_0_name "Filling Gaps in the Atlantic and Pacific Pb and Pb Isotope Spatial and Temporal Evolution";
    String projects_0_project_nid "651715";
    String projects_0_project_website "http://www.geovide.obs-vlfr.fr/";
    String projects_0_start_date "2014-03";
    String publisher_name "Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)";
    String publisher_type "institution";
    String sourceUrl "(local files)";
    Float64 Southernmost_Northing 40.33325;
    String standard_name_vocabulary "CF Standard Name Table v55";
    String subsetVariables "cruise_id,SECT_ID";
    String summary "Dissolved lead data collected from the R/V Pourquoi pas (GEOVIDE) in the North Atlantic, Labrador Sea (section GA01) during 2014";
    String title "Dissolved lead data collected from the R/V Pourquoi pas (GEOVIDE) in the North Atlantic, Labrador Sea (section GA01) during 2014";
    String version "1";
    Float64 Westernmost_Easting -51.09588;
    String xml_source "osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3";


Using tabledap to Request Data and Graphs from Tabular Datasets

tabledap lets you request a data subset, a graph, or a map from a tabular dataset (for example, buoy data), via a specially formed URL. tabledap uses the OPeNDAP (external link) Data Access Protocol (DAP) (external link) and its selection constraints (external link).

The URL specifies what you want: the dataset, a description of the graph or the subset of the data, and the file type for the response.

Tabledap request URLs must be in the form
For example,
Thus, the query is often a comma-separated list of desired variable names, followed by a collection of constraints (e.g., variable<value), each preceded by '&' (which is interpreted as "AND").

For details, see the tabledap Documentation.

ERDDAP, Version 2.02
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