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Dataset Title:  Experimental results indicating which predators were attacked by Stegastes
planiforms in the Cayman Islands and the Bahamas during 2011
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Institution:  BCO-DMO   (Dataset ID: bcodmo_dataset_653159)
Information:  Summary ? | License ? | ISO 19115 | Metadata | Background (external link) | Files | Make a graph
Variable ?   Optional
Constraint #1 ?
Constraint #2 ?
   Minimum ?
   Maximum ?
 location (unitless) ?          "Bahamas"    "Caymans"
 latitude (degrees_north) ?          19.0    24.0
  < slider >
 longitude (degrees_east) ?          -80.0    -76.0
  < slider >
 bottle_treatment (unitless) ?          "Control"    "Surgeon"
 habitat (unitless) ?          "Bommies"    "Dead_Flat"
 damsel_number (unitless) ?          1    40
 attack (unitless) ?          0    1
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The Dataset Attribute Structure (.das) for this Dataset

Attributes {
 s {
  location {
    String bcodmo_name "site";
    String description "location of sampling";
    String long_name "Location";
    String units "unitless";
  latitude {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Lat";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range 19.0, 24.0;
    String axis "Y";
    String bcodmo_name "latitude";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 90.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -90.0;
    String description "latitude";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Latitude";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/";
    String standard_name "latitude";
    String units "degrees_north";
  longitude {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Lon";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range -80.0, -76.0;
    String axis "X";
    String bcodmo_name "longitude";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 180.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -180.0;
    String description "longitude";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Longitude";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/";
    String standard_name "longitude";
    String units "degrees_east";
  bottle_treatment {
    String bcodmo_name "treatment";
    String description "type of predator fish within the bottle that was introduced to damselfish";
    String long_name "Bottle Treatment";
    String units "unitless";
  habitat {
    String bcodmo_name "site_descrip";
    String description "microhabitats where damselfish territories were located; Bahamas: dead coral rubble and coral bommies; Cayman Islands: high and low relief of continuous reef";
    String long_name "Habitat";
    String units "unitless";
  damsel_number {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 1, 40;
    String bcodmo_name "sample";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 100.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum 0.0;
    String description "damselfish id number; 1-20";
    String long_name "Damsel Number";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/ACYC/";
    String units "unitless";
  attack {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 0, 1;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "indication of whether or not bottle was attacked; 1=Yes 0=No";
    String long_name "Attack";
    String units "unitless";
    String access_formats ".htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson";
    String acquisition_description 
"Area of study and microhabitat assessment
This study was conducted during July-August 2011, observing the behavioral
response of 40 three spot damselfish:\\u00a020 in the Bahamas and 20 in the
Cayman Islands. Damselfish in these two locations were chosen to be studied
because of their difference in timing of the lionfish invasion: lionfish were
first sighted in the Bahamas in 2004 and in the Cayman Islands in 2008
(Schofield 2009). In the Bahamas, damselfish were studied at three sites in
the shallow waters (sites were <4 m deep) of the Great Bahama Bank in the
vicinity of Lee Stocking Island, which is part of the Exuma Cays. Study sites
consisted of patch reefs composed of small coral heads and larger coral
bommies surrounded by sand and seagrass beds. About 380 miles Southwest of Lee
Stocking Island, damselfish behavior was observed\\u00a0off of Little Cayman
Island at three deeper sites (6\\u201312 m deep) located along the northern
side of the island, just inshore of the Bloody Bay Wall. This area is
characterized by continuous stretches of reef that includes coral heads of
various sizes and large coral formations.
The benthic territories maintained year-round by three spot damselfish are
less than 1 m2 and are easily identified by the algal gardens covering reef
substrata that the damselfish cultivate (Brawley and Adey 1977). The
underlying substrata of damselfish territories differed at sites both within
and between the Bahamas and Cayman Islands. Since the type of habitat could
potentially affect damselfish response by influencing an individual\\u2019s
ability to defend its territory,\\u00a0the microhabitat of each damselfish
territory was characterized by recording the following four habitat
categories: (1) low-relief dead coral rubble (mostly Acropora cervicornis),
(2) low-relief continuous reef, (3) high-relief large coral\\u00a0bommies, and
(4) high-relief continuous reef. Low-relief habitats lacked vertical
structure, whereas\\u00a0high-relief\\u00a0habitats consisted of vertical
structure over 1 m high, which could potentially interfere with the ability of
damselfish to detect intruders.
Experimental treatments and fish capture
Each three spot damselfish was exposed to a series of treatments consisting of
a single individual of (1) invasive lionfish, or the following native fishes,
all of which are commonly found on reefs near three spot damselfish
territories and are chased at varying degrees by damselfish (Thresher 1976;
Robertson 1984): (2) herbivorous ocean surgeonfish (Acanthurus bahianus), a
potential food competitor; (3) white grunt (Haemulon plumierii), a potential
egg predator; and (4) coney grouper (Cephalopholis fulva), a mesopredator
ecologically similar to lionfish and at larger sizes is a potential predator
of three spot damselfish. At both study regions, 2-3 individuals were captured
per fish species, which were rotated daily for experimental use based on each
individual\\u2019s appearance, apparent condition, and behavior. All fish were
caught underwater from non-study sites using hand nets and the fish anesthetic
quinaldine when needed. Body size of individual fish, ranging from 10 to 18 cm
TL, was restricted to allow for ease of movement in bottles during the
experiment. At these sizes, both lionfish and coney grouper were sufficiently
large to pose a threat to small recruit fishes inhabiting damselfish
territories (Albins 2013). Fish were maintained in flow-through aquarium tanks
both prior to and between daily observational trials.
Model-bottle experiment
Using a model-bottle study design (Myrberg and Thresher 1974), individual fish
were presented in weighted, clear-plastic gallon bottles to haphazardly
located adult damselfish (7\\u201311 cm total length [TL]) in order to measure
the relative behavioral responses exhibited by each focal damselfish. Bottle
lids were replaced with secured mesh screening to allow for flow of both water
and any fish chemical cues. An empty bottle was used as a control treatment.
Each treatment was introduced in random order to individual damselfish
territories. All fishes inside bottles were either resting or hovering upon
To measure damselfish aggression per treatment, each bottle was sequentially
placed at 100, 50, and 0 cm away from the center of each territory. At each
increment, damselfish behavior was observed from a distance of 3 m for 2 min,
counting the number of times the focal damselfish made physical contact with
the bottle (attack rate) and tallying which aggressive behaviors each
damselfish displayed: (1) contact with the mouth while hovering in place
directly next to the bottle (nip); (2) contact with the caudal fin while
hovering in place directly next to the bottle (butt); (3) starting from a
distance, swimming with force directly towards the bottle, making contact with
mouth, and then quickly swimming away from the bottle (charge); and, (4)
repeatedly charging the bottle multiple times (continuous attack). These
categories encompass three spot damselfish behavior known to effectively
exclude intruders (Thresher 1976). Avoidance behavior by damselfish was also
noted, such as entering refuge sites within their territories (Helfman 1989).
Each bottle was then placed at the closest distance to the territory at which
the damselfish had previously made no physical contact with the bottle, then
gradually moved the bottle closer to the center of the territory until the
damselfish approached the bottle and made physical contact. If the damselfish
had previously attacked the bottle at 100 cm away from the territory, the
bottle was placed at 150 cm where all damselfish ceased attacking the bottle,
and gradually moved the bottle closer to the territory from there. This method
provided a measurement of the \\u201cmaximum distance of attack\\u201d (sensu
Myrberg and Thresher 1974) per treatment.";
    String awards_0_award_nid "561016";
    String awards_0_award_number "OCE-1233027";
    String awards_0_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1233027";
    String awards_0_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_0_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_0_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_0_program_manager "David L. Garrison";
    String awards_0_program_manager_nid "50534";
    String cdm_data_type "Other";
    String comment 
"Attacks by Predator Treatment 
    Lead PI: Mark Hixon 
    Sub-Project Lead: Tye L. Kindinger 
    Version 26 July 2016";
    String Conventions "COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3";
    String creator_email "info@bco-dmo.org";
    String creator_name "BCO-DMO";
    String creator_type "institution";
    String creator_url "https://www.bco-dmo.org/";
    String data_source "extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3  19 Dec 2019";
    String date_created "2016-08-02T16:27:58Z";
    String date_modified "2019-05-22T19:15:28Z";
    String defaultDataQuery "&amp;time&lt;now";
    String doi "10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.653159.1";
    Float64 Easternmost_Easting -76.0;
    Float64 geospatial_lat_max 24.0;
    Float64 geospatial_lat_min 19.0;
    String geospatial_lat_units "degrees_north";
    Float64 geospatial_lon_max -76.0;
    Float64 geospatial_lon_min -80.0;
    String geospatial_lon_units "degrees_east";
    String history 
"2020-11-25T13:22:13Z (local files)
2020-11-25T13:22:13Z https://erddap.bco-dmo.org/erddap/tabledap/bcodmo_dataset_653159.html";
    String infoUrl "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/653159";
    String institution "BCO-DMO";
    String keywords "attack, bco, bco-dmo, biological, bottle, bottle_treatment, chemical, damsel, damsel_number, data, dataset, dmo, erddap, habitat, latitude, longitude, management, number, oceanography, office, preliminary, treatment";
    String license "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/653159/license";
    String metadata_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/653159";
    Float64 Northernmost_Northing 24.0;
    String param_mapping "{'653159': {'lat': 'master - latitude', 'lon': 'master - longitude'}}";
    String parameter_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/653159/parameters";
    String people_0_affiliation "University of Hawaii";
    String people_0_person_name "Mark Hixon";
    String people_0_person_nid "51647";
    String people_0_role "Principal Investigator";
    String people_0_role_type "originator";
    String people_1_affiliation "Oregon State University";
    String people_1_affiliation_acronym "OSU";
    String people_1_person_name "Tye L. Kindinger";
    String people_1_person_nid "51707";
    String people_1_role "Contact";
    String people_1_role_type "related";
    String people_2_affiliation "Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution";
    String people_2_affiliation_acronym "WHOI BCO-DMO";
    String people_2_person_name "Hannah Ake";
    String people_2_person_nid "650173";
    String people_2_role "BCO-DMO Data Manager";
    String people_2_role_type "related";
    String project "BiodiversityLossEffects_lionfish";
    String projects_0_acronym "BiodiversityLossEffects_lionfish";
    String projects_0_description 
"The Pacific red lionfish (Pterois volitans), a popular aquarium fish, was introduced to the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Florida in the late 20th century. Voraciously consuming small native coral-reef fishes, including the juveniles of fisheries and ecologically important species, the invader has undergone a population explosion that now ranges from the U.S. southeastern seaboard to the Gulf of Mexico and across the greater Caribbean region. The PI's past research determined that invasive lionfish (1) have escaped their natural enemies in the Pacific (lionfish are much less abundant in their native range); (2) are not yet controlled by Atlantic predators, competitors, or parasites; (3) have strong negative effects on populations of native Atlantic fishes; and (4) locally reduce the diversity (number of species) of native fishes. The lionfish invasion has been recognized as one of the major conservation threats worldwide.
The Bahamas support the highest abundances of invasive lionfish globally. This system thus provides an unprecedented opportunity to understand the direct and indirect effects of a major invader on a diverse community, as well as the underlying causative mechanisms. The PI will focus on five related questions: (1) How does long-term predation by lionfish alter the structure of native reef-fish communities? (2) How does lionfish predation destabilize native prey population dynamics, possibly causing local extinctions? (3) Is there a lionfish-herbivore-seaweed trophic cascade on invaded reefs? (4) How do lionfish modify cleaning mutualisms on invaded reefs? (5) Are lionfish reaching densities where natural population limits are evident?";
    String projects_0_end_date "2016-07";
    String projects_0_geolocation "Three Bahamian sites: 24.8318, -076.3299;  23.8562, -076.2250; 23.7727, -076.1071; Caribbean Netherlands: 12.1599, -068.2820";
    String projects_0_name "Mechanisms and Consequences of Fish Biodiversity Loss on Atlantic Coral Reefs Caused by Invasive Pacific Lionfish";
    String projects_0_project_nid "561017";
    String projects_0_project_website "http://hixon.science.oregonstate.edu/content/highlight-lionfish-invasion";
    String projects_0_start_date "2012-08";
    String publisher_name "Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)";
    String publisher_type "institution";
    String sourceUrl "(local files)";
    Float64 Southernmost_Northing 19.0;
    String standard_name_vocabulary "CF Standard Name Table v55";
    String summary "Experimental results indicating which predators were attacked by Stegastes planiforms in the Cayman Islands and the Bahamas during 2011";
    String title "Experimental results indicating which predators were attacked by Stegastes planiforms in the Cayman Islands and the Bahamas during 2011";
    String version "1";
    Float64 Westernmost_Easting -80.0;
    String xml_source "osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3";


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