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Dataset Title:  CTD data from AT39-01 (North Pond 2017 expedition) from the R/V Atlantis in
the central North Atlantic during October 2017
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Institution:  BCO-DMO   (Dataset ID: bcodmo_dataset_757722)
Range: longitude = -46.0817 to -46.0507°E, latitude = 22.7553 to 22.81°N, depth = 2.0 to 4475.0m, time = 2017-10-14T12:30:45Z to 2017-10-27T03:39:14Z
Information:  Summary ? | License ? | ISO 19115 | Metadata | Background (external link) | Subset | Data Access Form | Files
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The Dataset Attribute Structure (.das) for this Dataset

Attributes {
 s {
  time {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Time";
    Float64 actual_range 1.507984245e+9, 1.509075554e+9;
    String axis "T";
    String bcodmo_name "ISO_DateTime_UTC";
    String description "date and time in ISO 8601 format yyyy-m-ddTHH:MM:SS";
    String ioos_category "Time";
    String long_name "Time Utc";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/DTUT8601/";
    String source_name "time_utc";
    String standard_name "time";
    String time_origin "01-JAN-1970 00:00:00";
    String time_precision "1970-01-01T00:00:00Z";
    String units "seconds since 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z";
  longitude {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Lon";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range -46.0817, -46.0507;
    String axis "X";
    String bcodmo_name "longitude";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 180.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -180.0;
    String description "longitude. East is positive; negative denotes West.";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Longitude";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/";
    String standard_name "longitude";
    String units "degrees_east";
  latitude {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Lat";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range 22.7553, 22.81;
    String axis "Y";
    String bcodmo_name "latitude";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 90.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -90.0;
    String description "latitude. North is positive; negative denotes South";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Latitude";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/";
    String standard_name "latitude";
    String units "degrees_north";
  cast_id {
    String bcodmo_name "cast";
    String description "identifier for the cast";
    String long_name "Cast Id";
    String units "unitless";
  cast_no {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 1, 13;
    String bcodmo_name "cast";
    String description "number for the cast";
    String long_name "Cast No";
    String units "unitless";
  press {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 2.013, 4551.378;
    String bcodmo_name "pressure";
    String description "Pressure. Originally named 'prDM'.";
    String long_name "Press";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/PRESPR01/";
    String units "decibars";
  temp {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 2.4356, 27.5491;
    String bcodmo_name "temperature";
    String description "Primary temperature measurement. Originally named 't090C'.";
    String long_name "Temperature";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/TEMPP901/";
    String units "degrees Celsius";
  temp_2 {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 2.4352, 27.55;
    String bcodmo_name "temperature";
    String description "Secondary tempearture measurement. Originally named 't190C'.";
    String long_name "Temp 2";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/TEMPP901/";
    String units "degrees Celsius";
  cond {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 3.2612, 5.9273;
    String bcodmo_name "conductivity";
    String description "Primary conductivity measurement. Originally named 'c0S/m'.";
    String long_name "Cond";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/CNDC/";
    String units "Siemens/meter [S/m]";
  cond_2 {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 3.2615, 5.9279;
    String bcodmo_name "conductivity";
    String description "Secondary conductivity measurement. Originally named 'c1S/m'.";
    String long_name "Cond 2";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/CNDC/";
    String units "Siemens/meter [S/m]";
  O2_v {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.0701, 2.5175;
    String bcodmo_name "dissolved Oxygen";
    String description "Raw voltage from SBE43 oxygen sensor. Originally named 'Sbeox0V'.";
    String long_name "O2 V";
    String units "volts";
  trans {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 95.9715, 99.3652;
    String bcodmo_name "transmission";
    String description "Beam transmission expressed as percent. Originally named 'CStarTr0'.";
    String long_name "Trans";
    String units "unitless";
  fluor {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range -0.0952, 0.4064;
    String bcodmo_name "fluorescence";
    String description "Fluorescence measured by WET Labs ECO-AFL/FL in milligrams per cubic meter. Originally named 'flECO-AFL'.";
    String long_name "Fluor";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/CPHLPM01/";
    String units "milligrams/cubic meter [mg/m^3]";
  turbidity {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.0199, 0.219;
    String bcodmo_name "turbidity";
    String description "Turbidity measured by WET Labs ECO. Originally named 'turbWetntu0'.";
    String long_name "Turbidity";
    String units "NTU";
  depth {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Height";
    String _CoordinateZisPositive "down";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range 2.0, 4475.0;
    String axis "Z";
    String bcodmo_name "depth";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 8000.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -8000.0;
    String colorBarPalette "TopographyDepth";
    String description "Depth. Originally named 'depSM'.";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Depth";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/DEPH/";
    String positive "down";
    String standard_name "depth";
    String units "m";
  density {
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range 1024.4051, 1048.2094;
    String bcodmo_name "density";
    String description "Primary measure of density in kilograms per cubic meter. Originally named 'density00'.";
    String long_name "Density";
    String units "kilograms/cubic meter [kg/m^3]";
  density_2 {
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range 1024.4073, 1048.2112;
    String bcodmo_name "density";
    String description "Secondary measure of density in kilograms per cubic meter. Originally named 'density11'.";
    String long_name "Density 2";
    String units "kilograms/cubic meter [kg/m^3]";
  sal {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 34.8899, 37.577;
    String bcodmo_name "sal";
    String description "Primary salinity measurement. Originally named 'sal00'.";
    String long_name "Sal";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/PSALST01/";
    String units "practical salinity units [PSU]";
  sal_2 {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 34.8769, 37.5813;
    String bcodmo_name "sal";
    String description "Secondary salinity measurement. Originally named 'sal11'.";
    String long_name "Sal 2";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/PSALST01/";
    String units "practical salinity units [PSU]";
  sound_vel {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 1491.78, 1543.55;
    String bcodmo_name "sound_vel";
    String description "Sound velocity in meters per second. Originally named 'svCM'.";
    String long_name "Sound Vel";
    String units "meters/second [m/s]";
  sound_vel_2 {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 1491.79, 1543.56;
    String bcodmo_name "sound_vel";
    String description "Sound velocity in meters per second from secondary sensor. Originally named 'svCM1'.";
    String long_name "Sound Vel 2";
    String units "meters/second [m/s]";
  O2 {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range -47.132, 234.576;
    String bcodmo_name "dissolved Oxygen";
    String description "Oxygen concentration from SBE 43. Originally named 'sbeox0Mm/L'.";
    String long_name "O2";
    String units "micromol/liter [umol/l]";
  flag {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.0, 0.0;
    String bcodmo_name "flag";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 150.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum 0.0;
    String description "Quality flag; bad flag = -9.99e-29.";
    String long_name "Flag";
    String units "unitless";
    String access_formats ".htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson,.odvTxt";
    String acquisition_description "Software Version Seasave V 7.23.2";
    String awards_0_award_nid "700308";
    String awards_0_award_number "OCE-1635208";
    String awards_0_data_url "https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1635208";
    String awards_0_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_0_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_0_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_0_program_manager "Michael E. Sieracki";
    String awards_0_program_manager_nid "50446";
    String awards_1_award_nid "700309";
    String awards_1_award_number "OCE-1635365";
    String awards_1_data_url "https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1635365";
    String awards_1_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_1_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_1_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_1_program_manager "Michael E. Sieracki";
    String awards_1_program_manager_nid "50446";
    String awards_2_award_nid "707761";
    String awards_2_award_number "OCE-1536539";
    String awards_2_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1536539";
    String awards_2_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_2_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_2_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_2_program_manager "Barbara Ransom";
    String awards_2_program_manager_nid "661067";
    String awards_3_award_nid "707766";
    String awards_3_award_number "OCE-1536601";
    String awards_3_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1536601";
    String awards_3_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_3_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_3_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_3_program_manager "Barbara Ransom";
    String awards_3_program_manager_nid "661067";
    String awards_4_award_nid "707769";
    String awards_4_award_number "OCE-1536623";
    String awards_4_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1536623";
    String awards_4_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_4_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_4_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_4_program_manager "Barbara Ransom";
    String awards_4_program_manager_nid "661067";
    String awards_5_award_nid "707772";
    String awards_5_award_number "OCE-1634025";
    String awards_5_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1634025";
    String awards_5_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_5_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_5_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_5_program_manager "Barbara Ransom";
    String awards_5_program_manager_nid "661067";
    String awards_6_award_nid "720167";
    String awards_6_award_number "OCE-1745589";
    String awards_6_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1745589";
    String awards_6_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_6_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_6_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_6_program_manager "Michael E. Sieracki";
    String awards_6_program_manager_nid "50446";
    String awards_7_award_nid "721821";
    String awards_7_award_number "OCE-1636402";
    String awards_7_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1636402";
    String awards_7_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_7_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_7_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_7_program_manager "David L. Garrison";
    String awards_7_program_manager_nid "50534";
    String cdm_data_type "Other";
    String comment 
"CTD data from AT39-01 (North Pond 2017 expedition) 
  PI: Grieg F. Steward 
  Version: 2019-03-06";
    String Conventions "COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3";
    String creator_email "info@bco-dmo.org";
    String creator_name "BCO-DMO";
    String creator_type "institution";
    String creator_url "https://www.bco-dmo.org/";
    String data_source "extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3  19 Dec 2019";
    String date_created "2019-03-06T18:47:32Z";
    String date_modified "2019-03-07T14:07:51Z";
    String defaultDataQuery "&amp;time&lt;now";
    String doi "10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.757722.1";
    Float64 Easternmost_Easting -46.0507;
    Float64 geospatial_lat_max 22.81;
    Float64 geospatial_lat_min 22.7553;
    String geospatial_lat_units "degrees_north";
    Float64 geospatial_lon_max -46.0507;
    Float64 geospatial_lon_min -46.0817;
    String geospatial_lon_units "degrees_east";
    Float64 geospatial_vertical_max 4475.0;
    Float64 geospatial_vertical_min 2.0;
    String geospatial_vertical_positive "down";
    String geospatial_vertical_units "m";
    String history 
"2021-10-18T16:56:20Z (local files)
2021-10-18T16:56:20Z https://erddap.bco-dmo.org/tabledap/bcodmo_dataset_757722.das";
    String infoUrl "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/757722";
    String institution "BCO-DMO";
    String instruments_0_acronym "CTD SBE 911plus";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description "Sea-Bird SBE 9 Data File";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid "757737";
    String instruments_0_description "The Sea-Bird SBE 911plus is a type of CTD instrument package for continuous measurement of conductivity, temperature and pressure.  The SBE 911plus includes the SBE 9plus Underwater Unit and the SBE 11plus Deck Unit (for real-time readout using conductive wire) for deployment from a vessel. The combination of the SBE 9plus and SBE 11plus is called a SBE 911plus.  The SBE 9plus uses Sea-Bird's standard modular temperature and conductivity sensors (SBE 3plus and SBE 4). The SBE 9plus CTD can be configured with up to eight auxiliary sensors to measure other parameters including dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, fluorescence, light (PAR), light transmission, etc.). more information from Sea-Bird Electronics";
    String instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L22/current/TOOL0058/";
    String instruments_0_instrument_name "CTD Sea-Bird SBE 911plus";
    String instruments_0_instrument_nid "591";
    String instruments_0_supplied_name "Sea-Bird SBE 9";
    String instruments_1_acronym "ECO AFL/FL";
    String instruments_1_dataset_instrument_description 
Serial No.: FLTURT-964
Calibration Date: 22-Nov-16";
    String instruments_1_dataset_instrument_nid "757739";
    String instruments_1_description 
"The Environmental Characterization Optics (ECO) series of single channel fluorometers delivers both high resolution and wide ranges across the entire line of parameters using 14 bit digital processing. The ECO series excels in biological monitoring and dye trace studies. The potted optics block results in long term stability of the instrument and the optional anti-biofouling technology delivers truly long term field measurements.
 more information from Wet Labs";
    String instruments_1_instrument_external_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L22/current/TOOL0172/";
    String instruments_1_instrument_name "Wet Labs ECO-AFL/FL Fluorometer";
    String instruments_1_instrument_nid "592";
    String instruments_1_supplied_name "WET Labs ECO-AFL/FL";
    String instruments_2_acronym "WL CSTAR Trans";
    String instruments_2_dataset_instrument_description 
"WET Labs C Star
serial number: CST-854DR
caibration date: 8-Dec-16";
    String instruments_2_dataset_instrument_nid "757738";
    String instruments_2_description "A highly integrated opto-electronic design to provide a low cost, compact solution for underwater measurements of beam transmittance. The instrument is capable of either free space measurements, or through the use of an optical flow tube, flow-through sampling with a pump. It can be used in profiling, moored, or underway applications. more information from Wet Labs";
    String instruments_2_instrument_external_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L22/current/TOOL0160/";
    String instruments_2_instrument_name "Wet Labs CSTAR Transmissometer";
    String instruments_2_instrument_nid "593";
    String instruments_2_supplied_name "WET Labs C Star";
    String instruments_3_acronym "WETLabs ECO-FLNTU";
    String instruments_3_dataset_instrument_description 
Serial no.: FLTURT-964
Calibration date: 22-Nov-16";
    String instruments_3_dataset_instrument_nid "757740";
    String instruments_3_description "The ECO FLNTU is a dual-wavelength, single-angle sensor for simultaneously determining both chlorophyll fluorescence and turbidity.";
    String instruments_3_instrument_external_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L22/current/TOOL0215/";
    String instruments_3_instrument_name "WETLabs ECO-FLNTU";
    String instruments_3_instrument_nid "601";
    String instruments_3_supplied_name "WET Labs, ECO-NTU";
    String keywords "altimetry, bco, bco-dmo, biological, cast, cast_id, cast_no, chemical, cond, cond_2, data, dataset, density, density_2, depth, dmo, erddap, flag, fluor, laboratory, latitude, longitude, management, O2, O2_v, oceanography, office, oxygen, preliminary, press, sal, sal_2, satellite, sound, sound_vel, sound_vel_2, temp_2, temperature, time, trans, turbidity, v, vel";
    String license "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/757722/license";
    String metadata_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/757722";
    Float64 Northernmost_Northing 22.81;
    String param_mapping "{'757722': {'lat': 'flag - latitude', 'time_utc': 'flag - time', 'depth': 'flag - depth', 'lon': 'flag - longitude'}}";
    String parameter_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/757722/parameters";
    String people_0_affiliation "University of Hawaii at Manoa";
    String people_0_affiliation_acronym "SOEST";
    String people_0_person_name "Grieg Steward";
    String people_0_person_nid "51455";
    String people_0_role "Principal Investigator";
    String people_0_role_type "originator";
    String people_1_affiliation "Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution";
    String people_1_affiliation_acronym "WHOI BCO-DMO";
    String people_1_person_name "Mathew Biddle";
    String people_1_person_nid "708682";
    String people_1_role "BCO-DMO Data Manager";
    String people_1_role_type "related";
    String project "Subseafloor Microbial Carbon Cycling,North Pond 2017,North Pond Viruses";
    String projects_0_acronym "Subseafloor Microbial Carbon Cycling";
    String projects_0_description 
"NSF abstract:
The global ocean comprises Earth’s largest microbiome, with at least half of the ocean’s microbial biomass occurring beneath the ocean floor. In particular, oceanic crust encompasses the largest aquifer on Earth, with a liquid volume equal to approximately 2% of the ocean’s volume. It also harbors a substantial reservoir of microbial life that may influence global-scale biogeochemical cycles. This project investigates this largest actively flowing aquifer system on Earth- the fluids circulating through oceanic crust underlying the oceans and sediments. Despite advancing knowledge about life in the deep ocean, the understanding of microorganisms in the rocky oceanic crust and the fluids flowing through it remains rudimentary. This project is focused on understanding the linkages between microbial activity and the cycling of carbon in the cool, subseafloor biosphere. The balance between organic carbon-consuming and organic carbon-producing metabolisms within the crustal biosphere will be determined using seafloor observatories put in place by the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) on the flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, likely representative of the majority of global hydrothermal fluid circulation. The rates of microbial transformations of carbon will be determined using both geochemical and biological approaches. Results will help establish the extent to which microbially-mediated processes in the subseafloor influence carbon cycling in the ocean. This work will represent the first comprehensive description of carbon cycling in the cold oxic crustal aquifer. Two female postdocs will be supported on the grant, and both high school and community college students will also be involved through collaborations with Cape Cod Community College and Cambridge-Rindge and Latin School. The goal is to promote science, technology, engineering and math literacy among high-school and community college students through hand-on research experiences, peer-to-peer mentoring, and professional development opportunities. 
The goal of the project is to answer the question \"is the cool crustal subseafloor biosphere net autotrophic or net heterotrophic?\" The focus of the effort is at North Pond, an isolated sediment pond located on ridge flank oceanic crust 7-8 million years old on the western side of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The two objectives of the project are to:
1. Characterize suspended particles in subseafloor fluids with respect to their inorganic and organic carbon content, and natural 14C and 13C isotopic ratios, to determine microbially-mediated fluxes and processes.
2. Characterize the net influence of particle-associated and free-living microbial communities on subseafloor fluid primary production and remineralization, as well as the taxon-specific contributions to these same processes.
The integration of isotope geochemical and molecular biological approaches represents a significant cross-disciplinary advance in the understanding of the microbial ecology and geochemistry of the subseafloor biosphere in young oceanic crust and their role in maintaining global deep-sea redox balance. Expected outcomes include identifying signatures of autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolism in particle-associated and free-living subseafloor microbial communities as well as quantification of autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolism and associated taxon-abundances to provide insights into the net and specific microbial processes in crustal fluids on carbon fluxes.";
    String projects_0_end_date "2019-08";
    String projects_0_geolocation "The “North Pond” sedimented site in the Mid-Atlantic ridge. This is an IODP study site. The coordinates are 22 ° and 23°N by 44°30 ' to 46°20'W";
    String projects_0_name "Collaborative Research: A multidimensional approach to understanding microbial carbon cycling beneath the seafloor during cool hydrothermal circulation";
    String projects_0_project_nid "650059";
    String projects_0_start_date "2016-09";
    String projects_1_acronym "North Pond 2017";
    String projects_1_description 
"NSF Award Abstract:
Seawater circulates through the upper part of the oceanic crust much like groundwater flows through continental aquifers. However, in the ocean this seawater circulation, many times heated by buried magmatic bodies, transports and releases 25% of the Earth's heat. The rate of fluid flow through ocean crust is estimated to be equal to the amount of water delivered by rivers to the ocean. Much of what we know of this subseafloor fluid flow comes from studies in the eastern Pacific Ocean on ocean crust created by medium and fast spreading mid-ocean ridges. These studies indicate that seawater and its circulation through the seafloor significantly impact crustal evolution and biogeochemical cycles in the ocean and affect the biosphere in ways that are just now beginning to be quantified and understood. To expand this understanding, this research focuses on fluid flow of seafloor generated by slow spreading ridges, like those in the Atlantic, Indian and Arctic Oceans because it is significantly different in structure, mineralogy, and morphology than that formed at fast and intermediate spreading ridges. This research returns to North Pond, a long-term; seafloor; fluid flow monitoring site, drilled and instumented by the Ocean Drilling Program in the Atlantic Ocean. This research site was punctured by boreholes in which fluid flow and geochemical and biological samplers have been deployed for a number of years to collect data and samples. It also provides resources for shipboard and on-shore geochemical and biological analysis. Broader impacts of the work include sensor and technology development, which increases infrastructure for science and has commercial applications. It also provides training for students and the integration of education and research at three US academic institutions, one of which is an EPSCoR state (Mississippi), and supports a PI whose gender is under-represented in sciences and engineering. Public outreach will be carried out in conjunction with the Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations.
This project completes a long-term biogeochemical and hydrologic study of ridge flank hydrothermal processes on slow-spreading, 8 million year old crust on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The site, North Pond, is an isolated northeast-trending sediment pond, bounded by undersea mountains that have been studied since the 1970s. During Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 336 in 2011 and an expedition five months later (2012), sensors, samplers, and experiments were deployed in four borehole observatories drilled into the seafloor that penetrated into volcanic crust, with the purpose of monitoring changes in hydrologic properties, crustal fluid composition and mineral alteration, among other objectives. Wellhead sampling in 2012 and 2014 already revealed changes in crustal fluid compositions; and associated pressure data confirm that the boreholes are sealed and overpressured, reflecting a change in the formation as the boreholes recover from drilling disturbances. This research includes a 13-day oceanographic expedition and use of on-site robotically operated vehicles to recover downhole instrument packages at North Pond. It will allow the sampling of crustal fluids, recovering pressure data, and measuring fluid flow rates. Ship- and shore-based analyses will be used to address fundamental questions related to the hydrogeology of hydrothermal processes on slow-spread crust.";
    String projects_1_end_date "2018-09";
    String projects_1_geolocation "North Pond, Mid-Atlantic Ridge flank CORKs";
    String projects_1_name "Collaborative Research: Completing North Pond Borehole Experiments to Elucidate the Hydrology of Young, Slow-Spread Crust";
    String projects_1_project_nid "707762";
    String projects_1_project_website "http://www.darkenergybiosphere.org/research-activities/field-sites/";
    String projects_1_start_date "2015-10";
    String projects_2_acronym "North Pond Viruses";
    String projects_2_description 
"NSF Award Abstract:
The ocean does not end at the seafloor. Seawater penetrates deep into the ocean crust forming an enormous subseafloor aquifer. Interactions among seawater, rocks, and microorganisms alter the properties of seawater as it passes through this aquifer. The flux of the altered fluid out of the basaltic rocks and back into the sea is equivalent to the flux of all the rivers on the planet and this exchange of deep-sea fluids influences the chemical balance of the ocean. Obtaining samples of these fluids has been a major obstacle to understanding the biological processes that occur within the ocean basement aquifer, but the development and installation of special wellheads, called CORKs, into boreholes on the seafloor now provides opportunities to probe the biology of the most remote habitat on earth. Recent analyses of fluids sampled from CORKs have shown that the microbial communities in the ocean basement are very different from those of the overlying seawater, but little is known of their ecology. In particular, nothing is known about how viruses interact with the cells in this habitat. When a lytic virus infects a cell, it will lyse and kill the cell, but temperate viruses often establish a stable, symbiotic relationship with the host cell that changes how the cell functions. Because of these important roles, viruses exert a major influence on the size, composition, and activity of microbial communities. Investigating the contributions of lytic and temperate viruses in the ocean basement is therefore central to understanding how activities of microbes in the basement are regulated. For this project, the researchers will sample fluids from the ocean basement in the central Atlantic Ocean to conduct the first investigation of the importance of viruses in a slow spreading crustal system. In addition to publishing the detailed results in scientific journals, the researchers will produce a book (in English and Hawaiian) targeting upper elementary to middle schoolchildren that captures the excitement and challenges of deep-sea exploration and introduces the mysteries of the life forms being discovered deep in the earth?s crust. The book will align with National Ocean Literacy Principles and Common Core Standards. Distribution will be focused on the minority-serving schools in Hawaii with the goal of fostering interest in the ocean, earth, and life sciences in groups traditionally underrepresented in STEM fields.
To collect the viruses and microorganisms in the fluids, the researchers will use both passive and active collection methods with the help of a remotely operated vehicle. For passive collection, micro- and ultrafilters will be connected in series to the wellhead and fluids will be driven through the filters by the pressure differential between aquifer and bottom seawater. For active sampling, mechanical pumps will be used to direct either basement fluids or bottom seawater into sample bags for retrieval and processing aboard ship. Microorganisms and viruses harvested from the fluids will be fractionated to separate populations. The viruses and cells will be examined by electron microscopy to quantify morphological diversity and to determine the proportion of infected cells. Nucleic acids from the cells and viruses will be sequenced to 1) characterize the genetic diversity of the viruses, 2) determine the proportion of cells with integrated viral genomes, 3) identify the functional genes contributed to the cells by the viruses, and 4) link specific viruses to their likely hosts based on analysis of CRISPR elements. The researchers hypothesize that the basement viruses will be distinct from those of bottom seawater and that, compared to surface seawater where cells are more abundant, active lytic infections in the basement will be low, but infections by temperate viruses will be exceptionally common. The data from this project will help to constrain the importance of viruses in recycling of organic carbon in the ocean basement and shed light on how viral genes may be altering the microbial activities that influence ocean chemistry.";
    String projects_2_end_date "2018-09";
    String projects_2_geolocation "Mid-Atlantic Ridge flank; North Pond CORK sites";
    String projects_2_name "Investigation of viruses and microbes circulating deep in the seafloor";
    String projects_2_project_nid "721822";
    String projects_2_start_date "2016-10";
    String publisher_name "Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)";
    String publisher_type "institution";
    String sourceUrl "(local files)";
    Float64 Southernmost_Northing 22.7553;
    String standard_name_vocabulary "CF Standard Name Table v55";
    String subsetVariables "flag";
    String summary "CTD data from AT39-01 (North Pond 2017 expedition).";
    String time_coverage_end "2017-10-27T03:39:14Z";
    String time_coverage_start "2017-10-14T12:30:45Z";
    String title "CTD data from AT39-01 (North Pond 2017 expedition) from the R/V Atlantis in the central North Atlantic during October 2017";
    String version "1";
    Float64 Westernmost_Easting -46.0817;
    String xml_source "osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3";


Using tabledap to Request Data and Graphs from Tabular Datasets

tabledap lets you request a data subset, a graph, or a map from a tabular dataset (for example, buoy data), via a specially formed URL. tabledap uses the OPeNDAP (external link) Data Access Protocol (DAP) (external link) and its selection constraints (external link).

The URL specifies what you want: the dataset, a description of the graph or the subset of the data, and the file type for the response.

Tabledap request URLs must be in the form
For example,
Thus, the query is often a comma-separated list of desired variable names, followed by a collection of constraints (e.g., variable<value), each preceded by '&' (which is interpreted as "AND").

For details, see the tabledap Documentation.

ERDDAP, Version 2.02
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