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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Locations of satellite-tagged harbor seals in the San Juan Islands, WA from 2007-2009    ?         M   background (external link) RSS Subscribe BCO-DMO bcodmo_dataset_3704

The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Seals were captured and tagged in April or May of 2007 and 2008 following the
methods of Jeffries et al. (1993) at three sites: Padilla Bay, Bird/Belle
Rocks, and Protection Island. In 2009, seals were captured on Protection
Island. In 2007-2008, animals were tagged with time-depth recorders (TDR;
Wildlife Computers, model Mk-9 or Mk-10F) and satellite tags. The TDR tags
were placed on the dorsal midline of the animals and the satellite tags were
placed on top the head. In 2009, animals were tagged with a combined
satellite-linked TDR and Fastloc GPS receiver (Wildlife Computers, model
Mk10AF). These instruments were epoxied to the animals on the dorsal midline
so that satellite tags would be exposed to the air when the back of the seal
reached the surface.

Position transmissions were received via the ARGOS satellite network. Tags
transmitted locations daily. TDR sensors were programmed to sample every 10
seconds. TDR tags were equipped with a VHF transmitter to allow for the device
to be recovered when it was shed during the animal's annual molt.

The Argos system provides 2 position estimates (lat/lon and lat2/lon2). Argos
usually picks the correct lat/lon pair (of the two it generates), but
occasionally it does not. When working with these data, one of the first steps
is to check the lat/lon pairs to see if swapping out the lat/lon pair for the
lat2/lon2 pair improves the data and is more biologically reasonable.

The Argos positioning system uses the following system for classifying
location quality. These codes are used in the loc_q_flag column. Standard
locations are those with > 4 uplinks from the tag; auxiliary locations are
those with 4 or less uplinks from the tag.

loc_q_flag codes (according to Ward et al.):
Standard locations:
3 = 68th percentile predicted accuracy < 150 m
2 = 68th percentile predicted accuracy 150 - 350 m
1 = 68th percentile predicted accuracy < 1,000 m

Auxiliary locations:
0 = 4 uplinks, with > 1,000 m predicted accuracy
A = 3 uplinks, with no predicted accuracy
B = 2 uplinks, with no predicted accuracy
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 54955
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-0550443
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=0550443 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Locations of Harbor Seals tagged and tracked at the San Juan Islands, 2007-2009
Lead PI: Alejandro Acevedo-Gutierrez
Version: 28 Nov 2012
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2012-08-29T17:55:32Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-03-01T20:28:35Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &amp;time&lt;now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.3704.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double 179.802
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double 61.208
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double 8.818
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double 179.802
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double -175.813
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3704 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_acronym String TDR
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description String TDR's were epoxied to seals along the dorsal midline. All TDR tags were equipped with an Eco-tech floatation pack and a VHF radio transmitter to allow for tracking and retrieval of the device once it became detached from the animal. TDR sensors were set to sample every 10 seconds and record only dives >2 m in depth or >30 s in duration. In 2009, the TDR's used contained an MK10-AF Argos transmitter.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 5755
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String Time depth recorders (TDR's) manufactured by Wildlife Computers, Redmond WA) are designed for studies of seals, penguins, fish, and marine mammals. Standard TDR's are mounted externally on the animal's body, where they record temperature and depth. See more information from the manufacturer.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String Wildlife Computers Time-Depth Tag (TDR)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 668
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_supplied_name String Wildlife Computers TDR
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_acronym String SPOT5
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_description String In 2007-2008, SPOT5 transmitters were epoxied to the tops of seals heads. Satellite locations were obtained daily.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_nid String 5756
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_description String The SPOT5 is an Argos transmitter manufactured by Wildlife Computers (Redmond, WA) and designed for deployment on marine mammals, fish, or seabirds. SPOT5 devices use the Argos satellite network to transmit locations of animals with an accuracy of +/- 350-meters. See more information from the manufacturer.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/POS17/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_name String SPOT5 Argos Transmitter
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_nid String 669
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_supplied_name String SPOT5 Argos Transmitter
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, data, dataset, date, day, dmo, erddap, flaq, inst, lat2, latitude, loc, loc_q_flaq, lon2, longitude, management, month, oceanography, office, preliminary, pttno, satellite, seal, seal_id, time, time2, year
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3704/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/3704 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double 61.208
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'3704': {'lat': 'flag - latitude', 'lon': 'flag - longitude'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/3704/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String Western Washington University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String WWU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Alejandro Acevedo-Gutierrez
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 51487
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Lead Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String United States Geological Survey
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String USGS
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Jeffrey F Bromaghin
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 51491
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Steven J Jeffries
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 51489
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation String University of Alaska, Anchorage
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation_acronym String UAA
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_name String John M Kennish
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_nid String 51490
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_affiliation String Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_person_name String Monique M Lance
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_person_nid String 51488
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_5_affiliation String National Marine Fisheries Service
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_5_affiliation_acronym String NMFS
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_5_person_name String Philip S Levin
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_5_person_nid String 51492
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_5_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_5_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_6_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_6_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_6_person_name String Shannon Rauch
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_6_person_nid String 51498
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_6_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_6_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Seal_response_to_prey
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Seal_response_to_prey
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String From NSF proposal:
This project is a collaborative study of the responses of harbor seals and other mammalian predators to changes in prey density in Puget Sound. The general study approach will involve multi-year field estimates to observe the responses of predators to rockfish density in protected areas, candidate marine reserves, and unprotected sites.
The collaborating investigators will estimate 1) rockfish density using visual and mark and recapture techniques; 2) predator abundance using aerials surveys and dedicated land observations; and 3) predator food consumption using scat to describe diet, tagging of harbor seals to describe individual foraging sites, and population-based and individual bioenergetics models to describe consumption of rockfish. The investigators will also take into account confounding factors that might explain predator behavior, such as environmental variables and alternative prey, by creating a GIS database from available information from the area. The different field observations and database estimates are explicitly linked through a common hypothesis and coordinated methodologies, and their results will be integrated into a model describing the impact of predation on rockfish populations. The responses of top predators to changes in prey density and their impact on fish populations of interest are unknown. This study will evaluate the effectiveness of MPAs as fish refugia, offer a framework for the management and conservation of marine resources, and provide an exciting opportunity for students to participate in ecological and conservation research.
1) Harbor seals and other pinniped species show aggregative responses to changes in prey density. Hence, their abundance will increase with fish density.
2) Harbor seals and other pinniped species show Type 2 or 3 functional responses to changes in prey density. Thus, their consumption rate of a particular prey type follows an asymptotic or sigmoidal curve relative to the prey’s density, respectively.
3) Predation by harbor seals and other pinniped species is sufficiently intense that it impedes recovery of depleted fish populations.
1) Quantify the number of harbor seals and other pinniped species in relation to rockfish density and other environmental (confounding) factors.
2) Estimate the consumption rate of harbor seals and other pinniped species in relation to rockfish density and other prey species.
3) Correlatively estimate the influence of predation by harbor seals and other pinniped species on survivorship and population size of rockfish.
Publications resulting from this NSF award:Bjorland, R. H., Pearson, S. F, Jeffries, S. J, Lance, M. M., Acevedo- Gutiérrez, A. & Ward, E. J. 2015. Stable isotope mixing models elucidate sex and size effects on the diet of a generalist marine predator. Marine Ecology Progress Series 526: 213-225. DOI: 10.3354/meps11230Bromaghin, J. F., Lance, M. M., Elliott, E. W., Jeffries, S. J., Acevedo-Gutierrez, A. & Kennish, J. M. 2013. New insights into the diets of harbor seals in the Salish Sea of western North America revealed by quantitative fatty acid signature analysis. Fishery Bulletin 111: 13-26. DOI: 10.7755/FB.111.1.2Buzzell, B.1, Lance, M. & Acevedo-Gutiérrez, A. 2014. Spatial and temporal variation in river otter (Lontra canadensis) diet and predation on rockfish (Genus Sebastes) in the San Juan Islands, Washington. Aquatic Mammals 40: 150- 161. DOI: 10.1578/AM.40.2.2014.150Howard, S., Lance, M., Jeffries, S. & Acevedo-Gutierrez, A. 2013. Fish consumption by harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the San Juan Islands, WA. Fishery Bulletin 111: 27-41. DOI: 10.7755/FB.111.1.3Lance, M. M., Chang, W.-Y., Jeffries, S. J., Pearson, S. F. & Acevedo-Gutierrez, A. 2012. Harbor seal diet in northern Puget Sound: implications for the recovery of depressed fish stocks. Marine Ecology Progress Series 464:257-271. DOI:10.3354/meps09880Luxa, K. & Acevedo-Gutierrez, A. 2013. Food habits of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in two estuaries in the central Salish Sea. Aquatic Mammals 39: 10- 22. DOI: 10.1578/AM.39.1.2013.10Peterson, S., Lance, M. M., Jeffries, S. J. & Acevedo-Gutierrez, A. 2012. Long distance movements and disjunct spatial use of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the inland waters of the Pacific Northwest. PLoS ONE 7: e39046. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039046Thomas, AC; Lance, MM; Jeffries, SJ; Miner, BG; Acevedo-Gutierrez, A. 2011. Harbor seal foraging response to a seasonal resource pulse, spawning Pacific herring. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, v.441. p. 225. DOI: 10.3354/meps09370Ward, EJ; Levin, PS; Lance, MM; Jeffries, SJ; Acevedo-Gutierrez, A. 2012. Integrating diet and movement data to identify hot spots of predation risk and areas of conservation concern for endangered species. Conservation Letters, v.5, p. 37. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2011.00210.xWilson, K.2, Lance, M., Jeffries, S. & Acevedo-Gutiérrez, A. 2014. Fine-scale variability in harbor seal foraging behavior. PLoS ONE 9: e92838. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092838.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2012-03
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Salish Sea, USA and Canada
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Responses of Seals and Sea Lions to Increased Rockfish Density
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 2205
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_website String http://biol.wwu.edu/mbel/?page=research (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2006-04
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double 8.818
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Coordinates of tagged seals in the San Juan Islands are reported. Seals were captured and tagged during 2007 to 2009 at several sites in Padilla Bay and the Rosario Strait of the Pacific Northwest coast. Seals were tagged with satellite-linked time-depth recorders (TDR's) and GPS receivers.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Locations of satellite-tagged harbor seals in the San Juan Islands, WA from 2007-2009
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double -175.813
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable seal_id   String  
attribute seal_id bcodmo_name String sealname
attribute seal_id description String Unique seal identification.
attribute seal_id long_name String Seal Id
attribute seal_id units String unitless
variable pttno   int  
attribute pttno _FillValue int 2147483647
attribute pttno actual_range int 35921, 92047
attribute pttno bcodmo_name String tagid
attribute pttno description String PTT tag number.
attribute pttno long_name String Pttno
attribute pttno units String unitless
variable inst   String  
attribute inst bcodmo_name String inst_model
attribute inst description String Name of the instrument (MK10 or SPOT 5; both manufactured by Wildlife Computers).
attribute inst long_name String Inst
attribute inst units String unitless
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double 8.818, 61.208
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude bcodmo_name String latitude
attribute latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute latitude description String Primary latitude. (See Acquisition Description.)
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double -175.813, 179.802
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude bcodmo_name String longitude
attribute longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute longitude description String Primary longitude. (See Acquisition Description.)
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable lat2   float  
attribute lat2 _FillValue float NaN
attribute lat2 actual_range float -61.832, 78.886
attribute lat2 bcodmo_name String latitude
attribute lat2 colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute lat2 colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute lat2 description String Secondary estimate of latitude provided by Argos. (See Acquisition Description.)
attribute lat2 long_name String Latitude
attribute lat2 nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute lat2 standard_name String latitude
attribute lat2 units String decimal degrees
variable lon2   float  
attribute lon2 _FillValue float NaN
attribute lon2 actual_range float -179.999, 179.991
attribute lon2 bcodmo_name String longitude
attribute lon2 colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute lon2 colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute lon2 description String Secondary estimate of longitude provided by Argos. (See Acquisition Description.)
attribute lon2 long_name String Longitude
attribute lon2 nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute lon2 standard_name String longitude
attribute lon2 units String decimal degrees
variable month   String  
attribute month bcodmo_name String month
attribute month description String Month of year (01 to 12).
attribute month long_name String Month
attribute month nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/MNTHXXXX/ (external link)
attribute month units String mm
variable day   String  
attribute day bcodmo_name String day
attribute day description String Day of month (01 to 31).
attribute day long_name String Day
attribute day nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/DAYXXXXX/ (external link)
attribute day units String dd
variable year   short  
attribute year _FillValue short 32767
attribute year actual_range short 2007, 2009
attribute year bcodmo_name String year
attribute year description String 4-digit year. in yyyy format
attribute year long_name String Year
attribute year nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/YEARXXXX/ (external link)
attribute year units String unitless
variable date   String  
attribute date bcodmo_name String date
attribute date description String Date, in mm/dd/yyyy format.
attribute date long_name String Date
attribute date nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/ (external link)
attribute date source_name String date
attribute date time_precision String 1970-01-01
attribute date units String unitless
variable time2   String  
attribute time2 bcodmo_name String time
attribute time2 description String Time, 24-hour clock.
attribute time2 long_name String Time
attribute time2 nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/AHMSAA01/ (external link)
attribute time2 units String HHMM
variable satellite   String  
attribute satellite bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute satellite description String Identification of the Argos satellite transmitting the signal: A = METOP-A (MA); K = NOAA-15 (NK); L = NOAA-16 (NL); M = NOAA-17 (NM); N = NOAA-18 (NN); P = NOAA-N (NP). See more information.
attribute satellite long_name String Satellite
attribute satellite units String unitless
variable loc_q_flaq   String  
attribute loc_q_flaq bcodmo_name String q_flag
attribute loc_q_flaq description String Location quality flag. The Argos system classifies points with decreasing precision: 3 > 2 > 1 > 0 > A > B. See Acquisition Description for code definitions.
attribute loc_q_flaq long_name String Loc Q Flaq
attribute loc_q_flaq units String unitless

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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