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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
     data        files  public Summary of prey groups found in harbor seal scat samples from the San Juan Islands analyzed
at the Acevedo lab at Western Washington University during 2005-2008 (Seal_response_to_prey
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String From Lance et al.:
From 2005 to 2008, fecal samples (scats) were collected seasonally over 3
collection periods: March to early June (\u2018spring\u2019), late July to
September (\u2018summer/fall\u2019), and January to February
(\u2018winter\u2019). Scats were collected from 23 haul-out locations during
daytime low tides. The sites were dispersed throughout the study area,
represented various habitat types used by harbor seals, were the largest haul-
outs where adequate sample sizes could be collected, and were easily
accessible by boat. Two or three collection trips were made each season, with
a target sample size of 60 scats per season per region.

Samples were stored frozen. In the lab, samples were enclosed in fine mesh
paint-strainer bags and cleaned using a washing machine or nested sieves. Hard
parts were cleaned and stored dry. Prey were identified to lowest possible
taxon using a dissecting microscope, reference fish bone collections, and
published keys. Fish species from fecal samples were placed into 11 non-
overlapping prey groups based on taxonomy. Taxonomic resolution (species vs.
family or genus) was based on resolution of the prey remains. The category
\u2018other\u2019 included for all remaining prey species with unweighted
occurrence frequencies <5%. Rockfish were included as a prey group despite an
overall low occurrence frequency because of conservation interest and the
objectives of the present study. To gain insights into seasonal diet
variation, the frequencies were weighted by the numbers of seals present in
each region in the spring and summer/fall
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 54955
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-0550443
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=0550443 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Summary of prey found in seal scat from the San Juan Islands
Lead PI: Alejandro Acevedo-Gutierrez
Version: 12 Dec 2012
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2012-11-20T18:01:07Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-08-01T18:56:19Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &amp;time&lt;now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.3786.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3786 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, data, dataset, dmo, erddap, freq, freq_of_occurrence, management, occurrence, oceanography, office, preliminary, region, season, taxon
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3786/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/3786 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'3786': {}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/3786/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String Western Washington University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String WWU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Alejandro Acevedo-Gutierrez
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 51487
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Lead Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String United States Geological Survey
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String USGS
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Jeffrey F Bromaghin
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 51491
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Steven J Jeffries
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 51489
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation String University of Alaska, Anchorage
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation_acronym String UAA
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_name String John M Kennish
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_nid String 51490
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_affiliation String Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_person_name String Monique M Lance
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_person_nid String 51488
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_5_affiliation String National Marine Fisheries Service
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_5_affiliation_acronym String NMFS
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_5_person_name String Philip S Levin
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_5_person_nid String 51492
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_5_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_5_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_6_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_6_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_6_person_name String Shannon Rauch
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_6_person_nid String 51498
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_6_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_6_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Seal_response_to_prey
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Seal_response_to_prey
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String From NSF proposal:
This project is a collaborative study of the responses of harbor seals and other mammalian predators to changes in prey density in Puget Sound. The general study approach will involve multi-year field estimates to observe the responses of predators to rockfish density in protected areas, candidate marine reserves, and unprotected sites.
The collaborating investigators will estimate 1) rockfish density using visual and mark and recapture techniques; 2) predator abundance using aerials surveys and dedicated land observations; and 3) predator food consumption using scat to describe diet, tagging of harbor seals to describe individual foraging sites, and population-based and individual bioenergetics models to describe consumption of rockfish. The investigators will also take into account confounding factors that might explain predator behavior, such as environmental variables and alternative prey, by creating a GIS database from available information from the area. The different field observations and database estimates are explicitly linked through a common hypothesis and coordinated methodologies, and their results will be integrated into a model describing the impact of predation on rockfish populations. The responses of top predators to changes in prey density and their impact on fish populations of interest are unknown. This study will evaluate the effectiveness of MPAs as fish refugia, offer a framework for the management and conservation of marine resources, and provide an exciting opportunity for students to participate in ecological and conservation research.
1) Harbor seals and other pinniped species show aggregative responses to changes in prey density. Hence, their abundance will increase with fish density.
2) Harbor seals and other pinniped species show Type 2 or 3 functional responses to changes in prey density. Thus, their consumption rate of a particular prey type follows an asymptotic or sigmoidal curve relative to the prey’s density, respectively.
3) Predation by harbor seals and other pinniped species is sufficiently intense that it impedes recovery of depleted fish populations.
1) Quantify the number of harbor seals and other pinniped species in relation to rockfish density and other environmental (confounding) factors.
2) Estimate the consumption rate of harbor seals and other pinniped species in relation to rockfish density and other prey species.
3) Correlatively estimate the influence of predation by harbor seals and other pinniped species on survivorship and population size of rockfish.
Publications resulting from this NSF award:Bjorland, R. H., Pearson, S. F, Jeffries, S. J, Lance, M. M., Acevedo- Gutiérrez, A. & Ward, E. J. 2015. Stable isotope mixing models elucidate sex and size effects on the diet of a generalist marine predator. Marine Ecology Progress Series 526: 213-225. DOI: 10.3354/meps11230Bromaghin, J. F., Lance, M. M., Elliott, E. W., Jeffries, S. J., Acevedo-Gutierrez, A. & Kennish, J. M. 2013. New insights into the diets of harbor seals in the Salish Sea of western North America revealed by quantitative fatty acid signature analysis. Fishery Bulletin 111: 13-26. DOI: 10.7755/FB.111.1.2Buzzell, B.1, Lance, M. & Acevedo-Gutiérrez, A. 2014. Spatial and temporal variation in river otter (Lontra canadensis) diet and predation on rockfish (Genus Sebastes) in the San Juan Islands, Washington. Aquatic Mammals 40: 150- 161. DOI: 10.1578/AM.40.2.2014.150Howard, S., Lance, M., Jeffries, S. & Acevedo-Gutierrez, A. 2013. Fish consumption by harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the San Juan Islands, WA. Fishery Bulletin 111: 27-41. DOI: 10.7755/FB.111.1.3Lance, M. M., Chang, W.-Y., Jeffries, S. J., Pearson, S. F. & Acevedo-Gutierrez, A. 2012. Harbor seal diet in northern Puget Sound: implications for the recovery of depressed fish stocks. Marine Ecology Progress Series 464:257-271. DOI:10.3354/meps09880Luxa, K. & Acevedo-Gutierrez, A. 2013. Food habits of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in two estuaries in the central Salish Sea. Aquatic Mammals 39: 10- 22. DOI: 10.1578/AM.39.1.2013.10Peterson, S., Lance, M. M., Jeffries, S. J. & Acevedo-Gutierrez, A. 2012. Long distance movements and disjunct spatial use of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the inland waters of the Pacific Northwest. PLoS ONE 7: e39046. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039046Thomas, AC; Lance, MM; Jeffries, SJ; Miner, BG; Acevedo-Gutierrez, A. 2011. Harbor seal foraging response to a seasonal resource pulse, spawning Pacific herring. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, v.441. p. 225. DOI: 10.3354/meps09370Ward, EJ; Levin, PS; Lance, MM; Jeffries, SJ; Acevedo-Gutierrez, A. 2012. Integrating diet and movement data to identify hot spots of predation risk and areas of conservation concern for endangered species. Conservation Letters, v.5, p. 37. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2011.00210.xWilson, K.2, Lance, M., Jeffries, S. & Acevedo-Gutiérrez, A. 2014. Fine-scale variability in harbor seal foraging behavior. PLoS ONE 9: e92838. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092838.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2012-03
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Salish Sea, USA and Canada
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Responses of Seals and Sea Lions to Increased Rockfish Density
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 2205
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_website String http://biol.wwu.edu/mbel/?page=research (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2006-04
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Frequency of occurrence of taxonomic groups of prey identified in harbor seal scat samples collected from 2005 to 2008, summarized by region and season. Four regions of the San Juan Islands of Washington state were sampled: Eastern Bays, Rosario Strait, San Juan Channel, and the Southern Strait of Georgia.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Summary of prey groups found in harbor seal scat samples from the San Juan Islands analyzed at the Acevedo lab at Western Washington University during 2005-2008 (Seal_response_to_prey project)
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable taxon   String  
attribute taxon bcodmo_name String taxon
attribute taxon description String Name of the prey group.
attribute taxon long_name String Taxon
attribute taxon units String text
variable region   String  
attribute region bcodmo_name String region
attribute region description String Name of the geographical sampling region.
attribute region long_name String Region
attribute region units String text
variable season   String  
attribute season bcodmo_name String season
attribute season description String Sampling season:
Spring = March to early June,
Summer/Fall = late July to September,
Winter = January to February.
attribute season long_name String Season
attribute season units String text
variable freq_of_occurrence   float  
attribute freq_of_occurrence _FillValue float NaN
attribute freq_of_occurrence actual_range float 0.0, 90.1468
attribute freq_of_occurrence bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute freq_of_occurrence description String Frequency of occurrence (FO). Proportion of the number of occurrences of the fish species out of the total number of scat samples.
attribute freq_of_occurrence long_name String Freq Of Occurrence
attribute freq_of_occurrence units String %

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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