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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Names, codes, and characteristics of species observed during reef surveys in the
Bahamas (Lionfish Invasion project)
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String This long-term, large-scale field experiment was designed to document the
community-wide effects of invasive lionfish in the vicinity of Lee Stocking
Island, Bahamas. Baseline surveys of the fish community were conducted at each
of ten large (1400 to 4000 m2) reefs by counting and sizing all fishes within
two permanent square plots (100 m2) and four permanent strip plots (50 m2) at
each reef. Square plots were centered on the area of each reef with the
greatest three-dimensional structure, whereas strip transects were placed to
provide a representative sample of the entire reef (biased towards hard
substrate). The reefs were paired based on habitat characteristics (depth,
current, predominant substrate type, etc.), and one reef in each pair was
designated as either low-lionfish-density (LLD) or high-lionfish-density
(HLD). Lionfish were then removed from LLD reefs and added to HLD reefs. We
attempted to remove all lionfish from LLD reefs, and to augment the density of
lionfish on HLD reefs to the level observed on the highest-density reefs
before the experiment. Surveys of each fish community were then repeated
approximately quarterly. During each survey, any new lionfish appearing on LLD
reefs were removed and distributed evenly across the HLD reefs (again,
ensuring that densities at HLD reefs did not exceed natural invasive densities
prior to the experiment). See details in the following related publications.

Related Publications:
Albins, M.A. (2012) Effects of the Invasive Pacific Red Lionfish Pterois
volitans on Native Atlantic Coral-reef Fish Communities (Chapter 6). PhD
Dissertation. Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.
Albins, M.A. (in preparation) Invasive Pacific lionfish Pterois volitans
reduce abundance and species richness of native Bahamian coral-reef fishes:
results from a large-scale, long-term experiment. Intended for Ecological
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 55160
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-0851162
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=0851162 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String List of species observed during surveys
Lead PI: Mark Hixon (OSU)
Sub-Project Lead: Mark A. Albins (OSU)
Version: 19 March 2013
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2013-03-19T18:40:12Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-10-28T17:27:14Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.3896.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3896 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String 5cm, bco, bco-dmo, biological, change, chemical, cleaner, code, common, common_name, data, dataset, dmo, erddap, faculative, faculative_cleaner, family, herbivore, invertebrate, LW_a, LW_b, LW_c, LW_ref, management, mature, mature_lt_5cm, name, name_change, new, obligate, obligate_cleaner, oceanography, office, piscivore, preliminary, ref, species, species_code, species_new, species_substitute, substitute, transient
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3896/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/3896 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'3896': {}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/3896/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String Oregon State University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String OSU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Mark Hixon
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 51647
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Lead Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Oregon State University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String OSU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Mark A Albins
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 51666
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Scientist
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Shannon Rauch
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 51498
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Lionfish Invasion
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Lionfish Invasion
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String Invasive species are increasingly introduced by human activities to new regions of the world where those species have never existed previously. In the absence of natural enemies (predators, competitors, and diseases) from their homeland, invasives may have strong negative effects on invaded ecosystems, especially systems with fewer species ("ecological release"), and may even drive native species extinct. However, if native natural enemies can somehow control the invaders ("ecological resistance"), then ecological disruption can be prevented or at least moderated. Most of the many invasive species in the sea have been seaweeds and invertebrates, and the few documented invasive marine fishes have not caused major problems. However, this situation has recently changed in a stunning and ominous way. In the early 1990s, lionfish (Pterois volitans) from the Pacific Ocean were accidentally or intentionally released from aquaria to the ocean in the vicinity of Florida. Camouflaged by shape and color, protected by venomous spines, consuming native coral-reef fishes voraciously, and reproducing rapidly, lionfish have subsequently undergone a population explosion. They now range from the mid-Atlantic coast of the US to the Caribbean, including the Bahamas. Native Atlantic fishes have never before encountered this spiny, stealthy, efficient predator and seldom take evasive action. In fact, the investigator has documented that a single lionfish is capable of reducing the abundance of small fish on a small coral patch reef by nearly 80% in just 5 weeks. There is great concern that invasive lionfish may severely reduce the abundance of native coral-reef fishes important as food for humans (e.g., grouper and snapper in their juvenile stages) as well as species that normally maintain the integrity of coral reefs (e.g., grazing parrotfishes that can prevent seaweeds from smothering corals). There are far more species of coral-reef fish in the Pacific than the Atlantic, so this invasion may represent a case of extreme ecological release with minor ecological resistance. Dr. Hixon and colleagues will study the mechanisms of ecological release in lionfish, as well as examine potential sources of ecological resistance in the heavily invaded Bahamas. Because very little is known about the ecology and behavior of lionfish in their native Pacific range, he will also conduct comparative studies in both oceans, which may provide clues regarding the extreme success of this invasion. In the Bahamas, the investigator will document the direct and indirect effects on native species of the ecological release of lionfish, both as a predator and as a competitor. These studies will be conducted at various scales of time and space, from short-term experiments on small patch reefs, to long-term experiments and observations on large reefs. Whereas direct effects involve mostly changes in the abundance of native species, indirect effects can be highly variable. For example, lionfish may actually indirectly benefit some native species by either consuming or outcompeting the competitors of those natives. The project will explore possible ecological resistance to the invasion by determining whether any native Bahamian species are effective natural enemies of lionfish, including predators, parasites, and competitors of both juvenile and adult lionfish. Comparative studies of natural enemies, as well as lionfish ecology and behavior, in both the Atlantic and the Pacific may provide clues regarding the explosive spread of lionfish in the Atlantic.
Regarding broader impacts, this basic research will provide information valuable to coral-reef and fisheries managers fighting the lionfish invasion in the US, the Bahamas, and the greater Caribbean, especially if sources of native ecological resistance are identified. The study will fund the PhD research of U.S. graduate students, as well as involve assistance and participation by a broad variety of undergraduates and reef/fisheries managers, including women, minorities, native Bahamians, and native Pacific islanders. Participation in this project will promote education in marine ecology and conservation biology directly via Dr. Hixon's and graduate students' teaching and outreach activities, and indirectly via the experiences of undergraduate field assistants and various associates.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2012-11
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Bahamas; Cayman Islands; Mariana Islands; Philippines
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Ecological Release and Resistance at Sea: Invasion of Atlantic Coral Reefs by Pacific Lionfish
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 2256
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_website String http://hixon.science.oregonstate.edu/content/highlight-lionfish-invasion (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2009-06
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Names, codes, and characteristics of species observed during reef surveys in the Bahamas (Lionfish Invasion project).
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Names, codes, and characteristics of species observed during reef surveys in the Bahamas (Lionfish Invasion project)
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable species_code   String  
attribute species_code bcodmo_name String taxon_code
attribute species_code description String 4-letter genus species code (typically first two letters are the first two of the genus and last two letters are the first two of the species - corresponds with "Species" column in "LLLE Surveys clean" dataset). Originally named 'SpeciesID'.
attribute species_code long_name String Species Code
attribute species_code units String dimensionless
variable species   String  
attribute species bcodmo_name String species
attribute species description String Scientific name of species (Genus species) at the beginning of the project.
attribute species long_name String Species
attribute species units String text
variable name_change   byte  
attribute name_change _FillValue byte 127
attribute name_change actual_range byte 0, 1
attribute name_change bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute name_change description String Indicates whether or not there has been a name change for the species since the inception of the project (0 = no change, 1 = change).
attribute name_change long_name String Name Change
attribute name_change units String 0 or 1
variable species_new   String  
attribute species_new bcodmo_name String species
attribute species_new description String Currently recognized scientific name of species (should match "SpeciesName" if "NameChange" = 0, and should contain the more recent version of the name if "NameChange" = 1). Column originally named 'NewName'.
attribute species_new long_name String Species New
attribute species_new units String text
variable common_name   String  
attribute common_name bcodmo_name String common_name
attribute common_name description String Common name of the species.
attribute common_name long_name String Common Name
attribute common_name units String text
variable family   String  
attribute family bcodmo_name String family
attribute family description String Family of species.
attribute family long_name String Family
attribute family units String text
variable transient   byte  
attribute transient _FillValue byte 127
attribute transient actual_range byte 0, 1
attribute transient bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute transient description String Takes value of 1 if species is primarily transient at the experimental reef scale and 0 otherwise.
attribute transient long_name String Transient
attribute transient units String 0 or 1
variable piscivore   byte  
attribute piscivore _FillValue byte 127
attribute piscivore actual_range byte 0, 1
attribute piscivore bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute piscivore description String Takes value of 1 if species is primarily a piscivore and 0 otherwise.
attribute piscivore long_name String Piscivore
attribute piscivore units String 0 or 1
variable herbivore   byte  
attribute herbivore _FillValue byte 127
attribute herbivore actual_range byte 0, 1
attribute herbivore bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute herbivore description String Takes value of 1 if species is primarily an herbivore and 0 otherwise.
attribute herbivore long_name String Herbivore
attribute herbivore units String 0 or 1
variable mature_lt_5cm   byte  
attribute mature_lt_5cm _FillValue byte 127
attribute mature_lt_5cm actual_range byte 0, 1
attribute mature_lt_5cm bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute mature_lt_5cm description String Takes value of 1 if species reaches reproductive maturity at a TL of less than or equal to 5 cm and 0 otherwise. Originally named 'MatLess5'.
attribute mature_lt_5cm long_name String Mature Lt 5cm
attribute mature_lt_5cm units String 0 or 1
variable obligate_cleaner   byte  
attribute obligate_cleaner _FillValue byte 127
attribute obligate_cleaner actual_range byte 0, 1
attribute obligate_cleaner bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute obligate_cleaner description String Takes value of 1 if species is documented as an obligate cleaner and 0 otherwise.
attribute obligate_cleaner long_name String Obligate Cleaner
attribute obligate_cleaner units String 0 or 1
variable faculative_cleaner   byte  
attribute faculative_cleaner _FillValue byte 127
attribute faculative_cleaner actual_range byte 0, 1
attribute faculative_cleaner bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute faculative_cleaner description String Takes value of 1 if species is documented as a faculative cleaner and 0 otherwise.
attribute faculative_cleaner long_name String Faculative Cleaner
attribute faculative_cleaner units String 0 or 1
variable invertebrate   byte  
attribute invertebrate _FillValue byte 127
attribute invertebrate actual_range byte 0, 1
attribute invertebrate bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute invertebrate description String Takes value of 1 if species is an invertebrate and 0 if species is a fish.
attribute invertebrate long_name String Invertebrate
attribute invertebrate units String 0 or 1
variable LW_a   float  
attribute LW_a _FillValue float NaN
attribute LW_a actual_range float 1.0E-5, 1.22482
attribute LW_a bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute LW_a description String Parameter "a" in corrected length-weight conversion equation used for biomass calculations.
attribute LW_a long_name String LW A
attribute LW_a units String numeric
variable LW_b   float  
attribute LW_b _FillValue float NaN
attribute LW_b actual_range float 1.75112, 3.84677
attribute LW_b bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute LW_b description String Parameter "b" in corrected length-weight conversion equation used for biomass calculations.
attribute LW_b long_name String LW B
attribute LW_b units String numeric
variable LW_c   float  
attribute LW_c _FillValue float NaN
attribute LW_c actual_range float 0.7704, 10.0
attribute LW_c bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute LW_c description String Standard length to total length conversion parameter (LWc = 1 if "a" and "b" were fit on total length and LWc equals ratio of SL to TL if "a" and "b" were fit on standard length.
attribute LW_c long_name String LW C
attribute LW_c units String numeric
variable LW_ref   byte  
attribute LW_ref _FillValue byte 127
attribute LW_ref actual_range byte 2, 16
attribute LW_ref bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute LW_ref description String Reference code identifying source of LW conversion parameters.
attribute LW_ref long_name String LW Ref
attribute LW_ref units String code
variable species_substitute   String  
attribute species_substitute bcodmo_name String species
attribute species_substitute description String Name of substitute species used for LW conversion parameters (if parameters could not be found for a given species those for a similarly shaped species were used - SubSp is equal to "na" if parameters for the actual species were used).
attribute species_substitute long_name String Species Substitute
attribute species_substitute units String text

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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