Accessing BCO-DMO data
log in    
Brought to you by BCO-DMO    

ERDDAP > info > bcodmo_dataset_3907

Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Cleaner and host species observed on Bahamian reefs under varying experimental conditions in
Eleuthera, Bahamas in 2012 (Lionfish Invasion project)
   ?     I   M   background (external link) RSS Subscribe BCO-DMO bcodmo_dataset_3907

The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String An experiment on Bahamian reefs was conducted in which cleaning stations were
observed after placing clear-plastic bottles in random sequence next to the
station: one with an invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans) inside, one with an
ecologically similar native predator (graysby grouper, Cephalopholis
cruentata), and one as an empty bottle control. For many 10-minute intervals
at each of 6 cleaning stations, all cleaners and clients within 2 m of the
bottle were recorded and their total lengths were estimated (to the nearest
cm). The time spent cleaning or being cleaned was also recorded.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 55160
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-0851162
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=0851162 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Lionfish-cleaner bottle experiment
(From sub-project "Lionfish Cleaner bottle expt 2012")
Lead PI: Mark Hixon (OSU)
Sub-Project Lead: Lillian J. Tuttle (OSU)
Version: 03 April 2013
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2013-04-08T15:35:40Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-10-28T17:33:02Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.3907.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double -76.32305
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double 24.81488
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double 24.77438
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double -76.32305
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double -76.34968
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3907 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, cleaner1, cleaner2, cleaner3, client, code, data, dataset, date, descrip, dmo, elapsed, end, erddap, latitude, len, len_tot_cleaner1, len_tot_cleaner2, len_tot_cleaner3, len_tot_client, longitude, management, notes, oceanography, office, preliminary, sequence, site, species, species_cleaner1, species_cleaner2, species_cleaner3, species_client, species_code_cleaner1, species_code_cleaner2, species_code_cleaner3, species_code_client, start, station, station_descrip, time, time_elapsed, time_end, time_start, tot, treatment
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3907/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/3907 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double 24.81488
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'3907': {'lat': 'master - latitude', 'lon': 'master - longitude'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/3907/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String Oregon State University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String OSU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Mark Hixon
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 51647
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Lead Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Oregon State University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String OSU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Lillian J Tuttle
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 51662
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Scientist
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Shannon Rauch
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 51498
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Lionfish Invasion
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Lionfish Invasion
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String Invasive species are increasingly introduced by human activities to new regions of the world where those species have never existed previously. In the absence of natural enemies (predators, competitors, and diseases) from their homeland, invasives may have strong negative effects on invaded ecosystems, especially systems with fewer species ("ecological release"), and may even drive native species extinct. However, if native natural enemies can somehow control the invaders ("ecological resistance"), then ecological disruption can be prevented or at least moderated. Most of the many invasive species in the sea have been seaweeds and invertebrates, and the few documented invasive marine fishes have not caused major problems. However, this situation has recently changed in a stunning and ominous way. In the early 1990s, lionfish (Pterois volitans) from the Pacific Ocean were accidentally or intentionally released from aquaria to the ocean in the vicinity of Florida. Camouflaged by shape and color, protected by venomous spines, consuming native coral-reef fishes voraciously, and reproducing rapidly, lionfish have subsequently undergone a population explosion. They now range from the mid-Atlantic coast of the US to the Caribbean, including the Bahamas. Native Atlantic fishes have never before encountered this spiny, stealthy, efficient predator and seldom take evasive action. In fact, the investigator has documented that a single lionfish is capable of reducing the abundance of small fish on a small coral patch reef by nearly 80% in just 5 weeks. There is great concern that invasive lionfish may severely reduce the abundance of native coral-reef fishes important as food for humans (e.g., grouper and snapper in their juvenile stages) as well as species that normally maintain the integrity of coral reefs (e.g., grazing parrotfishes that can prevent seaweeds from smothering corals). There are far more species of coral-reef fish in the Pacific than the Atlantic, so this invasion may represent a case of extreme ecological release with minor ecological resistance. Dr. Hixon and colleagues will study the mechanisms of ecological release in lionfish, as well as examine potential sources of ecological resistance in the heavily invaded Bahamas. Because very little is known about the ecology and behavior of lionfish in their native Pacific range, he will also conduct comparative studies in both oceans, which may provide clues regarding the extreme success of this invasion. In the Bahamas, the investigator will document the direct and indirect effects on native species of the ecological release of lionfish, both as a predator and as a competitor. These studies will be conducted at various scales of time and space, from short-term experiments on small patch reefs, to long-term experiments and observations on large reefs. Whereas direct effects involve mostly changes in the abundance of native species, indirect effects can be highly variable. For example, lionfish may actually indirectly benefit some native species by either consuming or outcompeting the competitors of those natives. The project will explore possible ecological resistance to the invasion by determining whether any native Bahamian species are effective natural enemies of lionfish, including predators, parasites, and competitors of both juvenile and adult lionfish. Comparative studies of natural enemies, as well as lionfish ecology and behavior, in both the Atlantic and the Pacific may provide clues regarding the explosive spread of lionfish in the Atlantic.
Regarding broader impacts, this basic research will provide information valuable to coral-reef and fisheries managers fighting the lionfish invasion in the US, the Bahamas, and the greater Caribbean, especially if sources of native ecological resistance are identified. The study will fund the PhD research of U.S. graduate students, as well as involve assistance and participation by a broad variety of undergraduates and reef/fisheries managers, including women, minorities, native Bahamians, and native Pacific islanders. Participation in this project will promote education in marine ecology and conservation biology directly via Dr. Hixon's and graduate students' teaching and outreach activities, and indirectly via the experiences of undergraduate field assistants and various associates.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2012-11
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Bahamas; Cayman Islands; Mariana Islands; Philippines
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Ecological Release and Resistance at Sea: Invasion of Atlantic Coral Reefs by Pacific Lionfish
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 2256
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_website String http://hixon.science.oregonstate.edu/content/highlight-lionfish-invasion (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2009-06
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double 24.77438
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Cleaner and host species observed on Bahamian reefs under varying experimental conditions in Eleuthera, Bahamas in 2012 (Lionfish Invasion project).
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Cleaner and host species observed on Bahamian reefs under varying experimental conditions in Eleuthera, Bahamas in 2012 (Lionfish Invasion project)
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double -76.34968
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable site   String  
attribute site bcodmo_name String site
attribute site description String Name of reef on which the trial was run.
attribute site long_name String Site
attribute site units String text
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double 24.77438, 24.81488
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude bcodmo_name String latitude
attribute latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute latitude description String Latitude of the experiment site.
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double -76.34968, -76.32305
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude bcodmo_name String longitude
attribute longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute longitude description String Longitude of the experiment site.
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable station_descrip   String  
attribute station_descrip bcodmo_name String site_descrip
attribute station_descrip description String Identifying characteristics of cleaning station used in trial.
attribute station_descrip long_name String Station Descrip
attribute station_descrip units String text
variable treatment   String  
attribute treatment bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute treatment description String What the bottle contained during the observation period.
CECR = Cephalopholis cruentata (gatsby grouper)
PTVO = Pterois volitans (lionfish)
attribute treatment long_name String Treatment
attribute treatment units String text
variable date   String  
attribute date bcodmo_name String date
attribute date description String Date on which trial was run in mm/dd/YYYY format.
attribute date long_name String Date
attribute date nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/ (external link)
attribute date source_name String date
attribute date time_precision String 1970-01-01
attribute date units String unitless
variable time_start   float  
attribute time_start _FillValue float NaN
attribute time_start actual_range float 1001.0, 1657.77
attribute time_start bcodmo_name String time_start
attribute time_start description String Time when observation period began; 24-hour clock. Converted from HH:MM:SS format to hours, minutes, and decimal minutes.
attribute time_start long_name String Time Start
attribute time_start units String HHMM.mm
variable time_end   float  
attribute time_end _FillValue float NaN
attribute time_end actual_range float 1011.0, 1707.77
attribute time_end bcodmo_name String time_end
attribute time_end description String Time when observation period ended; 24-hour clock. Converted from HH:MM:SS format to hours, minutes, and decimal minutes.
attribute time_end long_name String Time End
attribute time_end units String HHMM.mm
variable time_elapsed   String  
attribute time_elapsed bcodmo_name String time_elapsed
attribute time_elapsed description String How long the observation period lasted, in minutes and seconds.
attribute time_elapsed long_name String Time Elapsed
attribute time_elapsed nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ELTMZZZZ/ (external link)
attribute time_elapsed units String MM:SS
variable sequence   byte  
attribute sequence _FillValue byte 127
attribute sequence actual_range byte 1, 3
attribute sequence bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute sequence description String Order in which the treatment was executed, in relation to other 2 treatments (either first="1", second="2", or third="3").
attribute sequence long_name String Sequence
attribute sequence units String dimensionless
variable species_cleaner1   String  
attribute species_cleaner1 bcodmo_name String species
attribute species_cleaner1 description String Name of first cleaner species observed.
attribute species_cleaner1 long_name String Species Cleaner1
attribute species_cleaner1 units String text
variable species_code_cleaner1   String  
attribute species_code_cleaner1 bcodmo_name String taxon_code
attribute species_code_cleaner1 description String Species code of first cleaner organism.
attribute species_code_cleaner1 long_name String Species Code Cleaner1
attribute species_code_cleaner1 units String text (code)
variable len_tot_cleaner1   float  
attribute len_tot_cleaner1 _FillValue float NaN
attribute len_tot_cleaner1 actual_range float 1.0, 7.0
attribute len_tot_cleaner1 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute len_tot_cleaner1 description String Estimated total length of first cleaner in centimeters.
attribute len_tot_cleaner1 long_name String Len Tot Cleaner1
attribute len_tot_cleaner1 units String cm
variable species_cleaner2   String  
attribute species_cleaner2 bcodmo_name String species
attribute species_cleaner2 description String Name of second cleaner species observed.
attribute species_cleaner2 long_name String Species Cleaner2
attribute species_cleaner2 units String text
variable species_code_cleaner2   String  
attribute species_code_cleaner2 bcodmo_name String taxon_code
attribute species_code_cleaner2 description String Species code of second cleaner organism.
attribute species_code_cleaner2 long_name String Species Code Cleaner2
attribute species_code_cleaner2 units String text (code)
variable len_tot_cleaner2   float  
attribute len_tot_cleaner2 _FillValue float NaN
attribute len_tot_cleaner2 actual_range float 1.0, 6.0
attribute len_tot_cleaner2 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute len_tot_cleaner2 description String Estimated total length of second cleaner in centimeters.
attribute len_tot_cleaner2 long_name String Len Tot Cleaner2
attribute len_tot_cleaner2 units String cm
variable species_cleaner3   String  
attribute species_cleaner3 bcodmo_name String species
attribute species_cleaner3 description String Name of third cleaner species observed.
attribute species_cleaner3 long_name String Species Cleaner3
attribute species_cleaner3 units String text
variable species_code_cleaner3   String  
attribute species_code_cleaner3 bcodmo_name String taxon_code
attribute species_code_cleaner3 description String Species code of third cleaner organism.
attribute species_code_cleaner3 long_name String Species Code Cleaner3
attribute species_code_cleaner3 units String text (code)
variable len_tot_cleaner3   float  
attribute len_tot_cleaner3 _FillValue float NaN
attribute len_tot_cleaner3 actual_range float 2.0, 5.0
attribute len_tot_cleaner3 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute len_tot_cleaner3 description String Estimated total length of third cleaner in centimeters.
attribute len_tot_cleaner3 long_name String Len Tot Cleaner3
attribute len_tot_cleaner3 units String cm
variable species_client   String  
attribute species_client bcodmo_name String species
attribute species_client description String Name of the client species.
attribute species_client long_name String Species Client
attribute species_client units String text
variable species_code_client   String  
attribute species_code_client bcodmo_name String taxon_code
attribute species_code_client description String Species code of client fish being cleaned by cleaner(s) in corresponding row.
attribute species_code_client long_name String Species Code Client
attribute species_code_client units String text (code)
variable len_tot_client   byte  
attribute len_tot_client _FillValue byte 127
attribute len_tot_client actual_range byte 4, 40
attribute len_tot_client bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute len_tot_client description String Estimated total length of client in centimeters.
attribute len_tot_client long_name String Len Tot Client
attribute len_tot_client units String cm
variable notes   String  
attribute notes bcodmo_name String comment
attribute notes description String Notes related to the observations or trial.
attribute notes long_name String Notes
attribute notes units String text

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

ERDDAP, Version 2.02
Disclaimers | Privacy Policy | Contact