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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Record of lionfish sighted and/or collected near Little Cayman Island, 2010 (Lionfish
Invasion project)
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Information was recorded on all invasive lionfish sighted (including lionfish
that were collected) during fieldwork at Little Cayman island, Cayman Islands
from 03 Feb to 20 Aug 2010.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 55160
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-0851162
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=0851162 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Lionfish Sighted and/or Collected at Little Cayman Island, 2010
(From sub-project "Little Caymna 2010 lionfish sightings and
collections database")
Lead PI: Mark Hixon (OSU)
Sub-Project Lead: Tye L. Kindinger (OSU)
Version: 03 July 2013
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2013-07-05T20:02:50Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-11-12T20:24:38Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.3989.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double -79.95831
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double 19.71462
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double 19.6566
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double -79.95831
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double -80.1069
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3989 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, clipped, data, dataset, date, date_found, depth, depth_ft, dmo, dorsal, dorsal_spine_clipped, erddap, est, fish, fish_id, found, latitude, len, len_tot, len_tot_est, longitude, management, notes, num, oceanography, office, orientation, person, preliminary, site, spine, tag, tag_num, tot, used, used_for
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3989/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/3989 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double 19.71462
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'3989': {'lat': 'master - latitude', 'lon': 'master - longitude', 'depth_ft': 'flag - depth'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/3989/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String Oregon State University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String OSU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Mark Hixon
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 51647
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Lead Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Oregon State University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String OSU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Tye L. Kindinger
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 51707
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Scientist
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Shannon Rauch
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 51498
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Lionfish Invasion
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Lionfish Invasion
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String Invasive species are increasingly introduced by human activities to new regions of the world where those species have never existed previously. In the absence of natural enemies (predators, competitors, and diseases) from their homeland, invasives may have strong negative effects on invaded ecosystems, especially systems with fewer species ("ecological release"), and may even drive native species extinct. However, if native natural enemies can somehow control the invaders ("ecological resistance"), then ecological disruption can be prevented or at least moderated. Most of the many invasive species in the sea have been seaweeds and invertebrates, and the few documented invasive marine fishes have not caused major problems. However, this situation has recently changed in a stunning and ominous way. In the early 1990s, lionfish (Pterois volitans) from the Pacific Ocean were accidentally or intentionally released from aquaria to the ocean in the vicinity of Florida. Camouflaged by shape and color, protected by venomous spines, consuming native coral-reef fishes voraciously, and reproducing rapidly, lionfish have subsequently undergone a population explosion. They now range from the mid-Atlantic coast of the US to the Caribbean, including the Bahamas. Native Atlantic fishes have never before encountered this spiny, stealthy, efficient predator and seldom take evasive action. In fact, the investigator has documented that a single lionfish is capable of reducing the abundance of small fish on a small coral patch reef by nearly 80% in just 5 weeks. There is great concern that invasive lionfish may severely reduce the abundance of native coral-reef fishes important as food for humans (e.g., grouper and snapper in their juvenile stages) as well as species that normally maintain the integrity of coral reefs (e.g., grazing parrotfishes that can prevent seaweeds from smothering corals). There are far more species of coral-reef fish in the Pacific than the Atlantic, so this invasion may represent a case of extreme ecological release with minor ecological resistance. Dr. Hixon and colleagues will study the mechanisms of ecological release in lionfish, as well as examine potential sources of ecological resistance in the heavily invaded Bahamas. Because very little is known about the ecology and behavior of lionfish in their native Pacific range, he will also conduct comparative studies in both oceans, which may provide clues regarding the extreme success of this invasion. In the Bahamas, the investigator will document the direct and indirect effects on native species of the ecological release of lionfish, both as a predator and as a competitor. These studies will be conducted at various scales of time and space, from short-term experiments on small patch reefs, to long-term experiments and observations on large reefs. Whereas direct effects involve mostly changes in the abundance of native species, indirect effects can be highly variable. For example, lionfish may actually indirectly benefit some native species by either consuming or outcompeting the competitors of those natives. The project will explore possible ecological resistance to the invasion by determining whether any native Bahamian species are effective natural enemies of lionfish, including predators, parasites, and competitors of both juvenile and adult lionfish. Comparative studies of natural enemies, as well as lionfish ecology and behavior, in both the Atlantic and the Pacific may provide clues regarding the explosive spread of lionfish in the Atlantic.
Regarding broader impacts, this basic research will provide information valuable to coral-reef and fisheries managers fighting the lionfish invasion in the US, the Bahamas, and the greater Caribbean, especially if sources of native ecological resistance are identified. The study will fund the PhD research of U.S. graduate students, as well as involve assistance and participation by a broad variety of undergraduates and reef/fisheries managers, including women, minorities, native Bahamians, and native Pacific islanders. Participation in this project will promote education in marine ecology and conservation biology directly via Dr. Hixon's and graduate students' teaching and outreach activities, and indirectly via the experiences of undergraduate field assistants and various associates.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2012-11
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Bahamas; Cayman Islands; Mariana Islands; Philippines
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Ecological Release and Resistance at Sea: Invasion of Atlantic Coral Reefs by Pacific Lionfish
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 2256
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_website String http://hixon.science.oregonstate.edu/content/highlight-lionfish-invasion (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2009-06
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double 19.6566
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String This dataset includes dates, locations, and biological information (e.g. length) of all lionfish (Pterois volitans) that were observed and/or collected during field studies at coral reefs near Little Cayman Island, Cayman Islands during the summer of 2010. This dataset includes both lionfish that were sighted (but not handled) and those that were collected.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Record of lionfish sighted and/or collected near Little Cayman Island, 2010 (Lionfish Invasion project)
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double -80.1069
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable site   String  
attribute site bcodmo_name String site
attribute site description String Name of the dive site.
attribute site long_name String Site
attribute site units String code
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double 19.6566, 19.71462
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude bcodmo_name String latitude
attribute latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute latitude description String Latitude of the reef site.
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double -80.1069, -79.95831
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude bcodmo_name String longitude
attribute longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute longitude description String Longitude of the reef site.
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable fish_id   short  
attribute fish_id _FillValue short 32767
attribute fish_id actual_range short 1, 219
attribute fish_id bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute fish_id description String Unique ID code for each lionfish.
attribute fish_id long_name String Fish Id
attribute fish_id units String code
variable date_found   String  
attribute date_found bcodmo_name String date
attribute date_found description String The date that the lionfish was first observed or collected in mm/dd/YYYY format.
attribute date_found long_name String Date Found
attribute date_found nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/ (external link)
attribute date_found units String unitless
variable location   String  
attribute location bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute location description String Description of specific location within dive sites where lionfish were discovered.
attribute location long_name String Location
attribute location units String text
variable depth_ft   double  
attribute depth_ft _FillValue double NaN
attribute depth_ft actual_range double 25.0, 39.0
attribute depth_ft bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute depth_ft colorBarMaximum double 8000.0
attribute depth_ft colorBarMinimum double -8000.0
attribute depth_ft colorBarPalette String TopographyDepth
attribute depth_ft description String Depth where lionfish were discovered (in feet).
attribute depth_ft long_name String Depth
attribute depth_ft standard_name String depth
attribute depth_ft units String feet
variable len_tot_est   float  
attribute len_tot_est _FillValue float NaN
attribute len_tot_est actual_range float 7.0, 30.0
attribute len_tot_est bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute len_tot_est description String Underwater visual estimates of total body length of lionfish (cenimeters).
attribute len_tot_est long_name String Len Tot Est
attribute len_tot_est units String cm
variable len_tot   float  
attribute len_tot _FillValue float NaN
attribute len_tot actual_range float 2.4, 31.2
attribute len_tot bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute len_tot description String If lionfish were collected, lionfish total body length was measured (in centimeters).
attribute len_tot long_name String Len Tot
attribute len_tot units String cm
variable dorsal_spine_clipped   String  
attribute dorsal_spine_clipped bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute dorsal_spine_clipped description String Dorsal spines clipped for identification.
number = which dorsal spines (1-13, head to caudal) were clipped.
attribute dorsal_spine_clipped long_name String Dorsal Spine Clipped
attribute dorsal_spine_clipped units String code
variable tag_num   String  
attribute tag_num bcodmo_name String tagid
attribute tag_num description String Description of tag location:
elastomer tag code = side of body - tag color + position. (e.g. L-RUC = left side - red tag on upper caudal);
streamer tag code = tag color + ID number (e.g. Black 005)
attribute tag_num long_name String Tag Num
attribute tag_num units String code
variable orientation   String  
attribute orientation bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute orientation description String Description of body positioning of each lionfish.
attribute orientation long_name String Orientation
attribute orientation units String text
variable person   String  
attribute person bcodmo_name String person
attribute person description String Person who observed individual lionfish (MH = Mark Hixon; FM = Flower Moye; TK = Tye Kindinger; CB = Casey Benkwitt; LT = Lillian Tuttle;BOB = divemaster Bob from Pirate's Cove Resort; Neil = Neil Van Niekerk)
attribute person long_name String Person
attribute person units String text
variable used_for   String  
attribute used_for bcodmo_name String comment
attribute used_for description String Which studies individual lionfish were used (if any):
Growth & Survival = comparative lionfish growth study (Pacific vs. Atlantic lionfish)
Time Budget = comparative lionfish behavior study (Pacific vs. Atlantic lionfish)
Parasites = comparative lionfish parasite study (Pacific vs. Atlantic lionfish)
Otoliths, Fin Clips, Gut Contents = additional data collected from lionfish to enhance understanding of lionfish biology
attribute used_for long_name String Used For
attribute used_for units String text
variable notes   String  
attribute notes bcodmo_name String comment
attribute notes description String Additional notes about lionfish observed.
attribute notes long_name String Notes
attribute notes units String text

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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