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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Lionfish movements to/from reefs observed during study of effect of density on lionfish
behavior at Eleuthera, Bahamas in 2012 (Lionfish Invasion project)
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Each reef was visited at three times of day: dawn, midday, and dusk, and two
focal lionfish were observed during each visit at each reef. Focal lionfish
were observed for 10 minute intervals and all activity was recorded. The
number of lionfish on each reef was counted at the beginning of the
observation period and again at the end, to get a measure of how many were
leaving/returning to the reef from the surrounding seagrass.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 55160
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-0851162
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=0851162 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Summary of Lionfish Movements to/from Reefs
(From sub-project "Effect of invasive lionfish density on behavior")
Lead PI: Mark Hixon (OSU)
Sub-Project Lead: Cassandra E. Benkwitt (OSU)
Version: 08 July 2013
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2013-07-09T14:01:07Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-11-12T20:29:52Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.3991.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double -76.24447
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double 24.87336
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double 24.79488
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double -76.24447
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double -76.28902
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3991 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String area, bco, bco-dmo, biological, change, change_in_count, change_in_density, chemical, count, count_end, count_start, data, dataset, date, day, density, density_end, density_start, dmo, end, erddap, highest, highest_count, highest_density, latitude, longitude, management, oceanography, office, preliminary, site, start, surface, surface_area, time, time_of_day
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3991/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/3991 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double 24.87336
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'3991': {'lat': 'master - latitude', 'lon': 'master - longitude'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/3991/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String Oregon State University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String OSU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Mark Hixon
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 51647
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Lead Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Oregon State University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String OSU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Cassandra E. Benkwitt
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 51706
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Scientist
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Shannon Rauch
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 51498
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Lionfish Invasion
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Lionfish Invasion
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String Invasive species are increasingly introduced by human activities to new regions of the world where those species have never existed previously. In the absence of natural enemies (predators, competitors, and diseases) from their homeland, invasives may have strong negative effects on invaded ecosystems, especially systems with fewer species ("ecological release"), and may even drive native species extinct. However, if native natural enemies can somehow control the invaders ("ecological resistance"), then ecological disruption can be prevented or at least moderated. Most of the many invasive species in the sea have been seaweeds and invertebrates, and the few documented invasive marine fishes have not caused major problems. However, this situation has recently changed in a stunning and ominous way. In the early 1990s, lionfish (Pterois volitans) from the Pacific Ocean were accidentally or intentionally released from aquaria to the ocean in the vicinity of Florida. Camouflaged by shape and color, protected by venomous spines, consuming native coral-reef fishes voraciously, and reproducing rapidly, lionfish have subsequently undergone a population explosion. They now range from the mid-Atlantic coast of the US to the Caribbean, including the Bahamas. Native Atlantic fishes have never before encountered this spiny, stealthy, efficient predator and seldom take evasive action. In fact, the investigator has documented that a single lionfish is capable of reducing the abundance of small fish on a small coral patch reef by nearly 80% in just 5 weeks. There is great concern that invasive lionfish may severely reduce the abundance of native coral-reef fishes important as food for humans (e.g., grouper and snapper in their juvenile stages) as well as species that normally maintain the integrity of coral reefs (e.g., grazing parrotfishes that can prevent seaweeds from smothering corals). There are far more species of coral-reef fish in the Pacific than the Atlantic, so this invasion may represent a case of extreme ecological release with minor ecological resistance. Dr. Hixon and colleagues will study the mechanisms of ecological release in lionfish, as well as examine potential sources of ecological resistance in the heavily invaded Bahamas. Because very little is known about the ecology and behavior of lionfish in their native Pacific range, he will also conduct comparative studies in both oceans, which may provide clues regarding the extreme success of this invasion. In the Bahamas, the investigator will document the direct and indirect effects on native species of the ecological release of lionfish, both as a predator and as a competitor. These studies will be conducted at various scales of time and space, from short-term experiments on small patch reefs, to long-term experiments and observations on large reefs. Whereas direct effects involve mostly changes in the abundance of native species, indirect effects can be highly variable. For example, lionfish may actually indirectly benefit some native species by either consuming or outcompeting the competitors of those natives. The project will explore possible ecological resistance to the invasion by determining whether any native Bahamian species are effective natural enemies of lionfish, including predators, parasites, and competitors of both juvenile and adult lionfish. Comparative studies of natural enemies, as well as lionfish ecology and behavior, in both the Atlantic and the Pacific may provide clues regarding the explosive spread of lionfish in the Atlantic.
Regarding broader impacts, this basic research will provide information valuable to coral-reef and fisheries managers fighting the lionfish invasion in the US, the Bahamas, and the greater Caribbean, especially if sources of native ecological resistance are identified. The study will fund the PhD research of U.S. graduate students, as well as involve assistance and participation by a broad variety of undergraduates and reef/fisheries managers, including women, minorities, native Bahamians, and native Pacific islanders. Participation in this project will promote education in marine ecology and conservation biology directly via Dr. Hixon's and graduate students' teaching and outreach activities, and indirectly via the experiences of undergraduate field assistants and various associates.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2012-11
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Bahamas; Cayman Islands; Mariana Islands; Philippines
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Ecological Release and Resistance at Sea: Invasion of Atlantic Coral Reefs by Pacific Lionfish
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 2256
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_website String http://hixon.science.oregonstate.edu/content/highlight-lionfish-invasion (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2009-06
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double 24.79488
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String An observational field study was conducted on natural patch reefs with varying lionfish densities to determine if local invasive lionfish density affects lionfish behavior. This dataset contains counts of lionfish present on reefs at the start and end of each reef visit, to get a measure of collective foraging range. The observations took place on natural reefs near Rock Sound, Eleuthera, Bahamas from 16 July to 30 August 2012.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Lionfish movements to/from reefs observed during study of effect of density on lionfish behavior at Eleuthera, Bahamas in 2012 (Lionfish Invasion project)
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double -76.28902
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable site   String  
attribute site bcodmo_name String site
attribute site description String Name of individual reef site.
attribute site long_name String Site
attribute site units String text
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double 24.79488, 24.87336
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude bcodmo_name String latitude
attribute latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute latitude description String Latitude of the reef site.
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double -76.28902, -76.24447
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude bcodmo_name String longitude
attribute longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute longitude description String Longitude of the reef site.
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable surface_area   float  
attribute surface_area _FillValue float NaN
attribute surface_area actual_range float 4.79, 32.99
attribute surface_area bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute surface_area description String Surface area of reef (meters squared).
attribute surface_area long_name String Surface Area
attribute surface_area units String m^2
variable time_of_day   String  
attribute time_of_day bcodmo_name String time_of_day
attribute time_of_day description String Classified as Dawn, Midday, or Dusk
attribute time_of_day long_name String Time Of Day
attribute time_of_day units String text
variable date   String  
attribute date bcodmo_name String date
attribute date description String Date of observation (month/day/year) in mm/dd/YYYY format.
attribute date long_name String Date
attribute date nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/ (external link)
attribute date source_name String date
attribute date time_precision String 1970-01-01
attribute date units String unitless
variable count_start   byte  
attribute count_start _FillValue byte 127
attribute count_start actual_range byte 0, 16
attribute count_start bcodmo_name String count
attribute count_start colorBarMaximum double 100.0
attribute count_start colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute count_start description String Number of lionfish present at the reef at the start of the observation.
attribute count_start long_name String Count Start
attribute count_start units String integer
variable count_end   byte  
attribute count_end _FillValue byte 127
attribute count_end actual_range byte 1, 16
attribute count_end bcodmo_name String count
attribute count_end colorBarMaximum double 100.0
attribute count_end colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute count_end description String Number of lionfish present at the reef at the end of the observation.
attribute count_end long_name String Count End
attribute count_end units String integer
variable density_start   float  
attribute density_start _FillValue float NaN
attribute density_start actual_range float 0.0, 1.01
attribute density_start bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute density_start description String Lionfish density at site at the start of the observation (number of lionfish per meter squared).
attribute density_start long_name String Density Start
attribute density_start units String #/m^2
variable density_end   float  
attribute density_end _FillValue float NaN
attribute density_end actual_range float 0.04, 1.01
attribute density_end bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute density_end description String Lionfish density at site at the end of the observation (number of lionfish per meter squared).
attribute density_end long_name String Density End
attribute density_end units String #/m^2
variable change_in_count   byte  
attribute change_in_count _FillValue byte 127
attribute change_in_count actual_range byte -5, 10
attribute change_in_count bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute change_in_count colorBarMaximum double 100.0
attribute change_in_count colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute change_in_count description String Change in number of lionfish on reef from the start of the observation to the end of the observation.
attribute change_in_count long_name String Change In Count
attribute change_in_count units String integer
variable change_in_density   float  
attribute change_in_density _FillValue float NaN
attribute change_in_density actual_range float -0.63, 0.37
attribute change_in_density bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute change_in_density description String Change in density of lionfish on reef from the start of the observation to the end of the observation (number per meter squared).
attribute change_in_density long_name String Change In Density
attribute change_in_density units String #/m^2
variable highest_count   byte  
attribute highest_count _FillValue byte 127
attribute highest_count actual_range byte 1, 16
attribute highest_count bcodmo_name String count
attribute highest_count colorBarMaximum double 100.0
attribute highest_count colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute highest_count description String Highest number of lionfish seen on the reef during any observation period.
attribute highest_count long_name String Highest Count
attribute highest_count units String integer
variable highest_density   float  
attribute highest_density _FillValue float NaN
attribute highest_density actual_range float 0.11, 1.01
attribute highest_density bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute highest_density description String Highest density of lionfish seen on the reef during any observation period (number per meter squared).
attribute highest_density long_name String Highest Density
attribute highest_density units String #/m^2

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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