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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Observations of damselfish (Stegastes planifrons) behavior in the presence of lionfish and
other native fishes at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas and Little Cayman Island in 2011 (Lionfish
Invasion project)
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Field observations were conducted in 2011 at 3 sites in the Bahamas and 3
sites in the Cayman Islands using a model-bottle study design. Twenty
damselfish in the Bahamas and 20 damselfish in the Cayman Islands were
observed. Various coral-reef fishes were placed in clear plastic 1-gallon
bottles and were presented in random order at decreasing distances from
damselfish territories: predatory coney grouper (Cephalopholis fulva), non-
herbivorous white grunt (Haemulon plumierii), herbivorous ocean surgeonfish
(Acanthurus bahianus), invasive lionfish, and an empty bottle control. At each
set distance (1m, 0.5m, and 0m from center of territory), the number of times
the resident damselfish made physical contact with the bottle (strikes) during
a 2-minute observation period was counted. Then, the bottle was placed outside
of the damselfish territory and gradually moved closer to the center of the
territory until the damselfish made physical contact with the bottle. This
latter measure determined how far from their territories damselfish would
strike at each fish species. This procedure was repeated until all 4 fish
species had been presented to each individual damselfish.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 55160
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-0851162
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=0851162 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Damselfish behavioral response to lionfish
(From sub-project "Limits to lionfish population growth:
territorial damselfish")
Lead PI: Mark Hixon (OSU)
Sub-Project Lead: Tye L. Kindinger (OSU)
Version: 09 July 2013
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2013-07-09T15:29:04Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-11-12T20:30:12Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.3992.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double -76.10603
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double 23.8313
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double 19.6989
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double -76.10603
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double -80.06049
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3992 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String attack, attacks, bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, damselfish, damselfish_tot_len, data, dataset, date, depth, depth_ft, dist, dmo, erddap, habitat, half, latitude, len, longitude, management, max, max_attack_dist, num, num_attacks_0m, num_attacks_1m, num_attacks_half_m, oceanography, office, preliminary, site, time, tot, treatment
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3992/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/3992 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double 23.8313
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'3992': {'lat': 'master - latitude', 'lon': 'master - longitude', 'depth_ft': 'flag - depth'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/3992/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String Oregon State University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String OSU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Mark Hixon
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 51647
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Lead Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Oregon State University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String OSU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Tye L. Kindinger
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 51707
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Scientist
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Shannon Rauch
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 51498
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Lionfish Invasion
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Lionfish Invasion
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String Invasive species are increasingly introduced by human activities to new regions of the world where those species have never existed previously. In the absence of natural enemies (predators, competitors, and diseases) from their homeland, invasives may have strong negative effects on invaded ecosystems, especially systems with fewer species ("ecological release"), and may even drive native species extinct. However, if native natural enemies can somehow control the invaders ("ecological resistance"), then ecological disruption can be prevented or at least moderated. Most of the many invasive species in the sea have been seaweeds and invertebrates, and the few documented invasive marine fishes have not caused major problems. However, this situation has recently changed in a stunning and ominous way. In the early 1990s, lionfish (Pterois volitans) from the Pacific Ocean were accidentally or intentionally released from aquaria to the ocean in the vicinity of Florida. Camouflaged by shape and color, protected by venomous spines, consuming native coral-reef fishes voraciously, and reproducing rapidly, lionfish have subsequently undergone a population explosion. They now range from the mid-Atlantic coast of the US to the Caribbean, including the Bahamas. Native Atlantic fishes have never before encountered this spiny, stealthy, efficient predator and seldom take evasive action. In fact, the investigator has documented that a single lionfish is capable of reducing the abundance of small fish on a small coral patch reef by nearly 80% in just 5 weeks. There is great concern that invasive lionfish may severely reduce the abundance of native coral-reef fishes important as food for humans (e.g., grouper and snapper in their juvenile stages) as well as species that normally maintain the integrity of coral reefs (e.g., grazing parrotfishes that can prevent seaweeds from smothering corals). There are far more species of coral-reef fish in the Pacific than the Atlantic, so this invasion may represent a case of extreme ecological release with minor ecological resistance. Dr. Hixon and colleagues will study the mechanisms of ecological release in lionfish, as well as examine potential sources of ecological resistance in the heavily invaded Bahamas. Because very little is known about the ecology and behavior of lionfish in their native Pacific range, he will also conduct comparative studies in both oceans, which may provide clues regarding the extreme success of this invasion. In the Bahamas, the investigator will document the direct and indirect effects on native species of the ecological release of lionfish, both as a predator and as a competitor. These studies will be conducted at various scales of time and space, from short-term experiments on small patch reefs, to long-term experiments and observations on large reefs. Whereas direct effects involve mostly changes in the abundance of native species, indirect effects can be highly variable. For example, lionfish may actually indirectly benefit some native species by either consuming or outcompeting the competitors of those natives. The project will explore possible ecological resistance to the invasion by determining whether any native Bahamian species are effective natural enemies of lionfish, including predators, parasites, and competitors of both juvenile and adult lionfish. Comparative studies of natural enemies, as well as lionfish ecology and behavior, in both the Atlantic and the Pacific may provide clues regarding the explosive spread of lionfish in the Atlantic.
Regarding broader impacts, this basic research will provide information valuable to coral-reef and fisheries managers fighting the lionfish invasion in the US, the Bahamas, and the greater Caribbean, especially if sources of native ecological resistance are identified. The study will fund the PhD research of U.S. graduate students, as well as involve assistance and participation by a broad variety of undergraduates and reef/fisheries managers, including women, minorities, native Bahamians, and native Pacific islanders. Participation in this project will promote education in marine ecology and conservation biology directly via Dr. Hixon's and graduate students' teaching and outreach activities, and indirectly via the experiences of undergraduate field assistants and various associates.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2012-11
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Bahamas; Cayman Islands; Mariana Islands; Philippines
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Ecological Release and Resistance at Sea: Invasion of Atlantic Coral Reefs by Pacific Lionfish
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 2256
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_website String http://hixon.science.oregonstate.edu/content/highlight-lionfish-invasion (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2009-06
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double 19.6989
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String A field study was conducted to determine whether territorial aggression from three-spot damselfish (Stegastes planifrons) could limit local populations of invasive lionfish. The investigators observed damselfish behavior in the presence of lionfish relative to when other native fishes were present.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Observations of damselfish (Stegastes planifrons) behavior in the presence of lionfish and other native fishes at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas and Little Cayman Island in 2011 (Lionfish Invasion project)
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double -80.06049
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable treatment   String  
attribute treatment bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute treatment description String Treatment; type of fish placed in the treatment bottle (empty bottle is the control).
attribute treatment long_name String Treatment
attribute treatment units String text
variable site   String  
attribute site bcodmo_name String site
attribute site description String Name of the reef site.
attribute site long_name String Site
attribute site units String text
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double 19.6989, 23.8313
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude bcodmo_name String latitude
attribute latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute latitude description String Latitude of the reef site.
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double -80.06049, -76.10603
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude bcodmo_name String longitude
attribute longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute longitude description String Longitude of the reef site.
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable location   String  
attribute location bcodmo_name String site
attribute location description String Study location:
Bahamas = sites off of Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas;
Caymans = sites off of Little Cayman Island, Cayman Islands.
attribute location long_name String Location
attribute location units String text
variable damselfish_tot_len   float  
attribute damselfish_tot_len _FillValue float NaN
attribute damselfish_tot_len actual_range float 7.0, 11.0
attribute damselfish_tot_len bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute damselfish_tot_len description String Total body length (in centimeters) of each damselfish observed.
attribute damselfish_tot_len long_name String Damselfish Tot Len
attribute damselfish_tot_len units String cm
variable num_attacks_1m   byte  
attribute num_attacks_1m _FillValue byte 127
attribute num_attacks_1m actual_range byte 0, 44
attribute num_attacks_1m bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute num_attacks_1m description String Number of damselfish attacks per bottle treatment at 1-meter distance from the center of damselfish territory.
attribute num_attacks_1m long_name String Num Attacks 1m
attribute num_attacks_1m units String integer
variable num_attacks_half_m   byte  
attribute num_attacks_half_m _FillValue byte 127
attribute num_attacks_half_m actual_range byte 0, 93
attribute num_attacks_half_m bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute num_attacks_half_m description String Number of damselfish attacks per bottle treatment at 0.5-meter distance from the center of damselfish territory.
attribute num_attacks_half_m long_name String Num Attacks Half M
attribute num_attacks_half_m units String integer
variable num_attacks_0m   byte  
attribute num_attacks_0m _FillValue byte 127
attribute num_attacks_0m actual_range byte 0, 100
attribute num_attacks_0m bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute num_attacks_0m description String Number of damselfish attacks per bottle treatment at 0-meter distance from the center of damselfish territory.
attribute num_attacks_0m long_name String Num Attacks 0m
attribute num_attacks_0m units String integer
variable max_attack_dist   float  
attribute max_attack_dist _FillValue float NaN
attribute max_attack_dist actual_range float 0.0, 1.1
attribute max_attack_dist bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute max_attack_dist description String Greatest distance away from damselfish territory where each damselfish would attack each bottle treatment.
attribute max_attack_dist long_name String Max Attack Dist
attribute max_attack_dist units String meters
variable depth_ft   double  
attribute depth_ft _FillValue double NaN
attribute depth_ft actual_range double 5.0, 35.0
attribute depth_ft bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute depth_ft colorBarMaximum double 8000.0
attribute depth_ft colorBarMinimum double -8000.0
attribute depth_ft colorBarPalette String TopographyDepth
attribute depth_ft description String Depth at observed damselfish territory.
attribute depth_ft long_name String Depth
attribute depth_ft standard_name String depth
attribute depth_ft units String feet
variable habitat   String  
attribute habitat bcodmo_name String site_descrip
attribute habitat description String Code for damselfish habitat:
Dead Acrop = low relief, dead Acropora sp.;
Bommies = coral bommies (high relief);
Low Contin = low relief, continuous reef;
High Contin = high relief, continuous reef.
attribute habitat long_name String Habitat
attribute habitat units String text
variable date   String  
attribute date bcodmo_name String date
attribute date description String Date when data were collected in mm/dd/YYYY format.
attribute date long_name String Date
attribute date nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/ (external link)
attribute date source_name String date
attribute date time_precision String 1970-01-01
attribute date units String unitless

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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