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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Results from experiment examining effects of 4 different dyes on growth rates of
scleractinian corals; from the Cohen lab at WHOI in Woods Hole, MA (OA Nutrition and Coral
Calcification project)
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Methodology as described in Holcomb et al. (2013):

Colonies of the temperate scleractinian coral Astrangia poculata were
collected and processed as previously described. Newly settled polyps and
their associated substratum were attached to slides. The slides with corals
were suspended vertically in a flow-through aquarium receiving 20 micrometers
filtered Vineyard Sound seawater. Corals experienced a temperature range of 14
to 30 degrees C. Aquaria were aerated, and corals were maintained under these
conditions for at least one month prior to use in experiments. A mixture of
brown and white colonies (zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate colonies) was
used for all treatments.

For the marking experiments, corals were placed in pre-washed containers with
lids containing ~800 ml of water from the source aquarium. Airstones were
added to each container and each container bubbled continuously. Containers
were held within a water bath with a temperature similar to that of the source

One of four dyes was used to mark the coral skeleton: alizarin red S (sodium
salt \u2013 Alfa Aesar 42040 lot E22R017 \u2013 referred to as alizarin),
alizarin complexone (Alfa Aesar A16699 lot E8180A), calcein (Alfa Aesar L10255
lot USLF006789), and oxytetracycline HCl (USB 23659 lot 113648).

The dye experiments took place from March to October 2009. Growth rates were
estimated via alkalinity depletion measurements the day before (pre-
treatment), the day of (treatment), and the day after (post-treatment) dye
exposure. The alkalinity incubations were about 24 hours in duration (one full
light-dark cycle). Temperatures ranged from 25 to 26 degrees C. Four to seven
corals were used in each treatment, each in a separate incubation container.
Irradiance in each container, measured using a diving-PAM underwater quantum
sensor (WALZ), ranged from 10 to 40 micromoles photons/m^2/sec.

Samples for alkalinity were taken from each container about 1 hour after the
corals were added, and once again at the end of the incubation. Salinity and
pH were also measured at the end of each incubation for each container (and at
the start for a sub-set of the containers). Aragonite deposition was assumed
to be the only process affecting alkalinity, with 2 mol alkalinity consumed
per mol of CaCO3 deposited. Alkalinity depletion rates were corrected for
evaporation and background rates measured in the control containers (the
control containers contained no slides).

Alkalinity was measured via titration with 0.01 N HCl containing 40.7 g NaCl/l
using a Metrohm Titrando 808 Dosimat and a 730 Sample Changer controlled by
Tiamo software to perform automated normalized Gran titrations of 1 ml
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 54896
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1041106
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1041106 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Coral growth (species <i>Astrangia poculata</i>) dye experiments
PI: Anne Cohen (WHOI)
Contact: Michael Holcomb
Version: 31 Jan 2014
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2014-01-31T20:25:18Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-11-14T19:52:03Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &amp;time&lt;now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.489382.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/489382 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_acronym String Benchtop pH Meter
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description String A Thermo-Orion ROSS 8165BNWP electrode, read to 0.1 mV, was used to measure the pH of each experimental container.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 489403
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String An instrument consisting of an electronic voltmeter and pH-responsive electrode that gives a direct conversion of voltage differences to differences of pH at the measurement temperature. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms)
This instrument does not map to the NERC instrument vocabulary term for 'pH Sensor' which measures values in the water column. Benchtop models are typically employed for stationary lab applications.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String Benchtop pH Meter
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 681
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_supplied_name String pH Probe
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_acronym String Automatic titrator
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_description String Alkalinities were measured via titration with 0.01 N HCl containing 40.7 g NaCl/l using a Metrohm Titrando 808 Dosimat and a 730 Sample Changer controlled by Tiamo software to performautomated normalized Gran titrations of 1 ml samples.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_nid String 489405
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_description String Instruments that incrementally add quantified aliquots of a reagent to a sample until the end-point of a chemical reaction is reached.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB12/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_name String Automatic titrator
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_nid String 682
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_supplied_name String Titrator
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_acronym String Aquarium
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_dataset_instrument_nid String 489463
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_description String Aquarium - a vivarium consisting of at least one transparent side in which water-dwelling plants or animals are kept
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_instrument_name String Aquarium
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_instrument_nid String 711
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_supplied_name String Aquarium
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_acronym String Conductivity Meter
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_dataset_instrument_description String A Hach conductivity probe (read to 0.1, accurate to ~1) was used to determine the salinity of each experimental container.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_dataset_instrument_nid String 489402
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_description String Conductivity Meter - An electrical conductivity meter (EC meter) measures the electrical conductivity in a solution. Commonly used in hydroponics, aquaculture and freshwater systems to monitor the amount of nutrients, salts or impurities in the water.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_instrument_name String Conductivity Meter
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_instrument_nid String 719
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_supplied_name String Conductivity Probe
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String abbrev, bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, data, dataset, dmo, during, erddap, growth, management, oceanography, office, post, preliminary, rel, rel_growth_during_treatment, rel_growth_post_treatment, treatment, treatment_abbrev
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/489382/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/489382 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'489382': {}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/489382/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String WHOI
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Anne L Cohen
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 51428
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Lead Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String WHOI
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Michael Holcomb
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 489381
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Contact
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Shannon Rauch
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 51498
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String OA Nutrition and Coral Calcification
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String OA Nutrition and Coral Calcification
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String The project description is a modification of the original NSF award abstract.
This research project is part of the larger NSF funded CRI-OA collaborative research initiative and was funded as an Ocean Acidification-Category 1, 2010 award. Over the course of this century, all tropical coral reef ecosystems, whether fringing heavily populated coastlines or lining remote islands and atolls, face unprecedented threat from ocean acidification caused by rising levels of atmospheric CO2. In many laboratory experiments conducted to date, calcium carbonate production (calcification) by scleractinian (stony) corals showed an inverse correlation to seawater saturation state OMEGAar), whether OMEGAar was manipulated by acid or CO2 addition. Based on these data, it is predicted that coral calcification rates could decline by up to 80% of modern values by the end of this century. A growing body of new experimental data however, suggests that the coral calcification response to ocean acidification may be less straightforward and a lot more variable than previously recognized. In at least 10 recent experiments including our own, 8 different tropical and temperate species reared under nutritionally-replete but significantly elevated CO2 conditions (780-1200 ppm, OMEAGar ~1.5-2), continued to calcify at rates comparable to conspecifics reared under ambient CO2. These experimental results are consistent with initial field data collected on reefs in the eastern Pacific and southern Oman, where corals today live and accrete their skeletons under conditions equivalent to 2X and 3X pre-industrial CO2. On these high CO2, high nutrient reefs (where nitrate concentrations typically exceed 2.5 micro-molar), coral growth rates rival, and sometimes even exceed, those of conspecifics in low CO2, oligotrophic reef environments.
The investigators propose that a coral's energetic status, tightly coupled to the availability of inorganic nutrients and/or food, is a key factor in the calcification response to CO2-induced ocean acidification. Their hypothesis, if confirmed by the proposed laboratory investigations, implies that predicted changes in coastal and open ocean nutrient concentrations over the course of this century, driven by both climate impacts on ocean stratification and by increased human activity in coastal regions, could play a critical role in exacerbating and in some areas, modulating the coral reef response to ocean acidification. This research program builds on the investigators initial results and observations. The planned laboratory experiments will test the hypothesis that: (1) The coral calcification response to ocean acidification is linked to the energetic status of the coral host. The relative contribution of symbiont photosynthesis and heterotrophic feeding to a coral's energetic status varies amongst species. Enhancing the energetic status of corals reared under high CO2, either by stimulating photosynthesis with inorganic nutrients or by direct heterotrophic feeding of the host lowers the sensitivity of calcification to decreased seawater OMEGAar; (2) A species-specific threshold CO2 level exists over which enhanced energetic status can no longer compensate for decreased OMEGAar of the external seawater. Similarly, we will test the hypothesis that a nutrient threshold exists over which nutrients become detrimental for calcification even under high CO2 conditions; and (3) Temperature-induced reduction of algal symbionts is one stressor that can reduce the energetic reserve of the coral host and exacerbate the calcification response to ocean acidification.
The investigator's initial findings highlight the critical importance of energetic status in the coral calcification response to ocean acidification. Verification of these findings in the laboratory, and identification of nutrient and CO2 thresholds for a range of species will have immediate, direct impact on predictions of reef resilience in a high CO2 world. The research project brings together a diverse group of expertise in coral biogeochemistry, chemical oceanography, molecular biology and coral reproductive ecology to focus on a problem that has enormous societal, economic and conservation relevance.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2013-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String global; experimental
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String An Investigation of the Role of Nutrition in the Coral Calcification Response to Ocean Acidification
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 2183
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2010-10
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Results from experiment examining effects of 4 different dyes on growth rates of scleractinian corals; from the Cohen lab at WHOI in Woods Hole, MA.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Results from experiment examining effects of 4 different dyes on growth rates of scleractinian corals; from the Cohen lab at WHOI in Woods Hole, MA (OA Nutrition and Coral Calcification project)
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable treatment   String  
attribute treatment bcodmo_name String treatment
attribute treatment description String Name of the dye used to mark the coral.
attribute treatment long_name String Treatment
attribute treatment units String dimensionless
variable treatment_abbrev   String  
attribute treatment_abbrev bcodmo_name String treatment
attribute treatment_abbrev description String Abbreviation used to identify the treatment type in Holcomb et al. 2013.
attribute treatment_abbrev long_name String Treatment Abbrev
attribute treatment_abbrev units String dimensionless
variable rel_growth_during_treatment   double  
attribute rel_growth_during_treatment _FillValue double NaN
attribute rel_growth_during_treatment actual_range double 0.517823968, 1.381243035
attribute rel_growth_during_treatment bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute rel_growth_during_treatment description String Relative coral growth rate estimated via alkalinity depletion measurements the day of dye exposure.
attribute rel_growth_during_treatment long_name String Rel Growth During Treatment
attribute rel_growth_during_treatment units String dimensionless
variable rel_growth_post_treatment   double  
attribute rel_growth_post_treatment _FillValue double NaN
attribute rel_growth_post_treatment actual_range double 0.737756892, 1.79697093
attribute rel_growth_post_treatment bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute rel_growth_post_treatment description String Relative coral growth rate estimated via alkalinity depletion measurements the day after dye exposure.
attribute rel_growth_post_treatment long_name String Rel Growth Post Treatment
attribute rel_growth_post_treatment units String dimensionless

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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