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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
   set  data   graph     files  public Calcification and linear extension rates for Oculina arbuscula corals grown under different
pCO2 levels; from the Cohen lab at WHOI in Woods Hole, MA (OA Nutrition and Coral
Calcification project)
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Methodology as described in Ries et al. (2010):
Zooxanthellate colonies of Oculina arbuscula were collected offshore of
Bogue Banks North Carolina in August 2007. After collection, the organisms
were transported to the Marine Calcification Laboratory at Woods Hole
Oceanographic Institution. After acclimation to the laboratory conditions,
fragments of each colony were harvested and mounted on acrylic slides.
Specimens were then transferred to the experimental seawaters for additional
acclimation for 14 days prior to the start of the experiment.

The O. arbuscula specimens were reared for 60 days from Sept. to Nov. 2007 in
four 38-liter glass aquaria filled with filtered seawater. The experimental
seawaters were bubbled continuously with air-CO2 mixtures of 409, 606, 903, or
2856 ppm pCO2. Temperature was maintained at 25 +/- 1 degrees Celsius. Aquaria
were illuminated 10 hours per day. Seventy-five percent seawater changes were
made every 14 days. Coral fragments were fed Artemia sp. every other day. The
experimental air-CO2 gas mixtures were formulated using Aalborg mass flow
controllers, yielding average seawater saturation states of 2.6, 2.3, 1.6, and
0.8 with respect to aragonite. Salinity, temperature, and pH of the seawaters,
and pCO2 of the mixed gases were measured weekly. Total alkalinity was
measured every 2 weeks. DIC, bicarbonate ion concentration, dissolved CO2,
aragonite saturation state, and pCO2 were calculated from the measured
parameters. Refer to Table 1 of [Ries et al. (2010)
](\\"https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00338-010-0632-3\\")for more detail on the
measured and calculated carbonate chemistry parameters, including mean, range,
and standard deviation.

A buoyant weighing method was used to estimate the corals' calcification
rates. Calcification rates were calculated as the percent change in buoyant
weight between the beginning and end of the experiment.

Each aquarium was dosed with 137BaCO3 for 14 days at the beginning of the
experiment. After 14 days, the 137Ba-enriched seawaters were replaced with
seawaters of natural Ba isotopic composition. This temporary increase in the
concentration of Barium-137 in the experimental seawaters resulted in a five-
fold spike in the ratio of Ba-137 to Ba-138 in the coral skeletons accreted
during the first 14 days of the experiment. This spike provided the baseline
from which linear extension of the coral skeletons could be measured. Four
coral specimens were randomly selected from each of the treatments and
sectioned parallel to the growth axis. 137Ba/138Ba ratios were measured using
laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. To determine
linear extension, the time elapsed from the detection of the 137Ba/138Ba spike
and the outer edge of the coral skeleton was converted to distance by
multiplying the elapsed time by the scan rate of the laser.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 54896
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1041106
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1041106 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Coral (<i>Oculina arbuscula</i>) OA experiment
Lead PI: Anne Cohen (WHOI)
Co-PI: Dan McCorkle (WHOI)
Contact: Justin Ries (Northeastern Univ.)
Version: 06 Feb 2014
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2014-02-06T16:12:34Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-11-21T17:47:32Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &amp;time&lt;now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.490464.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/490464 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_acronym String ICP Mass Spec
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description String The ratio of 137Ba to138Ba was measured using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Thermo-Finnegan Element2 LA-ICP-MS; beam diameter = 5 lm; scan speed = 6 lm/sec; intensity = 35%; frequency 8 Hz).
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 490480
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String An ICP Mass Spec is an instrument that passes nebulized samples into an inductively-coupled gas plasma (8-10000 K) where they are atomized and ionized. Ions of specific mass-to-charge ratios are quantified in a quadrupole mass spectrometer.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB15/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 530
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_supplied_name String ICP Mass Spec
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_acronym String salinometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_description String Salinity was determined using an Autosal conductivity meter in the WHOI Hydrographic Laboratory and/or using a refractometer.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_nid String 490476
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_description String The salinometer is an instrument for measuring the salinity of a water sample.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB30/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_name String Autosal salinometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_nid String 576
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_supplied_name String Autosal conductivity meter
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_acronym String Water Temp Sensor
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_dataset_instrument_description String Temperature was measured with a partial-immersion mercury-glass thermometer (precision = +/- 0.3%, accuracy = +/- 0.4%).
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_dataset_instrument_nid String 490475
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_description String General term for an instrument that measures the temperature of the water with which it is in contact (thermometer).
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/134/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_instrument_name String Water Temperature Sensor
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_instrument_nid String 647
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_supplied_name String Mercury-glass thermometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_acronym String Refractometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_dataset_instrument_description String Salinity was determined using an Autosal conductivity meter in the WHOI Hydrographic Laboratory and/or using a refractometer calibrated with simultaneous measurements of conductivity (precision = +/- 0.3%; accuracy = +/- 0.4%).
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_dataset_instrument_nid String 490477
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_description String A refractometer is a laboratory or field device for the measurement of an index of refraction (refractometry). The index of refraction is calculated from Snell's law and can be calculated from the composition of the material using the Gladstone-Dale relation.

In optics the refractive index (or index of refraction) n of a substance (optical medium) is a dimensionless number that describes how light, or any other radiation, propagates through that medium.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_instrument_name String Refractometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_instrument_nid String 679
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_supplied_name String Refractometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_acronym String Benchtop pH Meter
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_dataset_instrument_description String Seawater pH was determined weekly using an Orion pH electrode/meter (precision = +/- 0.005; accuracy = +/- 0.02).
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_dataset_instrument_nid String 490478
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_description String An instrument consisting of an electronic voltmeter and pH-responsive electrode that gives a direct conversion of voltage differences to differences of pH at the measurement temperature. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms)
This instrument does not map to the NERC instrument vocabulary term for 'pH Sensor' which measures values in the water column. Benchtop models are typically employed for stationary lab applications.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_instrument_name String Benchtop pH Meter
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_instrument_nid String 681
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_supplied_name String pH Meter
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_5_acronym String Aquarium
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_5_dataset_instrument_description String Specimens of O. arbuscula were reared in each of four 38-liter glass aquaria (76 specimens in total) filled with 0.2 um-filtered seawater.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_5_dataset_instrument_nid String 490472
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_5_description String Aquarium - a vivarium consisting of at least one transparent side in which water-dwelling plants or animals are kept
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_5_instrument_name String Aquarium
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_5_instrument_nid String 711
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_5_supplied_name String Aquarium
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_6_acronym String MFC
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_6_dataset_instrument_description String The experimental air-CO2 gases were formulated using Aalborg mass flow controllers. See more information from Aalborg.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_6_dataset_instrument_nid String 490473
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_6_description String Mass Flow Controller (MFC) - A device used to measure and control the flow of fluids and gases
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_6_instrument_name String Mass Flow Controller
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_6_instrument_nid String 712
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_6_supplied_name String MFC
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_7_acronym String Scale
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_7_dataset_instrument_description String Buoyant weights were determined using an aluminum wire hanging from a Cole Parmer bottom-loading scale.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_7_dataset_instrument_nid String 490479
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_7_description String An instrument used to measure weight or mass.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_7_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB13/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_7_instrument_name String Scale
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_7_instrument_nid String 714
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_7_supplied_name String Scale
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_8_acronym String Gas Analyzer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_8_dataset_instrument_description String Mixed gas pCO2 was measured with a Qubit S151 infrared analyzer (calibrated using certified air-CO2 gas standards; precision = +/- 2.0%; accuracy = +/- 1.8%). More information from the manufacturer: Q-S151 CO2 Analyzer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_8_dataset_instrument_nid String 490474
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_8_description String Gas Analyzers - Instruments for determining the qualitative and quantitative composition of gas mixtures.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_8_instrument_name String Gas Analyzer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_8_instrument_nid String 720
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_8_supplied_name String Qubit S151 infrared analyzer
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String arg, bco, bco-dmo, biological, buoyant, buoyant_wt_final, buoyant_wt_init, calcification, calcification_rate, chemical, data, dataset, dmo, erddap, ext, final, init, linear, linear_ext, management, oceanography, office, omega, omega_Arg, preliminary, rate, sample, species
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/490464/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/490464 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'490464': {}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/490464/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String WHOI
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Anne L Cohen
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 51428
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Lead Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String WHOI
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Daniel C McCorkle
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 51429
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Northeastern University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String NEU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Justin B. Ries
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 51345
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String Contact
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_name String Shannon Rauch
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_nid String 51498
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String OA Nutrition and Coral Calcification
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String OA Nutrition and Coral Calcification
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String The project description is a modification of the original NSF award abstract.
This research project is part of the larger NSF funded CRI-OA collaborative research initiative and was funded as an Ocean Acidification-Category 1, 2010 award. Over the course of this century, all tropical coral reef ecosystems, whether fringing heavily populated coastlines or lining remote islands and atolls, face unprecedented threat from ocean acidification caused by rising levels of atmospheric CO2. In many laboratory experiments conducted to date, calcium carbonate production (calcification) by scleractinian (stony) corals showed an inverse correlation to seawater saturation state OMEGAar), whether OMEGAar was manipulated by acid or CO2 addition. Based on these data, it is predicted that coral calcification rates could decline by up to 80% of modern values by the end of this century. A growing body of new experimental data however, suggests that the coral calcification response to ocean acidification may be less straightforward and a lot more variable than previously recognized. In at least 10 recent experiments including our own, 8 different tropical and temperate species reared under nutritionally-replete but significantly elevated CO2 conditions (780-1200 ppm, OMEAGar ~1.5-2), continued to calcify at rates comparable to conspecifics reared under ambient CO2. These experimental results are consistent with initial field data collected on reefs in the eastern Pacific and southern Oman, where corals today live and accrete their skeletons under conditions equivalent to 2X and 3X pre-industrial CO2. On these high CO2, high nutrient reefs (where nitrate concentrations typically exceed 2.5 micro-molar), coral growth rates rival, and sometimes even exceed, those of conspecifics in low CO2, oligotrophic reef environments.
The investigators propose that a coral's energetic status, tightly coupled to the availability of inorganic nutrients and/or food, is a key factor in the calcification response to CO2-induced ocean acidification. Their hypothesis, if confirmed by the proposed laboratory investigations, implies that predicted changes in coastal and open ocean nutrient concentrations over the course of this century, driven by both climate impacts on ocean stratification and by increased human activity in coastal regions, could play a critical role in exacerbating and in some areas, modulating the coral reef response to ocean acidification. This research program builds on the investigators initial results and observations. The planned laboratory experiments will test the hypothesis that: (1) The coral calcification response to ocean acidification is linked to the energetic status of the coral host. The relative contribution of symbiont photosynthesis and heterotrophic feeding to a coral's energetic status varies amongst species. Enhancing the energetic status of corals reared under high CO2, either by stimulating photosynthesis with inorganic nutrients or by direct heterotrophic feeding of the host lowers the sensitivity of calcification to decreased seawater OMEGAar; (2) A species-specific threshold CO2 level exists over which enhanced energetic status can no longer compensate for decreased OMEGAar of the external seawater. Similarly, we will test the hypothesis that a nutrient threshold exists over which nutrients become detrimental for calcification even under high CO2 conditions; and (3) Temperature-induced reduction of algal symbionts is one stressor that can reduce the energetic reserve of the coral host and exacerbate the calcification response to ocean acidification.
The investigator's initial findings highlight the critical importance of energetic status in the coral calcification response to ocean acidification. Verification of these findings in the laboratory, and identification of nutrient and CO2 thresholds for a range of species will have immediate, direct impact on predictions of reef resilience in a high CO2 world. The research project brings together a diverse group of expertise in coral biogeochemistry, chemical oceanography, molecular biology and coral reproductive ecology to focus on a problem that has enormous societal, economic and conservation relevance.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2013-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String global; experimental
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String An Investigation of the Role of Nutrition in the Coral Calcification Response to Ocean Acidification
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 2183
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2010-10
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL subsetVariables String species
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Data from experiments examining the effect of CO2-induced ocean acidification
on the scleractinian coral Oculina arbuscula.

For more information on the experimental methods and results, see Ries et al.,

These data have also been deposited to PANGAEA where additional carbonate
system variables were calculated as described by Nisumaa et al. (2010). See:
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Calcification and linear extension rates for Oculina arbuscula corals grown under different pCO2 levels; from the Cohen lab at WHOI in Woods Hole, MA (OA Nutrition and Coral Calcification project)
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable omega_Arg   float  
attribute omega_Arg _FillValue float NaN
attribute omega_Arg actual_range float 0.77, 2.6
attribute omega_Arg bcodmo_name String OM_ar
attribute omega_Arg description String Saturation state with respect to aragonite.
attribute omega_Arg long_name String Omega Arg
attribute omega_Arg units String dimensionless
variable species   String  
attribute species bcodmo_name String species
attribute species description String Name of the coral species.
attribute species long_name String Species
attribute species units String dimensionless
variable sample   String  
attribute sample bcodmo_name String sample
attribute sample description String Unique sample indentifier.
attribute sample long_name String Sample
attribute sample nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/ACYC/ (external link)
attribute sample units String dimensionless
variable buoyant_wt_init   short  
attribute buoyant_wt_init _FillValue short 32767
attribute buoyant_wt_init actual_range short 1180, 3964
attribute buoyant_wt_init bcodmo_name String weight
attribute buoyant_wt_init description String Initial buoyant weight of the coral; measured at the beginning of the experiment.
attribute buoyant_wt_init long_name String Buoyant Wt Init
attribute buoyant_wt_init units String milligrams (mg)
variable buoyant_wt_final   short  
attribute buoyant_wt_final _FillValue short 32767
attribute buoyant_wt_final actual_range short 1329, 4340
attribute buoyant_wt_final bcodmo_name String weight
attribute buoyant_wt_final description String Final buoyant weight of the coral; measured at the end of the experiment.
attribute buoyant_wt_final long_name String Buoyant Wt Final
attribute buoyant_wt_final units String milligrams (mg)
variable calcification_rate   float  
attribute calcification_rate _FillValue float NaN
attribute calcification_rate actual_range float 0.8, 13.9
attribute calcification_rate bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute calcification_rate description String Calcification rate measured as the percent change in buoyant weight over the course of the experiment (60 days).
attribute calcification_rate long_name String Calcification Rate
attribute calcification_rate units String percent (%)
variable linear_ext   short  
attribute linear_ext _FillValue short 32767
attribute linear_ext actual_range short 119, 1550
attribute linear_ext bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute linear_ext description String Linear extension of the coral skeleton; distance from the 137Ba/138Ba spike to the outer edge of the coral skeleton. Measured on 4 specimens randomly selected from each of the treatments.
attribute linear_ext long_name String Linear Ext
attribute linear_ext units String micrometers (um)

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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