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   set  data   graph     files  public Macroalgal and coral cover by species at 4x5 m plots, Panama, 1984-2010 (EPac Corals projects
I-VII)
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Assessment of coral cover on the study reef began in 1974 (Glynn 1976) and
continued to 2010. This was accomplished by fixed chain transect sites (n = 10
transects per survey period, 1974 to 2010) and by sampling fixed 1 m2 plots (n
= 11 plots per survey period, 1994 to 2010) as well as a single 4 \u00d7 5 m2
plot (n = 1, with the 20 m2 plot subdivided into 20 1 m2 quadrats, 1984 to
2010). Chain transects were established along the ~350 m long forereef base
zone between 3 and 5 m depth, relative to the mean lower low water (MLLW)
tidal datum, in the mid-1970s from strictly random site locations determined
from an Uva Island reef grid map with numbered axes (Glynn 1976). A second set
of 10 fixed transects was located upslope from the reef base in 1985 to
monitor denser coral cover at slightly shallower depths following the
1982-1983 mortality event (Glynn et al, 2014,\u00a0Fig. 1C). Most benthic
sampling was conducted near, but not within the fish transects (see \u2018fish
species counts\u2019) to minimize diver presence. During each of 20 survey
periods, 10 to 20 chain transects were sampled. Coral species live cover and
substrate type (e.g. rubble, turf algae, sponges) were enumerated according to
the chain links (73 links m-1) resting on these categories. The chain transect
sampling was designed to determine the advance or retreat of live coral cover
along the deep reef base and slope zones. Coral monitoring was carried out at
different times during the 5 to 7 d sampling periods, usually 2 to 3 d before
the fish monitoring.

The 1 m2 plots were located at the northern end of the reef in the reef slope
and base zones representative of the fish transect substrate cover. The
benthic composition and cover of the 1 m2 plots were drawn by divers
underwater and then digitized using a flat - bed scanner, Adobe Photoshop and
ImageJ software. Percent coral cover was determined by dividing the number of
pixels representing coral within a quadrat by the total number of pixels in
that quadrat. For each year of sampling of the 4 \u00d7 5 m2 plot, all 20 1 m2
quadrats were mapped and their composition and cover determined as in the 1 m2
plots above; these values were averaged to determine the total mean percent
coral cover for each survey period. The 4 \u00d7 5 m2 plot was established by
R. H. Richmond in the reef slope zone immediately following the 1982- 1983 El
Ni\u00f1o event when coral cover on the forereef was reduced to near-zero
values. This location was selected to monitor live coral recovery; it is
situated at 1 to 2 m depth, between and slightly overlapping fish transects,
Transects 1 and 2 (see Glynn et al, 2014,\u00a0\u2018Fish monitoring\u2019).
Table S1 in the Supplement at [www.int-
res.com/articles/suppl/m495p233_supp.pdf](\\"http://www.int-
res.com/articles/suppl/m495p233_supp.pdf\\") summarizes all coral sampling
records with information on time of sampling, season and number of samples
completed.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 514213
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-8415615
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=8415615 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String Emma R Dieter
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 51484
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_award_nid String 514214
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_award_number String OCE-8716726
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_data_url String http://nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=8716726 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_program_manager String Phillip R. Taylor
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_program_manager_nid String 50451
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_award_nid String 514232
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_award_number String OCE-9018392
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_data_url String http://nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=9018392 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_program_manager String Phillip R. Taylor
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_program_manager_nid String 50451
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_award_nid String 514233
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_award_number String OCE-9314798
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_data_url String http://nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=9314798 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_program_manager String Phillip R. Taylor
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_program_manager_nid String 50451
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_4_award_nid String 514234
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_4_award_number String OCE-9711529
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_4_data_url String http://nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=9711529 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_4_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_4_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_4_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_4_program_manager String Phillip R. Taylor
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_4_program_manager_nid String 50451
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_5_award_nid String 514235
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_5_award_number String OCE-0002317
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_5_data_url String http://nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=0002317 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_5_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_5_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_5_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_5_program_manager String Phillip R. Taylor
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_5_program_manager_nid String 50451
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_6_award_nid String 514236
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_6_award_number String OCE-0526361
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_6_data_url String http://nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=0526361 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_6_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_6_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_6_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_6_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_6_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String coral and macroalgal cover
Panama

P. Glynn (UM-RSMAS)

version: 2 June 2014
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2014-06-11T14:51:06Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2020-03-04T20:31:58Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.516621.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double -81.759
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double 7.814
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double 7.814
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double -81.759
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double -81.759
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/516621 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String area, bco, bco-dmo, benthic, benthic_cover, biological, chemical, cover, data, dataset, dmo, erddap, latitude, longitude, management, month, oceanography, office, plot, preliminary, year
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/516621/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/516621 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double 7.814
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'516621': {'lat': 'master - latitude', 'lon': 'master - longitude'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/516621/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String UM-RSMAS
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Peter Glynn
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 514244
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String University of California-Los Angeles
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String UCLA
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Peggy Fong
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 514245
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Nancy Copley
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 50396
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String EPac Corals 1982/83 El Nino: I,EPac Corals 1982/83 El Nino: II,EPac Corals 1982/83 El Nino: IV,EPac Corals 1982/83 El Nino: III,EPac Corals 1982/82 El Nino: V,EPac Corals 1982/82 El Nino: VI,EPac Corals 1982/82 El Nino: VII
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String EPac Corals 1982/83 El Nino: I
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 1988-07
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Eastern Pacific
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Ecological Effects of the 1982/83 El Nino-Associated Disturbance to Eastern Pacific Coral Reefs
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 514447
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 1985-02
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_acronym String EPac Corals 1982/83 El Nino: II
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_description String The severe 1982-83 ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) event caused historically unprecedented and catastrophic disturbances to the Eastern Pacific coral reefs. In the aftermath of this event, disturbances to the reefs have continued and may have accelerated. Coupled with low coral recruitment, reef recovery could well take many years. The ecological effects and cause(s) of this regional disturbance have been investigated by a team of Latin and North American colleagues and students in Costa Rica, Panama, and Ecuador (Galapagos Islands) from 1983 to 1984 (Smithsonian Institution support) and from 1985 to 1987 (NSF support). This proposal focuses on coral reef recovery, disturbance processes per se, and retrospective analyses to be studied by a multidisciplinary, international team. Secondary or delayed disturbance effects that will be studied are (a) the disruption of biotic barriers allowing predator (Acanthaster planci) entry to coral prey refugia, (b) predator (corallivore) concentration on surviving coral prey, (c) post-El Nino sea urchin bioerosion of damaged reef frames, (d) damselfish colonization of damaged massive corals, and (e) damselfish/sea urchin/corallivore interactions vis-a-vis massive coral survival. Recovery processes will be studied chiefly with respect to the recruitment of calcifying organisms (corals and coralline algae) onto formerly occupied reef surfaces including examiniation of patch size, character of colonists (asexual or sexual propagules), and relative abundances of surrounding species. Retrospective studies (sclerochronology, oxygen and carbon stable isotope analyses, cadmium analysis, and fluorescent banding patterns) will also be performed on coral cores dating back at least to 1601 to provide a long-term record of ENSO disturbances. Since it is likely that major El Nino disturbances are recurring events, such information should provide a firm basis for understanding the processes controlling coral reef development and distribution in the tropical eastern Pacific.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_end_date String 1991-12
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_geolocation String Eastern Pacific
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_name String Effects of the 1982-83 El Nino Event on Tropical, Eastern Pacific Coral Reefs: Disturbance, Recovery and Retrospective Analyses
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_project_nid String 514456
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_start_date String 1988-01
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_2_acronym String EPac Corals 1982/83 El Nino: IV
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_2_description String This research will continue a long-term study that has focused on ecological disturbances to eastern Pacific coral reefs that accompanied the sever and historically unprecedented 1982-83 El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The study involves international collaboration with host- county research teams and primary field sites in Costa Rica, Panama, and the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador), areas heavily impacted by the 1982-83 ENSO. Dr. Glynn will lead the research to continue (a) with the physical and biotic monitoring of eastern Pacific coral reefs initiated in the early-mid 1970s, (b) investigating the responses of different coral species to ENSO stressors, (c) studying coral reproductive ecology as it relates to recruitment success, and (d) documenting coral community recovery. New research directions include (e) remote sensing, which will attempt to link coral bleaching/mortality with local and global scale sea surface temperatures by means of synoptic and repeated measurements, and (f) modeling of coral population and community dynamics based on mechanistic relationships between temperature, predation, coral growth, and survivorship derived from field monitoring and experimental results. Because important secondary disturbances are still occurring and reef recovery has been slow, it is necessary to continue this study in order to understand the variety of changes involved and the full impact of a major disturbance on eastern Pacific coral survival and reef building. We are hopeful that ENSO warming disturbances can provide some insight to the probable changes in coral reefs worldwide if projected global warming causes repeated and/or protracted sea temperature increases comparable to the 1982-83 ENSO.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_2_end_date String 1997-05
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_2_geolocation String Eastern Pacific
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_2_name String El Nino Impacted Coral Reefs In The Tropical Eastern Pacific: Secondary Disturbances, Recovery and Modeling of Population and Community Responses.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_2_project_nid String 514461
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_2_start_date String 1994-06
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_3_acronym String EPac Corals 1982/83 El Nino: III
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_3_description String This long-term study focuses on the ecological disturbances to eastern Pacific coral reefs that accompanied the severe and historically unprecedented 1982-83 ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) event. During the first 3-year segment (1985-87) of the study a strong causative link was established between prolonged sea warming and numerous kinds of primary disturbances. During the first and second 3-year (1988-90) study periods the team of workers involved in this study have (a) demonstrated the importance of several secondary (long-term) disturbance processes, (b) revealed the extent of recovery and continuing reef destruction to date, and (c) provided some indication of the frequency of severe El Nino disturbances to coral reefs in an historical context. Because some important secondary disturbances are still occurring, and reef recovery has been slow (Costa Rica, Panama) or non-existent (Galapagos Islands), it is necessary to continue with this study in order to understand the variety of changes involved and the full impact of a major disturbance on coral reef survival and the potential for continued reef building. ENSO warming disturbances can provide some clues to the probable changes in coral reefs worldwide if global warming causes repeated and/or protracted sea temperature increases comparable to the 1982-83 El Nino event.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_3_end_date String 1995-03
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_3_geolocation String Eastern Pacific
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_3_name String Effects of the 1982-83 El Nino Event on Tropical Eastern Pacific Coral Reefs: Disturbances, Causes, Recovery and Retrospective Analyses
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_3_project_nid String 514465
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_3_start_date String 1991-04
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_4_acronym String EPac Corals 1982/82 El Nino: V
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_4_description String This project will long term study that has focused on ecological disturbances, causes, and the responses of eastern Pacific reef coral populations and reef communities during and following the severe and historically unprecedented 1982 1983 El Nino / Southrn Oscillation (ENSO) event. This study involves strong international collaboration with host country research teams working at several field sites in Costa Rica, Panama, and the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador), all areas that were severely affected during the 1982 1983 ENSO disturbance. This study will continue with (a) monitoring the physical and biological conditions of eastern Pacific coral reefs initiated in the early to mid 1970s, (b) investigating the responses of different coral species to ENSO stressors (chiefly positive sea temperature anomalies) under controlled microcosm conditions, (c) studying coral reproductive ecology as it relates to recruitment success in field surveys, and (d) documenting coral community recovery or changes leading to alternate, non reef building communities. New research directions initiated in 1994 will be pursued, namely (e) an attempt to link coral bleaching/mortality with local and global scale sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, and (f) modeling the size structure of coral populations and coral community dynamics based on mechanistic relationships between temperature, predation, coral growth, and survivorship derived from field monitoring and experimental results. In addition, (g) analyses of the molecular genetic structure of the different zooxanthella taxa found in eastern Pacific corals to assess the importance of zooxanthellae diversity in explaining the variability in patterns of coral bleaching, and (h) recovering coral populations, to assess their genetic structure and diversity in relation to population size and distance from source populations, will be investigated.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_4_end_date String 2000-08
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_4_geolocation String Eastern Pacific
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_4_name String El Nino Impacted Coral Reefs in the Tropical Eastern Pacific: Secondary Disturbances, Recovery and Effects on Community Diversity and Reef Growth
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_4_project_nid String 514469
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_4_start_date String 1997-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_5_acronym String EPac Corals 1982/82 El Nino: VI
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_5_description String This project will occur over a five year period to continue and conclude a long-term study that has focused on ecological disturbances, causes, responses and recovery of eastern tropical Pacific (ETP) reef?building coral populations and reef communities in relation to the severe 1982?1983 El Nino?Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. With the occurrence of the very strong 1997?1998 ENSO, two "one hundred year events" only 15 years apart, an unprecedented opportunity is at hand to study and compare the effects of consecutive major perturbations on community responses and recovery. This study involves strong international collaboration with host?country research teams working at several field sites in Costa Rica, Panam.6, and Ecuador (including the Gal6pagos Islands), all areas that were severely affected during the ENSO disturbances of 1982?83 and 1997?98. Several aspects of this study will be continued, namely (a) monitoring the physical and biological conditions of eastern Pacific coral reefs initiated in the early?to?mid 1970s~ (b) investigating the responses of selected zooxanthellate coral species to ENSO stressors (chiefly positive sea temperature anomalies), (c) retrospective climate studies from coral skeletal isotopic signatures, (d) coral reproductive ecology as it relates to recruitment success in disturbed communities, (e) coral community recovery or changes leading to alternate, non?reef building communities, (f) the linking of coral bleaching/mortality with local and global-scale sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, including both high and low temperature extremes, and (g) modeling the size structure of coral populations and coral community dynamics based on mechanistic relationships between temperature, predation, coral growth and survivorship derived from field monitoring and experimental results. Additionally, studies initiated in 1997 will also be continued, namely (h) analysis of the molecular genetic structure of zooxanthella taxa symbiotic with eastern Pacific corals to assess the importance of zooxanthella diversity in explaining the variability in patterns of coral bleaching and mortality/survivorship of host corals, and (i) assessment of the genetic structure and diversity of recovering and recently stressed coral populations in relation to stress resistance, population size and distance from source populations. New initiatives will include (j) coral?algal?herbivore interactions, and (k) trophodynamic/benthic community structure modeling in high SST?stressed upwelling and non-upwelling environments in order to assess the effects of ENSO perturbations and recovery processes on coral reef framework growth.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_5_end_date String 2005-08
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_5_geolocation String Eastern Pacific
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_5_name String El Nino-Southern Oscillation 1982-83 and 1997-98 Impacted Coral Reefs in the Equatorial Eastern Pacific Region: Effects, Recovery and Inter-ENSO Comparisons
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_5_project_nid String 514473
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_5_start_date String 2000-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_6_acronym String EPac Corals 1982/82 El Nino: VII
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_6_description String This comprehensive and interdisciplinary study, focusing on El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) disturbances to eastern Pacific coral reefs, will broaden understanding of the impact and responses of coral reef ecosystems to climate change, particularly sea warming events and associated perturbations. The project is led by Dr. Peter Glynn and builds on a 35-year database of physical and biological studies, and involves a coordinated Latin American/U.S. network of teams working principally in Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, and Ecuador (mainland and Galapagos Islands). 
Intellectual merit. The chief objectives of this project are to continue and expand investigation into the causes of coral reef decline (both immediate and long-term), and the responses of reef coral populations, communities and ecosystem function in relation to ENSO disturbances. Key directions are investigations into mechanisms supporting documented rapid recovery, limitations to recovery that provide insight into ecosystem function, and the potential for eastern Pacific reefs to act as model systems to understand future impacts of global change in other reef systems. 
Three elements of special significance that justify continuation of this multifaceted study are:
(1) the long-term data base of eastern Pacific coral reef structure and reef-associated community composition pre-dating the first documented coral bleaching events of the 1980s, 
(2) the causal relationship between global warming and reef degradation with demonstrable effects on coral community structure, coral growth and reef accretion, and coral framework erosion, and 
(3) assessing future response potential and the capacity for acclimatization/adaptation in light of cumulative past responses. 
New initiatives in the continuing project include (a) experiments relating coral reproduction and algal symbiont community structure during periods of temperature change, (b) characterization of deep reef thermal conditions vis-a-vis coral refugia, (c) field observations/experiments to compare effects of reef framework loss on metazoan recruitment, species diversity, and feeding rates, (d) coring reef frames to reveal taphonomic signatures of known ENSO events in order to determine the frequency of previous events, (e) relating carbonate chemistry of reef waters, e.g., pH, alkalinity and aragonite saturation states, to coral skeletal growth and density, (f) investigations into trophic structure complexity using N, C and S isotopes, (g) genetic structure of coral host and symbiont populations utilizing molecular and ribosomal DNA and protein electrophoresis to document shifts in thermally-tolerant groups, and (h) modeling of energy flow and ecosystem trophic processes and complexity. 
Broader impacts. Peer reviewed publications now number 60, contributing to the disciplines of oceanography, paleoecology/paleoclimatology, geology, disturbance ecology (community recovery, phase shifts), trophodynamics, population dynamics (coral reproduction and recruitment, modeling, genetic structure and connectivity), and symbiont ecology. To date, 107 graduate and undergraduate students from Panama, Ecuador, Costa Rica, Colombia and the USA (plus 9 other countries) have participated in the project, resulting in the completion of 39 Ph.D. dissertations, M.S. theses and Honors reports. Students are trained in field methods for physical and biological sampling, species identifications, underwater and laboratory experiments (including instrumentation, design and data analysis), and train others in their respective countries. 
These studies of ecological processes have aided in the establishment and management efforts of marine protected areas in Costa Rica (Cano Island National Park), Panama (Coiba National Park), and Ecuador (Galapagos National Park). In addition to international efforts, collaborator Peggy Fong has mentored 2 to 6 undergraduate researchers per quarter at UCLA over the last 10 years, many of whom are under-represented minorities in the federally supported outreach program.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_6_end_date String 2012-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_6_geolocation String Eastern Pacific
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_6_name String El Nino-Southern Oscillation Disturbances On Eastern Pacific Coral Reefs: Patterns And Mechanisms Of Recovery
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_6_project_nid String 514477
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_6_start_date String 2005-10
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double 7.814
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL subsetVariables String latitude,longitude
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Macroalgal and coral cover surveys were conducted at the Uva Island coral reef (7o48\u201950.43\u201dN, 81o45\u201932.41\u201dW), Gulf of Chiriqu\u00ed, Panama from 1984 to 2010.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Macroalgal and coral cover by species at 4x5 m plots, Panama, 1984-2010 (EPac Corals projects I-VII)
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double -81.759
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable year   short  
attribute year _FillValue short 32767
attribute year actual_range short 1984, 2007
attribute year bcodmo_name String year
attribute year description String sampling year
attribute year long_name String Year
attribute year nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/YEARXXXX/ (external link)
attribute year units String unitless
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double 7.814, 7.814
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude bcodmo_name String latitude
attribute latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute latitude description String latitude; north is positive
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double -81.759, -81.759
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude bcodmo_name String longitude
attribute longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute longitude description String longitude; east is positive
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable month   byte  
attribute month _FillValue byte 127
attribute month actual_range byte 1, 12
attribute month bcodmo_name String month
attribute month description String sampling month
attribute month long_name String Month
attribute month nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/MNTHXXXX/ (external link)
attribute month units String unitless
variable plot   String  
attribute plot bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute plot description String 1 square meter quadrat identification
attribute plot long_name String Plot
attribute plot units String unitless
variable benthic_cover   String  
attribute benthic_cover bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute benthic_cover description String coral or macroalgal species name; also area measurement designations for parts of the scanned image.
attribute benthic_cover long_name String Benthic Cover
attribute benthic_cover units String unitless
variable area   int  
attribute area _FillValue int 2147483647
attribute area actual_range int 0, 177509386
attribute area bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute area description String area comprised of taxon or category from scanned drawing of quadrat
attribute area long_name String Area
attribute area units String pixels

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.


 
ERDDAP, Version 2.02
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