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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
   set  data   graph     files  public Processed CTD data from R/V Kilo Moana cruise KM1312 in the Eastern North Pacific Ocean from
2013-2013 (POWOW project)
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson,.odvTxt
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Note: some cast numbers may be missing/skipped for a given station because of
aborted casts.

Header information from Sea-Bird SBE 9 Data File:
Software Version Seasave V 7.21k
Temperature SN = 1489; Conductivity SN = 1176
Number of Bytes Per Scan = 41; Number of Voltage Words = 4
Number of Scans Averaged by the Deck Unit = 1
SBE 11plus V 5.2
number of scans to average = 1; pressure baud rate = 9600; NMEA baud rate =
GPIB address = 1
advance primary conductivity\u00a0 0.073 seconds
advance secondary conductivity\u00a0 0.073 seconds
autorun on power up is disabled
units = specified
name 0 = scan: Scan Count
name 1 = prDM: Pressure, Digiquartz [db]
name 2 = t068C: Temperature [ITS-68, deg C]
name 3 = c0S/m: Conductivity [S/m]
name 4 = sbeox0Mm/Kg: Oxygen, SBE 43 [umol/Kg]
name 5 = flECO-AFL: Fluorescence, WET Labs ECO-AFL/FL [mg/m^3]
name 6 = CStarAt0: Beam Attenuation, WET Labs C-Star [1/m]
name 7 = nbf: Bottles Fired
name 8 = sal00: Salinity, Practical [PSU]
name 9 = sigma-\u00e900: Density [sigma-theta, Kg/m^3]
name 10 = potemp090C: Potential Temperature [ITS-90, deg C]
name 11 = scan: Scan Count
name 12 = t168C: Temperature, 2 [ITS-68, deg C]
name 13 = c1S/m: Conductivity, 2 [S/m]
name 14 = sbeox1Mm/Kg: Oxygen, SBE 43, 2 [umol/Kg]
name 15 = flSP: Fluorescence, Seapoint
name 16 = sal11: Salinity, Practical, 2 [PSU]
name 17 = sigma-\u00e911: Density, 2 [sigma-theta, Kg/m^3]
name 18 = potemp168C: Potential Temperature, 2 [ITS-68, deg C]
name 19 = par: PAR/Irradiance, Biospherical/Licor
name 20 = nbin: number of scans per bin
name 21 = flag: flag
span 0 =6985, 37235\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0
span 1 =2.000, 800.000\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0
span 2 =5.0419, 26.5629\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0
span 3 =3.335783, 5.502325\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0
span 4 =31.444, 198.040\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0
span 5 =0.0100, 0.4971\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0
span 6 =-0.0571, 0.0100\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0
span 7 =0, 0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0
span 8 =34.0618, 35.3564\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0
span 9 =23.0269, 27.2279\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0
span 10 =4.9751, 26.5547\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0
span 11 =6985, 37235\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0
span 12 =5.0415, 26.5595\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0
span 13 =3.335901, 5.501779\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0
span 14 =30.989, 206.103\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0
span 15 =5.1724e-02, 5.0659e-01\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0
span 16 =34.1016, 35.3541\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0
span 17 =23.0310, 27.2294\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0
span 18 =4.9758, 26.5577\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0
span 19 =9.5884e-02, 3.8336e+02\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0
span 20 =1, 47\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0
span 21 =0.0000e+00 0.0000e+00\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 \u00a0
interval = decibars:
bad_flag = -9.990e-29
Sensors count=\"13\"
Sensor Channel 1: Frequency 0, Temperature; SensorID=55; Serial Number: 1489
Calibration Date: 01-Nov-12
UseG_J: 1
A: 0.00000000e+000; B: 0.00000000e+000; C: 0.00000000e+000; D:
0.00000000e+000; F0_Old: 0.000
G: 4.78324023e-003
H: 6.52533514e-004
I: 2.17843448e-005
J: 1.47229280e-006
F0: 1000.000
Slope: 1.00000000; Offset: 0.0000

Sensor Channel 2: Frequency1, Conductivity; Sensor ID=3; Serial Number: 1176
Calibration Date: 24-Oct-12
UseG_J: 1
<!-- Cell const and series R are applicable only for wide range sensors. -->
Series R: 0.0000
Cell Const: 2000.0000
Conductivity Type: 0
Coefficients equation=0
\u00a0 A: 0.00000000e+000; B: 0.00000000e+000; C: 0.00000000e+000; D:
0.00000000e+000; M: 0.0
\u00a0 CPcor: -9.57000000e-008
Coefficients equation=1
\u00a0 G: -4.05760658e+000; H: 5.58151895e-001; I: 1.19301041e-004; J:
\u00a0 CPcor: -9.57000000e-008
\u00a0 CTcor: 3.2500e-006
\u00a0 <!-- WBOTC not applicable unless ConductivityType = 1. -->
\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 WBOTC: 0.00000000e+000
Slope: 1.00000000; Offset: 0.00000

Sensor Channel 3: Frequency2, Pressure, Digiquartz with TC; Sensor ID=45;
Serial Number: 0310
Calibration Date: 14-Aug-12
C1: -3.928393e+004; C2: 1.087860e+000; C3: 1.199240e-002
D1: 3.882500e-002; D2: 0.000000e+000
T1: 3.029977e+001; T2: 4.275780e-005; T3: 4.335010e-006; T4: 2.205920e-009
Slope: 0.99982291; Offset: -3.07238
T5: 0.000000e+000
AD590M: 1.151000e-002
AD590B: -8.749880e+000

Sensor Channel 4: Frequency3, Temperature, 2; Sensor ID=55; Serial Number:
Calibration Date: 02-Apr-13
UseG_J: 1
A: 0.00000000e+000; B: 0.00000000e+000; C: 0.00000000e+000; D:
0.00000000e+000; F0_Old: 0.000
G: 4.35232305e-003
H: 6.46632031e-004
I: 2.24386514e-005
J: 1.95656353e-006
F0: 1000.000
Slope: 1.00000000; Offset: 0.0000

Sensor Channel 5: Frequency4, Conductivity, 2; Sensor ID=3; Serial Number:
Calibration Date: 31-Jan-13
UseG_J: 1
<!-- Cell const and series R are applicable only for wide range sensors. -->
Series R: 0.0000
CellConst: 2000.0000
ConductivityType: 0
Coefficients equation=0
\u00a0 A: 0.00000000e+000; B: 0.00000000e+000; C: 0.00000000e+000; D:
0.00000000e+000; M: 0.0
\u00a0 CPcor: -9.57000000e-008
Coefficients equation=1
\u00a0 G: -9.93055578e+000
\u00a0 H: 1.32723802e+000
\u00a0 I: -1.01831158e-003
\u00a0 J: 1.37808089e-004
\u00a0 CPcor: -9.57000000e-008
\u00a0 CTcor: 3.2500e-006
\u00a0 <!-- WBOTC not applicable unless ConductivityType = 1. -->
\u00a0 WBOTC: 0.00000000e+000
Slope: 1.00000000; Offset: 0.00000

Sensor Channel 6: A/D voltage 0, Oxygen, SBE 43; Sensor ID=38; Serial Number:
Calibration Date: 07-Aug-12
Use2007Equation: 1
CalibrationCoefficients equation=0
<!-- Coefficients for Owens-Millard equation. -->
\u00a0 Boc: 0.0000
\u00a0 Soc: 0.0000e+000
\u00a0 offset: 0.0000
\u00a0 Pcor: 0.00e+000
\u00a0 Tcor: 0.0000
\u00a0 Tau: 0.0
CalibrationCoefficients equation=1
<!-- Coefficients for Sea-Bird equation - SBE calibration in 2007 and later.
\u00a0 Soc: 5.1293e-001
\u00a0 offset: -0.4912
\u00a0 A: -2.3087e-003
\u00a0 B: 5.6369e-005
\u00a0 C: -1.0582e-006
\u00a0 D0: 2.5826e+000
\u00a0 D1: 1.92634e-004
\u00a0 D2: -4.64803e-002
\u00a0 E: 3.6000e-002
\u00a0 Tau20: 2.0000
\u00a0 H1: -3.3000e-002
\u00a0 H2: 5.0000e+003
\u00a0 H3: 1.4500e+003

Sensor Channel 7: A/D voltage 1, Oxygen, SBE 43, 2; Sensor ID=38; Serial
Number: 2194
Calibration Date: 28-Aug-12
Use2007Equation: 1
CalibrationCoefficients equation=0
<!-- Coefficients for Owens-Millard equation. -->
\u00a0 Boc: 0.0000
\u00a0 Soc: 0.0000e+000
\u00a0 offset: 0.0000
\u00a0 Pcor: 0.00e+000
\u00a0 Tcor: 0.0000
\u00a0 Tau: 0.0
CalibrationCoefficients equation=1
<!-- Coefficients for Sea-Bird equation - SBE calibration in 2007 and later.
\u00a0 Soc: 5.4510e-001
\u00a0 offset: -0.5002
\u00a0 A: -2.0842e-003
\u00a0 B: 3.3140e-005
\u00a0 C: -3.9685e-007
\u00a0 D0: 2.5826e+000
\u00a0 D1: 1.92634e-004
\u00a0 D2: -4.64803e-002
\u00a0 E: 3.6000e-002
\u00a0 Tau20: 1.4500
\u00a0 H1: -3.3000e-002
\u00a0 H2: 5.0000e+003
\u00a0 H3: 1.4500e+003

Sensor Channel 8: A/D voltage 2, Fluorometer, Seapoint; Sensor ID=11; Serial
Number: 2440
Calibration Date: 30-Apr-13
<!-- The following is an array index, not the actual gain setting. -->
GainSetting: 0; Offset: 0.000

Sensor Channel 9: A/D voltage 3, PAR/Irradiance, Biospherical/Licor; Sensor
ID=42; Serial Number: 70307
Calibration Date: 04-Feb-13
M: 1.00000000
B: 0.00000000
Calibration Constant: 10718113612.00428000
Multiplier: 1.00000000
Offset: 0.00083970

Sensor Channel 10: A/D voltage 4, Fluorometer, WET Labs ECO-AFL/FL; Sensor
ID=20; Serial Number: 1303
Calibration Date: 15-Mar-13
Scale Factor: 6.00000000e+000
<!-- Dark output -->
\u00a0 Vblank: 0.0580

Sensor Channel 11: A/D voltage 5, Turbidity Meter, WET Labs, ECO-NTU; Sensor
ID=67; Serial Number: 1303
Calibration Date: 15-Mar-13
ScaleFactor: 2.000000
<!-- Dark output -->
\u00a0 DarkVoltage: 0.083000

Sensor Channel 12: A/D voltage 6, Transmissometer, WET Labs C-Star; Sensor
ID=71; Serial Number: CST-1366DR
Calibration Date: 13-Mar-13
M: 21.5749
B: -0.0789
Path Length: 0.250

Sensor Channel13 : <!-- A/D voltage 7, Free -->

attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 55018
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1031064
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1031064 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_award_nid String 55019
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_award_number String OCE-1030518
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1030518 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String CTD Profiles from POWOW3 cruise (KM1312)
PI: Zackary Johnson (Duke University)
Co-PI: Erik Zinser (University of Tennessee)
Version: 11 July 2014
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2014-07-11T17:27:24Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-12-30T16:39:22Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &amp;time&lt;now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.518582.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double -118.316
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double 46.6888
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double 21.391
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double -118.316
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double -158.2908
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/518582 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_acronym String LI-COR Biospherical PAR
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 518654
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String The LI-COR Biospherical PAR Sensor is used to measure Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PAR) in the water column. This instrument designation is used when specific make and model are not known.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L22/current/TOOL0074/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String LI-COR Biospherical PAR Sensor
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 480
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_supplied_name String LI-COR Biospherical PAR
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_acronym String CTD SBE 9
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_nid String 518647
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_description String The Sea-Bird SBE 9 is a type of CTD instrument package. The SBE 9 is the Underwater Unit and is most often combined with the SBE 11 Deck Unit (for real-time readout using conductive wire) when deployed from a research vessel. The combination of the SBE 9 and SBE 11 is called a SBE 911. The SBE 9 uses Sea-Bird's standard modular temperature and conductivity sensors (SBE 3 and SBE 4). The SBE 9 CTD can be configured with auxiliary sensors to measure other parameters including dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, fluorometer, altimeter, etc.). Note that in most cases, it is more accurate to specify SBE 911 than SBE 9 since it is likely a SBE 11 deck unit was used. more information from Sea-Bird Electronics
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/130/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_name String CTD Sea-Bird 9
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_nid String 488
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_supplied_name String CTD SBE 9
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_acronym String SBE-43 DO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_dataset_instrument_nid String 518651
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_description String The Sea-Bird SBE 43 dissolved oxygen sensor is a redesign of the Clark polarographic membrane type of dissolved oxygen sensors. more information from Sea-Bird Electronics
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L22/current/TOOL0036/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_instrument_name String Sea-Bird SBE 43 Dissolved Oxygen Sensor
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_instrument_nid String 552
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_supplied_name String SBE-43 DO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_acronym String ECO AFL/FL
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_dataset_instrument_nid String 518648
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_description String The Environmental Characterization Optics (ECO) series of single channel fluorometers delivers both high resolution and wide ranges across the entire line of parameters using 14 bit digital processing. The ECO series excels in biological monitoring and dye trace studies. The potted optics block results in long term stability of the instrument and the optional anti-biofouling technology delivers truly long term field measurements.
more information from Wet Labs
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L22/current/TOOL0172/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_instrument_name String Wet Labs ECO-AFL/FL Fluorometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_instrument_nid String 592
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_supplied_name String ECO AFL/FL
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_acronym String WL CSTAR Trans
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_dataset_instrument_nid String 518653
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_description String A highly integrated opto-electronic design to provide a low cost, compact solution for underwater measurements of beam transmittance. The instrument is capable of either free space measurements, or through the use of an optical flow tube, flow-through sampling with a pump. It can be used in profiling, moored, or underway applications. more information from Wet Labs
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L22/current/TOOL0160/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_instrument_name String Wet Labs CSTAR Transmissometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_instrument_nid String 593
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_supplied_name String WL CSTAR Trans
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String active, altimetry, available, bco, bco-dmo, beam, beam_c, biological, cast, chemical, cond, cond2, conductivity, ctd, CTD_num, data, dataset, date, day, day_utc, depth, depth_w, dmo, downwelling, downwelling_photosynthetic_photon_radiance_in_sea_water, earth, Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Optics > Photosynthetically Active Radiation, Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Optics > Radiance, erddap, fluor, fluor_spt, iso, kg2, laboratory, latitude, longitude, management, month, month_utc, nbin, num, O2, O2_umol_kg, O2_umol_kg2, ocean, oceanography, oceans, office, optics, oxygen, par, photon, photosynthetic, photosynthetically, potemp, potemp2, preliminary, press, radiance, radiation, sal, sal2, satellite, science, sea, seawater, sigma, sigma_0, sigma_0_2, sonde, spt, start, station, temp2, temperature, time, time_start, umol, water, year
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords_vocabulary String GCMD Science Keywords
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/518582/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/518582 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double 46.6888
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'518582': {'press': 'flag - depth', 'lon_start': 'flag - longitude', 'ISO_DateTime_UTC': 'master - time', 'lat_start': 'flag - latitude'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/518582/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String Duke University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Zackary I. Johnson
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 50749
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String University of Tennessee Knoxville
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String UTK
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Erik Zinser
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 51286
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Duke University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Zackary I. Johnson
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 50749
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String Contact
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_name String Shannon Rauch
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_nid String 51498
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String POWOW
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String POWOW
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String Project also known as 'Prochlorococcus Of Warming Ocean Waters' (POWOW).
The two numerically-dominant ecotypes of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus partition the surface ocean niche latitudinally, with ecotype eMIT9312 dominant in the 30 degree N to 30 degree S region and eMED4 dominant at higher latitudes. These ecotypes may account for 25-50% of primary production in open ocean ecosystems, but this percentage is dependent on which ecotype dominates. The relative abundance of the two ecotypes follows a log-linear relationship with temperature, with the transition from eMIT9312 to eMED4 occurring at approx. 18 degrees C. From these descriptive data, it has been hypothesized that temperature is the primary driver of relative abundance. Their contribution to net primary production, however, appears to be independent of temperature, suggesting temperature regulates ecotype dominance through photosynthesis-independent mechanisms.
To test these hypotheses, the PIs are undertaking a series of field and lab studies to investigate the effect of temperature change on the distribution of these ecotypes. Two cruises in the North Pacific will trace the transitions from eMIT9312- to eMED4-dominated regions, with one cruise during the winter and the other during summer. They have hypothesized that the ratio of ecotype abundance will move latitudinally with the seasonal shift in temperature gradient: migration of the 18 degrees C isotherm northward in the summer will be matched by a similar migration of the 1:1 ecotype transition point. Multiple crossings of the 18 degrees C isotherm are proposed, and the summer cruise will also follow the isotherm to the Western US coast to gain insight on physical and geochemical influences. Environmental variables such as nutrient concentrations, light/mixing depths, and virus /grazing based mortality, which may impinge on the relationship between temperature and ecotype ratio, will be assessed through a series of multivariate analyses of the collected suite of physical, chemical and biological data. Seasonal comparisons will be complemented with on-deck incubations and lab competition assays (using existing and new isolates) that will establish, for the first time, how fitness coefficients of these ecotypes relate to temperature. As latitudinal shifts in temperature gradient and migration of ecotypes during seasonal warming likely share common features with high latitude warming as a consequence of climate change, the investigator's analyses will contribute important biological parameters (e.g., abundances, production rates, temperature change coefficients) for modeling biological and biogeochemical responses to climate change. This research will be integrated with that of committed collaborators, generating data sufficient for ecosystem-scale characterizations of the contributions of temperature (relative to other forcing factors) in constraining the range and seasonal migration of these numerically dominant marine phototrophs.
Publications produced as result of this research:
Rowe, J.M., DeBruyn, J.M., Poorvin, L., LeCleir, G.R., Johnson, Z.I., Zinser, E.R., and Wilhelm, S.W. 2012. Viral and bacterial abundance and production in the Western Pacific Ocean and the relation to other oceanic realms. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 72, p. 359. DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2011.01223.x
Morris, J.J., Lenski, R.E. and E.R. Zinser. 2012. The Black Queen Hypothesis: Evolution of Dependencies through Adaptive Gene Loss. mBio, 3, p. e00036-12. DOI: 10.1128/mBio.00036-12
Morris, J.J., Johnson, Z.I., Szul, M.J., Keller, M., and Zinser, E.R. 2011. Dependence of the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus on hydrogen peroxide scavenging microbes for growth at the ocean's surface. PLoS One, 6(2), p. 16805. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0016805
Ringuet, S., Sassano, L., and Johnson, Z.I. 2011. A suite of microplate reader-based colorimetric methods to quantify ammonium, nitrate, orthophosphate and silicate concentrations for aquatic nutrient monitoring. Journal of Environmental Monitoring. DOI:10.1039/C0EM00290A
Ritchie, A.E. and Johnson, Z.I. 2012. Abundance and genetic diversity of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria of coastal regions of the Pacific Ocean. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78, p. 2858. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.06268-11
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2014-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Eastern North Pacific Ocean
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Seasonal and decadal changes in temperature drive Prochlorococcus ecotype distribution patterns
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 2237
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_website String http://oceanography.ml.duke.edu/johnson/research/powow/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2010-10
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double 21.391
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL subsetVariables String month_utc,year
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Binned-profile CTD data from cruise KM1312 during July 2013. Data were processed with Sea-Bird SBE Data Processing Version 7.21K.
attribute NC_GLOBAL time_coverage_end String 2013-07-27T19:10:18Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL time_coverage_start String 2013-07-02T04:14:31Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Processed CTD data from R/V Kilo Moana cruise KM1312 in the Eastern North Pacific Ocean from 2013-2013 (POWOW project)
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double -158.2908
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable CTD_num   String  
attribute CTD_num bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute CTD_num description String CTD number (sequential for the cruise).
attribute CTD_num long_name String CTD Num
attribute CTD_num units String unitless
variable station   String  
attribute station bcodmo_name String station
attribute station description String Station number (sequential based on location).
attribute station long_name String Station
attribute station units String unitless
variable cast   String  
attribute cast bcodmo_name String cast
attribute cast description String Cast number (sequential; starts at 01 for each new location/station number). Some cast numbers may be missing/skipped for a given station because of aborted casts.
attribute cast long_name String Cast
attribute cast units String unitless
variable month_utc   String  
attribute month_utc bcodmo_name String month_utc
attribute month_utc description String 2-digit month of year, UTC, at start of cast.
attribute month_utc long_name String Month Utc
attribute month_utc units String mm (01 to 12)
variable day_utc   String  
attribute day_utc bcodmo_name String day_utc
attribute day_utc description String 2-digit day of month, UTC, at start of cast.
attribute day_utc long_name String Day Utc
attribute day_utc units String dd (01 to 31)
variable year   short  
attribute year _FillValue short 32767
attribute year actual_range short 2013, 2013
attribute year bcodmo_name String year
attribute year description String 4-digit year at start of cast. in the format YYYY
attribute year long_name String Year
attribute year nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/YEARXXXX/ (external link)
attribute year units String unitless
variable time_start   String  
attribute time_start bcodmo_name String time_start
attribute time_start description String Time (UTC) at start of CTD cast, 24-hour clock.
attribute time_start long_name String Time Start
attribute time_start units String HHMM
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double 21.391, 46.6888
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude bcodmo_name String lat_start
attribute latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute latitude description String Latitude at start of CTD cast. Positive = North.
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute latitude source_name String lat_start
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double -158.2908, -118.316
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude bcodmo_name String lon_start
attribute longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute longitude description String Longitude at start of CTD cast. Positive = East.
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute longitude source_name String lon_start
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable depth_w   short  
attribute depth_w _FillValue short 32767
attribute depth_w actual_range short 349, 6000
attribute depth_w bcodmo_name String depth_w
attribute depth_w colorBarMaximum double 8000.0
attribute depth_w colorBarMinimum double -8000.0
attribute depth_w colorBarPalette String TopographyDepth
attribute depth_w description String Depth of the water (bottom depth).
attribute depth_w long_name String Depth
attribute depth_w standard_name String depth
attribute depth_w units String meters
variable time   double  
attribute time _CoordinateAxisType String Time
attribute time actual_range double 1.372738471E9, 1.374952218E9
attribute time axis String T
attribute time bcodmo_name String ISO_DateTime_UTC
attribute time description String Date/Time (UTC) ISO8601 formatted. T indicates start of time string; Z indicates UTC.
attribute time ioos_category String Time
attribute time long_name String ISO Date Time UTC
attribute time nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/DTUT8601/ (external link)
attribute time source_name String ISO_DateTime_UTC
attribute time standard_name String time
attribute time time_origin String 01-JAN-1970 00:00:00
attribute time time_precision String 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z
attribute time units String seconds since 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z
variable press   double  
attribute press _FillValue double NaN
attribute press actual_range double 1.0, 4502.0
attribute press bcodmo_name String pressure
attribute press description String Pressure, Digiquartz.
attribute press long_name String Press
attribute press nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/PRESPR01/ (external link)
attribute press units String decibars
variable temp   float  
attribute temp _FillValue float NaN
attribute temp actual_range float 1.4854, 26.5629
attribute temp bcodmo_name String temperature
attribute temp description String Temperature from primary sensor, ITS-68, measured in degrees Celsius.
attribute temp long_name String Temperature
attribute temp nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/TEMPP901/ (external link)
attribute temp units String degrees C
variable temp2   float  
attribute temp2 _FillValue float NaN
attribute temp2 actual_range float 1.4841, 26.5595
attribute temp2 bcodmo_name String temp2
attribute temp2 description String Temperature from secondary sensor, ITS-68, measured in degrees Celsius.
attribute temp2 long_name String Temp2
attribute temp2 nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/TEMPS601/ (external link)
attribute temp2 units String degrees C
variable cond   float  
attribute cond _FillValue float NaN
attribute cond actual_range float 3.134457, 5.502325
attribute cond bcodmo_name String conductivity
attribute cond description String Conductivity from primary sensor measured in Siemens per meter.
attribute cond long_name String Cond
attribute cond nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/CNDC/ (external link)
attribute cond units String S/m
variable cond2   float  
attribute cond2 _FillValue float NaN
attribute cond2 actual_range float 1.224634, 5.501779
attribute cond2 bcodmo_name String cond2
attribute cond2 description String Conductivity from secondary sensor measured in Siemens per meter.
attribute cond2 long_name String Cond2
attribute cond2 nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/CNDC/ (external link)
attribute cond2 units String S/m
variable O2_umol_kg   float  
attribute O2_umol_kg _FillValue float NaN
attribute O2_umol_kg actual_range float 10.013, 282.413
attribute O2_umol_kg bcodmo_name String O2_umol_kg
attribute O2_umol_kg description String Oxygen measured by primary SBE 43 sensor in micromoles per kilogram.
attribute O2_umol_kg long_name String O2 Umol Kg
attribute O2_umol_kg units String umol/kg
variable O2_umol_kg2   float  
attribute O2_umol_kg2 _FillValue float NaN
attribute O2_umol_kg2 actual_range float 8.228, 581.072
attribute O2_umol_kg2 bcodmo_name String O2_umol_kg
attribute O2_umol_kg2 description String Oxygen measured by secondary SBE 43 sensor in micromoles per kilogram.
attribute O2_umol_kg2 long_name String O2 Umol Kg2
attribute O2_umol_kg2 units String umol/kg
variable fluor   float  
attribute fluor _FillValue float NaN
attribute fluor actual_range float -0.2718, 31.0938
attribute fluor bcodmo_name String fluorescence
attribute fluor description String Fluorescence measured by WET Labs ECO-AFL/FL in milligrams per cubic meter.
attribute fluor long_name String Fluor
attribute fluor nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/CPHLPM01/ (external link)
attribute fluor units String mg/m^3
variable fluor_spt   float  
attribute fluor_spt _FillValue float NaN
attribute fluor_spt actual_range float 0.02544, 4.7961
attribute fluor_spt bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute fluor_spt description String Fluorescence, Seapoint.
attribute fluor_spt long_name String Fluor Spt
attribute fluor_spt units String ?
variable sal   float  
attribute sal _FillValue float NaN
attribute sal actual_range float 32.5192, 35.504
attribute sal bcodmo_name String sal
attribute sal description String Salinity from primary sensor in practical salinity units.
attribute sal long_name String Sal
attribute sal nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/PSALST01/ (external link)
attribute sal units String PSU
variable sal2   float  
attribute sal2 _FillValue float NaN
attribute sal2 actual_range float 7.6564, 35.9911
attribute sal2 bcodmo_name String sal2
attribute sal2 description String Salinity from secondary sensor in practical salinity units.
attribute sal2 long_name String Sal2
attribute sal2 units String PSU
variable sigma_0   float  
attribute sigma_0 _FillValue float NaN
attribute sigma_0 actual_range float 23.0269, 27.782
attribute sigma_0 bcodmo_name String sigma_0
attribute sigma_0 description String Sigma theta density from primary sensor in kilograms per cubic meter.
attribute sigma_0 long_name String Sigma 0
attribute sigma_0 nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/SIGTPR01/ (external link)
attribute sigma_0 units String kg/m^3
variable sigma_0_2   float  
attribute sigma_0_2 _FillValue float NaN
attribute sigma_0_2 actual_range float 4.2525, 27.7851
attribute sigma_0_2 bcodmo_name String sigma_0
attribute sigma_0_2 description String Sigma theta density from secondary sensor in kilograms per cubic meter.
attribute sigma_0_2 long_name String Sigma 0 2
attribute sigma_0_2 nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/SIGTPR01/ (external link)
attribute sigma_0_2 units String kg/m^3
variable potemp   float  
attribute potemp _FillValue float NaN
attribute potemp actual_range float 1.1384, 26.5547
attribute potemp bcodmo_name String potemp
attribute potemp description String Potential temperature from primary sensor, ITS-90, measured in degrees Celsius.
attribute potemp long_name String Potemp
attribute potemp nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/POTMCV01/ (external link)
attribute potemp units String degrees C
variable potemp2   float  
attribute potemp2 _FillValue float NaN
attribute potemp2 actual_range float 1.1375, 26.5577
attribute potemp2 bcodmo_name String potential temperature 2
attribute potemp2 description String Potential temperature from secondary sensor, ITS-90, measured in degrees Celsius.
attribute potemp2 long_name String Potemp2
attribute potemp2 units String degrees C
variable beam_c   float  
attribute beam_c _FillValue float NaN
attribute beam_c actual_range float -0.8581, 3.5252
attribute beam_c bcodmo_name String beam_c
attribute beam_c description String Beam attenuation measured by the WET Labs C-Star transmissometer.
attribute beam_c long_name String Beam C
attribute beam_c nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ATTNZZ01/ (external link)
attribute beam_c units String 1/m
variable par   float  
attribute par _FillValue float NaN
attribute par actual_range float 0.09414, 5656.6
attribute par bcodmo_name String PAR
attribute par colorBarMaximum double 70.0
attribute par colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute par description String PAR/Irradiance, Biospherical/Licor
attribute par long_name String Downwelling Photosynthetic Photon Radiance In Sea Water
attribute par units String ?
variable nbin   byte  
attribute nbin _FillValue byte 127
attribute nbin actual_range byte 0, 54
attribute nbin bcodmo_name String nbin
attribute nbin description String Number of scans per bin.
attribute nbin long_name String Nbin
attribute nbin units String unitless

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