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     data   graph     files  public Experimental results describing Stegastes planiforms attack behavior towards Pterois volitans
and native predators in the Cayman Islands and the Bahamas during 2011
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Area of study and microhabitat assessment

This study was conducted during July-August 2011, observing the behavioral
response of 40 three spot damselfish:\u00a020 in the Bahamas and 20 in the
Cayman Islands.\u00a0 Damselfish in these two locations were chosen to be
studied because of their difference in timing of the lionfish invasion:
lionfish were first sighted in the Bahamas in 2004 and in the Cayman Islands
in 2008 (Schofield 2009). In the Bahamas, damselfish were studied at three
sites in the shallow waters (sites were <4 m deep) of the Great Bahama Bank in
the vicinity of Lee Stocking Island, which is part of the Exuma Cays. Study
sites consisted of patch reefs composed of small coral heads and larger coral
bommies surrounded by sand and seagrass beds. About 380 miles Southwest of Lee
Stocking Island, damselfish behavior was observed\u00a0off of Little Cayman
Island at three deeper sites (6\u201312 m deep) located along the northern
side of the island, just inshore of the Bloody Bay Wall. This area is
characterized by continuous stretches of reef that includes coral heads of
various sizes and large coral formations.

The benthic territories maintained year-round by three spot damselfish are
less than 1 m2 and are easily identified by the algal gardens covering reef
substrata that the damselfish cultivate (Brawley and Adey 1977). The
underlying substrata of damselfish territories differed at sites both within
and between the Bahamas and Cayman Islands. Since the type of habitat could
potentially affect damselfish response by influencing an individual\u2019s
ability to defend its territory,\u00a0the microhabitat of each damselfish
territory was characterized by recording the following four habitat
categories: (1) low-relief dead coral rubble (mostly Acropora cervicornis),
(2) low-relief continuous reef, (3) high-relief large coral\u00a0bommies, and
(4) high-relief continuous reef. Low-relief habitats lacked vertical
structure, whereas\u00a0high-relief\u00a0habitats consisted of vertical
structure over 1 m high, which could potentially interfere with the ability of
damselfish to detect intruders.

Experimental treatments and fish capture

Each three spot damselfish was exposed to a series of treatments consisting of
a single individual of (1) invasive lionfish, or the following native fishes,
all of which are commonly found on reefs near three spot damselfish
territories and are chased at varying degrees by damselfish (Thresher 1976;
Robertson 1984): (2) herbivorous ocean surgeonfish (Acanthurus bahianus), a
potential food competitor; (3) white grunt (Haemulon plumierii), a potential
egg predator; and (4) coney grouper (Cephalopholis fulva), a mesopredator
ecologically similar to lionfish and at larger sizes is a potential predator
of three spot damselfish. At both study regions, 2-3 individuals were captured
per fish species, which were rotated daily for experimental use based on each
individual\u2019s appearance, apparent condition, and behavior. All fish were
caught underwater from non-study sites using hand nets and the fish anesthetic
quinaldine when needed. Body size of individual fish, ranging from 10 to 18 cm
TL, was restricted to allow for ease of movement in bottles during the
experiment. At these sizes, both lionfish and coney grouper were sufficiently
large to pose a threat to small recruit fishes inhabiting damselfish
territories (Albins 2013). Fish were maintained in flow-through aquarium tanks
both prior to and between daily observational trials.

Model-bottle experiment

Using a model-bottle study design (Myrberg and Thresher 1974), individual fish
were presented in weighted, clear-plastic gallon bottles to haphazardly
located adult damselfish (7\u201311 cm total length [TL]) in order to measure
the relative behavioral responses exhibited by each focal damselfish. Bottle
lids were replaced with secured mesh screening to allow for flow of both water
and any fish chemical cues. An empty bottle was used as a control treatment.
Each treatment was introduced in random order to individual damselfish
territories. All fishes inside bottles were either resting or hovering upon

To measure damselfish aggression per treatment, each bottle was sequentially
placed at 100, 50, and 0 cm away from the center of each territory. At each
increment, damselfish behavior was observed from a distance of 3 m for 2 min,
counting the number of times the focal damselfish made physical contact with
the bottle (attack rate) and tallying which aggressive behaviors each
damselfish displayed: (1) contact with the mouth while hovering in place
directly next to the bottle (nip); (2) contact with the caudal fin while
hovering in place directly next to the bottle (butt); (3) starting from a
distance, swimming with force directly towards the bottle, making contact with
mouth, and then quickly swimming away from the bottle (charge); and, (4)
repeatedly charging the bottle multiple times (continuous attack). These
categories encompass three spot damselfish behavior known to effectively
exclude intruders (Thresher 1976). Avoidance behavior by damselfish was also
noted, such as entering refuge sites within their territories (Helfman 1989).

Each bottle was then placed at the closest distance to the territory at which
the damselfish had previously made no physical contact with the bottle, then
gradually moved the bottle closer to the center of the territory until the
damselfish approached the bottle and made physical contact. If the damselfish
had previously attacked the bottle at 100 cm away from the territory, the
bottle was placed at 150 cm where all damselfish ceased attacking the bottle,
and gradually moved the bottle closer to the territory from there. This method
provided a measurement of the \u201cmaximum distance of attack\u201d (sensu
Myrberg and Thresher 1974) per treatment.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 561016
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1233027
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1233027 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Damselfish Attack Behavior
LeadPI: Mark Hixon
Sub-Project Lead: Tye L. Kindinger
Version 26 July 2016
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2016-08-01T20:47:57Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-05-22T19:25:01Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &amp;time&lt;now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.653031.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double -76.0
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double 24.0
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double 19.0
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double -76.0
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double -80.0
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/653031 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String attack, bco, bco-dmo, biological, bottle, bottle_treatment, butt, charge, chemical, continuous, continuous_attack, damsel, damsel_number, data, dataset, dmo, erddap, latitude, longitude, management, nip, number, oceanography, office, preliminary, treatment
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/653031/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/653031 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double 24.0
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'653031': {'lat': 'master - latitude', 'lon': 'master - longitude'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/653031/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String University of Hawaii
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Mark Hixon
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 51647
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Oregon State University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String OSU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Tye L. Kindinger
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 51707
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Contact
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Hannah Ake
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 650173
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String BiodiversityLossEffects_lionfish
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String BiodiversityLossEffects_lionfish
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String The Pacific red lionfish (Pterois volitans), a popular aquarium fish, was introduced to the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Florida in the late 20th century. Voraciously consuming small native coral-reef fishes, including the juveniles of fisheries and ecologically important species, the invader has undergone a population explosion that now ranges from the U.S. southeastern seaboard to the Gulf of Mexico and across the greater Caribbean region. The PI's past research determined that invasive lionfish (1) have escaped their natural enemies in the Pacific (lionfish are much less abundant in their native range); (2) are not yet controlled by Atlantic predators, competitors, or parasites; (3) have strong negative effects on populations of native Atlantic fishes; and (4) locally reduce the diversity (number of species) of native fishes. The lionfish invasion has been recognized as one of the major conservation threats worldwide.
The Bahamas support the highest abundances of invasive lionfish globally. This system thus provides an unprecedented opportunity to understand the direct and indirect effects of a major invader on a diverse community, as well as the underlying causative mechanisms. The PI will focus on five related questions: (1) How does long-term predation by lionfish alter the structure of native reef-fish communities? (2) How does lionfish predation destabilize native prey population dynamics, possibly causing local extinctions? (3) Is there a lionfish-herbivore-seaweed trophic cascade on invaded reefs? (4) How do lionfish modify cleaning mutualisms on invaded reefs? (5) Are lionfish reaching densities where natural population limits are evident?
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2016-07
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Three Bahamian sites: 24.8318, -076.3299; 23.8562, -076.2250; 23.7727, -076.1071; Caribbean Netherlands: 12.1599, -068.2820
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Mechanisms and Consequences of Fish Biodiversity Loss on Atlantic Coral Reefs Caused by Invasive Pacific Lionfish
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 561017
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_website String http://hixon.science.oregonstate.edu/content/highlight-lionfish-invasion (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2012-08
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double 19.0
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Experimental results describing Stegastes planiforms attack behavior towards Pterois volitans and native predators in the Cayman Islands and the Bahamas during 2011
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Experimental results describing Stegastes planiforms attack behavior towards Pterois volitans and native predators in the Cayman Islands and the Bahamas during 2011
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double -80.0
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable location   String  
attribute location bcodmo_name String site
attribute location description String location of sampling
attribute location long_name String Location
attribute location units String unitless
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double 19.0, 24.0
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude bcodmo_name String latitude
attribute latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute latitude description String latitude
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double -80.0, -76.0
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude bcodmo_name String longitude
attribute longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute longitude description String longitude
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable bottle_treatment   String  
attribute bottle_treatment bcodmo_name String treatment
attribute bottle_treatment description String type of predator fish within the bottle that was introduced to damselfish
attribute bottle_treatment long_name String Bottle Treatment
attribute bottle_treatment units String unitless
variable damsel_number   byte  
attribute damsel_number _FillValue byte 127
attribute damsel_number actual_range byte 1, 40
attribute damsel_number bcodmo_name String sample
attribute damsel_number colorBarMaximum double 100.0
attribute damsel_number colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute damsel_number description String damselfish id number; 1-20
attribute damsel_number long_name String Damsel Number
attribute damsel_number nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/ACYC/ (external link)
attribute damsel_number units String unitless
variable charge   byte  
attribute charge _FillValue byte 127
attribute charge actual_range byte 0, 1
attribute charge bcodmo_name String behav_code
attribute charge description String charging behavior exhibited (1=Yes 0=No): starting from a distance; swimming with force directly towards the bottle; making contact with mouth; then quickly swimming away from the bottle
attribute charge long_name String Charge
attribute charge units String unitless
variable nip   byte  
attribute nip _FillValue byte 127
attribute nip actual_range byte 0, 1
attribute nip bcodmo_name String behav_code
attribute nip description String nipping behavior exhibited (1=Yes 0=No): contact with the mouth while hovering in place directly next to the bottle
attribute nip long_name String Nip
attribute nip units String unitless
variable butt   byte  
attribute butt _FillValue byte 127
attribute butt actual_range byte 0, 1
attribute butt bcodmo_name String behav_code
attribute butt description String butting behavior exhibited (1=Yes 0=No): contact with the caudal fin while hovering in place directly next to the bottle
attribute butt long_name String Butt
attribute butt units String unitless
variable continuous_attack   byte  
attribute continuous_attack _FillValue byte 127
attribute continuous_attack actual_range byte 0, 1
attribute continuous_attack bcodmo_name String behav_code
attribute continuous_attack description String continuous attacking behavior exhibited (1=Yes 0=No): repeatedly charging the bottle multiple times
attribute continuous_attack long_name String Continuous Attack
attribute continuous_attack units String unitless

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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