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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
   set  data   graph     files  public Effect of lionfish densities on native coral-reef fishes from Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas
during 2009-2012 (Biodiversity Loss Effects Lionfish project)
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String This was a field experiment conducted on artificial patch reefs to test for
effects of\u00a0invasive red lionfish density on native coral-reef fishes.
Four reefs were used as 0-lionfish control reefs and there was one reef per
remaining lionfish treatment (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 lionfish/m2). Using SCUBA
and handnets, we collected lionfish ranging in initial size from 40 to 71mm
total length [TL] from nearby reefs.\u00a0 Each lionfish was given a unique
elastomer tag (Northwest Marine Technology Inc., Shaw Island, WA, USA) to
differentiate between lionfish at the start of the experiment and any new
immigrants over the course of the study and to monitor demographic rates as
part of another study (see related files and references). Treatments were
started on all reefs within a 2-week period. To maintain treatments, we
monitored lionfish density during weekly visits and removed any new lionfish
recruits (total of 15 throughout experiment) and immigrants (total of 5
throughout experiment). In addition, we removed resident native piscivores and
standardized the number of Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus) and
territorial damselfishes (Stegastes spp.) weekly to mitigate any confounding
effects of these strong interactors on fish recruitment. Of the lionfish
initially placed on the reefs, only 6 out of 40 disappeared. To account for
the small changes in lionfish density throughout the experiment, we averaged
the weekly lionfish densities on each reef over the course of the experiment
(1, 2, 4, 7, 10, and 12 lionfish/m2).

Following the establishment of lionfish density treatments, a pair of divers
using SCUBA censused the entire fish community on each reef weekly for 7
weeks, recording the species, abundance, and body size (TL estimated to the
nearest centimeter) of all fish present both on the reefs and within a 1-m
radius around the reefs. Divers slowly approached the reefs and first counted
all planktivorous and active species hovering above the reefs from a distance
of approximately 3 m. From a distance of 1 m, the divers slowly circled the
reefs and counted all other species, using dive lights to count cryptic
species in holes.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 561016
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1233027
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1233027 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Effects on Native Fishes - Census Data
Lead PI: Mark Hixon
Sub-Project Lead: Casey Benkwitt
Version 12 August 2016
Species codes are first two letters of genus and species; See species key.
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2016-08-22T19:05:26Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-05-14T20:45:06Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.655301.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/655301 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, count, data, dataset, day, density, dmo, end, erddap, initial, invert, invert_count, length, length_max_1, length_max_10, length_max_100, length_max_15, length_max_150, length_max_2, length_max_20, length_max_25, length_max_3, length_max_30, length_max_35, length_max_4, length_max_40, length_max_45, length_max_5, length_max_50, lionfish, lionfish_density_initial, lionfish_density_mean, management, max, mean, month, notes, number, oceanography, office, preliminary, reef, reef_number, reef_type, species, start, time, time_end, time_start, type, visit, visit_number, year
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/655301/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/655301 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'655301': {}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/655301/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String University of Hawaii
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Mark Hixon
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 51647
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Oregon State University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String OSU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Cassandra E. Benkwitt
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 51706
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Contact
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Hannah Ake
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 650173
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String BiodiversityLossEffects_lionfish
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String BiodiversityLossEffects_lionfish
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String The Pacific red lionfish (Pterois volitans), a popular aquarium fish, was introduced to the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Florida in the late 20th century. Voraciously consuming small native coral-reef fishes, including the juveniles of fisheries and ecologically important species, the invader has undergone a population explosion that now ranges from the U.S. southeastern seaboard to the Gulf of Mexico and across the greater Caribbean region. The PI's past research determined that invasive lionfish (1) have escaped their natural enemies in the Pacific (lionfish are much less abundant in their native range); (2) are not yet controlled by Atlantic predators, competitors, or parasites; (3) have strong negative effects on populations of native Atlantic fishes; and (4) locally reduce the diversity (number of species) of native fishes. The lionfish invasion has been recognized as one of the major conservation threats worldwide.
The Bahamas support the highest abundances of invasive lionfish globally. This system thus provides an unprecedented opportunity to understand the direct and indirect effects of a major invader on a diverse community, as well as the underlying causative mechanisms. The PI will focus on five related questions: (1) How does long-term predation by lionfish alter the structure of native reef-fish communities? (2) How does lionfish predation destabilize native prey population dynamics, possibly causing local extinctions? (3) Is there a lionfish-herbivore-seaweed trophic cascade on invaded reefs? (4) How do lionfish modify cleaning mutualisms on invaded reefs? (5) Are lionfish reaching densities where natural population limits are evident?�
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2016-07
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Three Bahamian sites: 24.8318, -076.3299; 23.8562, -076.2250; 23.7727, -076.1071; Caribbean Netherlands: 12.1599, -068.2820
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Mechanisms and Consequences of Fish Biodiversity Loss on Atlantic Coral Reefs Caused by Invasive Pacific Lionfish
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 561017
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_website String http://hixon.science.oregonstate.edu/content/highlight-lionfish-invasion (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2012-08
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL subsetVariables String year,reef_type,length_max_50
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Effect of lionfish densities on native coral-reef fishes from Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas during 2009-2012 (Biodiversity Loss Effects Lionfish project)
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Effect of lionfish densities on native coral-reef fishes from Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas during 2009-2012 (Biodiversity Loss Effects Lionfish project)
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable year   short  
attribute year _FillValue short 32767
attribute year actual_range short 2011, 2011
attribute year bcodmo_name String year
attribute year description String Year of survey; YYYY
attribute year long_name String Year
attribute year nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/YEARXXXX/ (external link)
attribute year units String unitless
variable reef_type   String  
attribute reef_type bcodmo_name String site_descrip
attribute reef_type description String ART = Artificial; all observations conducted on an artificial reef
attribute reef_type long_name String Reef Type
attribute reef_type units String unitless
variable month   byte  
attribute month _FillValue byte 127
attribute month actual_range byte 6, 8
attribute month bcodmo_name String month
attribute month description String Month of survey; mm
attribute month long_name String Month
attribute month nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/MNTHXXXX/ (external link)
attribute month units String unitless
variable visit_number   byte  
attribute visit_number _FillValue byte 127
attribute visit_number actual_range byte 1, 9
attribute visit_number bcodmo_name String numb_obs
attribute visit_number colorBarMaximum double 100.0
attribute visit_number colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute visit_number description String Visit number; typically one visit per reef per week
attribute visit_number long_name String Visit Number
attribute visit_number units String unitless
variable day   byte  
attribute day _FillValue byte 127
attribute day actual_range byte 1, 31
attribute day bcodmo_name String day
attribute day description String Day of survey; dd
attribute day long_name String Day
attribute day nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/DAYXXXXX/ (external link)
attribute day units String unitless
variable reef_number   String  
attribute reef_number bcodmo_name String site
attribute reef_number description String Reef id number
attribute reef_number long_name String Reef Number
attribute reef_number units String unitless
variable time_start   String  
attribute time_start bcodmo_name String time_start
attribute time_start description String Time that census began; HH:MM
attribute time_start long_name String Time Start
attribute time_start units String unitless
variable time_end   String  
attribute time_end bcodmo_name String time_end
attribute time_end description String Time that census ended; HH:MM
attribute time_end long_name String Time End
attribute time_end units String unitless
variable lionfish_density_initial   byte  
attribute lionfish_density_initial _FillValue byte 127
attribute lionfish_density_initial actual_range byte 0, 14
attribute lionfish_density_initial bcodmo_name String density
attribute lionfish_density_initial description String Initial number of lionfish that were transplanted to each reef; each reef measured 1 square meters so lionfish density = number of lionfish on the reef
attribute lionfish_density_initial long_name String Lionfish Density Initial
attribute lionfish_density_initial units String count per meter squared
variable lionfish_density_mean   byte  
attribute lionfish_density_mean _FillValue byte 127
attribute lionfish_density_mean actual_range byte 0, 14
attribute lionfish_density_mean bcodmo_name String density
attribute lionfish_density_mean description String Average lionfish density (rounded to the nearest fish) on each reef throughout the experiment
attribute lionfish_density_mean long_name String Lionfish Density Mean
attribute lionfish_density_mean units String count per meter squared
variable species   String  
attribute species bcodmo_name String species
attribute species description String First 2 letters of genus and first 2 letters of species; see species key dataset for full species names.
attribute species long_name String Species
attribute species units String unitless
variable length_max_1   byte  
attribute length_max_1 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_1 actual_range byte 0, 12
attribute length_max_1 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_1 description String Number of individuals that were between 0-1 cm total length
attribute length_max_1 long_name String Length Max 1
attribute length_max_1 units String count
variable length_max_2   byte  
attribute length_max_2 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_2 actual_range byte 0, 31
attribute length_max_2 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_2 description String Number of individuals that were between 1.1-2 cm total length
attribute length_max_2 long_name String Length Max 2
attribute length_max_2 units String count
variable length_max_3   byte  
attribute length_max_3 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_3 actual_range byte 0, 42
attribute length_max_3 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_3 description String Number of individuals that were between 2.1-3 cm total length
attribute length_max_3 long_name String Length Max 3
attribute length_max_3 units String count
variable length_max_4   byte  
attribute length_max_4 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_4 actual_range byte 0, 25
attribute length_max_4 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_4 description String Number of individuals that were between 3.1-4 cm total length
attribute length_max_4 long_name String Length Max 4
attribute length_max_4 units String count
variable length_max_5   byte  
attribute length_max_5 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_5 actual_range byte 0, 12
attribute length_max_5 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_5 description String Number of individuals that were between 4.1-5 cm total length
attribute length_max_5 long_name String Length Max 5
attribute length_max_5 units String count
variable length_max_10   byte  
attribute length_max_10 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_10 actual_range byte 0, 25
attribute length_max_10 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_10 description String Number of individuals that were between 5.1-10 cm total length
attribute length_max_10 long_name String Length Max 10
attribute length_max_10 units String count
variable length_max_15   byte  
attribute length_max_15 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_15 actual_range byte 0, 50
attribute length_max_15 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_15 description String Number of individuals that were between 10.1-15 cm total length
attribute length_max_15 long_name String Length Max 15
attribute length_max_15 units String count
variable length_max_20   byte  
attribute length_max_20 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_20 actual_range byte 0, 50
attribute length_max_20 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_20 description String Number of individuals that were between 15.1-20 cm total length
attribute length_max_20 long_name String Length Max 20
attribute length_max_20 units String count
variable length_max_25   byte  
attribute length_max_25 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_25 actual_range byte 0, 20
attribute length_max_25 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_25 description String Number of individuals that were between 20.1-25 cm total length
attribute length_max_25 long_name String Length Max 25
attribute length_max_25 units String count
variable length_max_30   byte  
attribute length_max_30 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_30 actual_range byte 0, 15
attribute length_max_30 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_30 description String Number of individuals that were between 25.1-30 cm total length
attribute length_max_30 long_name String Length Max 30
attribute length_max_30 units String count
variable length_max_35   byte  
attribute length_max_35 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_35 actual_range byte 0, 3
attribute length_max_35 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_35 description String Number of individuals that were between 30.1-35 cm total length
attribute length_max_35 long_name String Length Max 35
attribute length_max_35 units String count
variable length_max_40   byte  
attribute length_max_40 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_40 actual_range byte 0, 2
attribute length_max_40 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_40 description String Number of individuals that were between 35.1-40 cm total length
attribute length_max_40 long_name String Length Max 40
attribute length_max_40 units String count
variable length_max_45   byte  
attribute length_max_45 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_45 actual_range byte 0, 1
attribute length_max_45 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_45 description String Number of individuals that were between 40.1-45 cm total length
attribute length_max_45 long_name String Length Max 45
attribute length_max_45 units String count
variable length_max_50   byte  
attribute length_max_50 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_50 actual_range byte 0, 0
attribute length_max_50 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_50 description String Number of individuals that were between 45.1-50 cm total length
attribute length_max_50 long_name String Length Max 50
attribute length_max_50 units String count
variable length_max_100   byte  
attribute length_max_100 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_100 actual_range byte 0, 1
attribute length_max_100 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_100 description String Number of individuals that were between 50.1-100 cm total length
attribute length_max_100 long_name String Length Max 100
attribute length_max_100 units String count
variable length_max_150   byte  
attribute length_max_150 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_150 actual_range byte 0, 1
attribute length_max_150 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_150 description String Number of individuals that were between 100.1-150 cm total length
attribute length_max_150 long_name String Length Max 150
attribute length_max_150 units String count
variable invert_count   byte  
attribute invert_count _FillValue byte 127
attribute invert_count actual_range byte 0, 13
attribute invert_count bcodmo_name String abundance
attribute invert_count colorBarMaximum double 100.0
attribute invert_count colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute invert_count description String Abundance of invertebrates surveyed; sizes were not estimated. See species key dataset for full species names.
attribute invert_count long_name String Invert Count
attribute invert_count nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P03/current/B070/ (external link)
attribute invert_count units String count
variable notes   String  
attribute notes bcodmo_name String comment
attribute notes description String Notes on observations
attribute notes long_name String Notes
attribute notes units String unitless

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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