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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
   set  data   graph     files  public Effect of lionfish presence on native fish abundance in standardized habitat units in
seagrass in Eleuthera, Bahamas during 2013 (Biodiversity Loss Effects Lionfish project)
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String This was a manipulative field experiment conducted during June \u2013 August
2013 to determine whether lionfish affect native fishes in the areas
surrounding coral patch reefs.\u00a0 Sixteen patch reefs were paired based on
similarity in location, size, benthic composition, initial fish community, and
surrounding habitat, then one reef in each pair was randomly assigned to
either low-lionfish or high-lionfish treatments.\u00a0 A pair of divers
removed all lionfish from the eight low-lionfish reefs during weekly visits
(resulting mean lionfish density on low-lionfish reefs was 0.01 to 0.03
lionfish/square meter).\u00a0 The eight remaining reefs were maintained as
high-lionfish treatment reefs, with divers adding lionfish to the reefs to
keep densities within the naturally occurring range observed in Rock Sound
(resulting mean lionfish density on high-lionfish reefs was 0.12 to 0.29
lionfish/square meter. \u00a0

A pair of divers returned to each reef weekly for 7 weeks to census the native
fish communities on the main reefs and in three different habitat types in the
surrounding areas.\u00a0 During all surveys, divers counted all fish less than
15 cm TL and all piscivores of any size.\u00a0 Around each main reef, selected
between one and four satellite coral heads were haphazardly selected to
survey.\u00a0 Satellite coral heads were small structures comprised of one to
several coral colonies, ranging in size from 0.31 to 4.7 meters squared and
located between 3.8 and 25.1 m from the main reefs.\u00a0 In addition to being
smaller than the main reefs, satellite heads also supported neither resident
lionfish nor native piscivores.\u00a0 To document native fish communities in
open sand and seagrass areas without any coral heads or other hard structures,
two 35 m transects were run outward from each main reef in randomly selected
directions.\u00a0 Divers surveyed fish at 5-m intervals within 2 square meter
plots around the transect tapes.\u00a0 To obtain a standardized measure of
fish communities at set distances from each reef that accounted for habitat
type, patch size, and initial fish community, I set-up small (0.5 meters
squared) identical standardized habitat units (SHUs) consisting of 9 empty
queen conch (Strombus gigas) shells with their apertures facing upward.\u00a0
All reefs had one row of 4 SHUs located at 7-m intervals extending away from
the reef.\u00a0 Half of the reefs (4 high-lionfish and 4 low-lionfish reefs)
also had a second row of 2 SHUs located at 15 m and 31 m from the reef and
extending outward in the opposite direction from the first row.\u00a0 During
the final week of the experiment, in addition to visually surveying the fish
communities on the SHUs, a pair of divers placed all conch shells in dry bags
and brought them up to a boat. Each shell was shaken in a bucket of seawater
to remove and count any individuals hiding in the shells.

Note that five of the 16 main coral patch reefs had high abundances of small,
juvenile grunts (Haemulon spp.), which formed large schools of approximately
100 - 300 individuals above the reefs.\u00a0 Counts of these juvenile grunts
are not considered to be precise or accurate. \u00a0
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 561016
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1233027
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1233027 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Seagrass Habitats - Standardized Habitat Units
Lead PI: Mark Hixon
Sub-Project Lead: Casey Benkwitt
Version 12 August 2016
Species codes are first two letters of genus and species; See species key.
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2016-08-23T16:19:26Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-05-14T17:15:24Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.655455.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/655455 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, data, dataset, day, distance, dmo, end, erddap, length, length_max_1, length_max_10, length_max_15, length_max_2, length_max_3, length_max_4, length_max_5, length_max_6, length_max_7, length_max_8, length_max_9, management, max, month, notes, number, oceanography, office, preliminary, presence, reef, row, shu, shu_row, species, start, survey, survey_type, time, time_end, time_start, treatment, type, visit, visit_number, year
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/655455/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/655455 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'655455': {}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/655455/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String University of Hawaii
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Mark Hixon
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 51647
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Oregon State University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String OSU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Cassandra E. Benkwitt
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 51706
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Contact
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Hannah Ake
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 650173
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String BiodiversityLossEffects_lionfish
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String BiodiversityLossEffects_lionfish
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String The Pacific red lionfish (Pterois volitans), a popular aquarium fish, was introduced to the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Florida in the late 20th century. Voraciously consuming small native coral-reef fishes, including the juveniles of fisheries and ecologically important species, the invader has undergone a population explosion that now ranges from the U.S. southeastern seaboard to the Gulf of Mexico and across the greater Caribbean region. The PI's past research determined that invasive lionfish (1) have escaped their natural enemies in the Pacific (lionfish are much less abundant in their native range); (2) are not yet controlled by Atlantic predators, competitors, or parasites; (3) have strong negative effects on populations of native Atlantic fishes; and (4) locally reduce the diversity (number of species) of native fishes. The lionfish invasion has been recognized as one of the major conservation threats worldwide.
The Bahamas support the highest abundances of invasive lionfish globally. This system thus provides an unprecedented opportunity to understand the direct and indirect effects of a major invader on a diverse community, as well as the underlying causative mechanisms. The PI will focus on five related questions: (1) How does long-term predation by lionfish alter the structure of native reef-fish communities? (2) How does lionfish predation destabilize native prey population dynamics, possibly causing local extinctions? (3) Is there a lionfish-herbivore-seaweed trophic cascade on invaded reefs? (4) How do lionfish modify cleaning mutualisms on invaded reefs? (5) Are lionfish reaching densities where natural population limits are evident?
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2016-07
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Three Bahamian sites: 24.8318, -076.3299; 23.8562, -076.2250; 23.7727, -076.1071; Caribbean Netherlands: 12.1599, -068.2820
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Mechanisms and Consequences of Fish Biodiversity Loss on Atlantic Coral Reefs Caused by Invasive Pacific Lionfish
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 561017
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_website String http://hixon.science.oregonstate.edu/content/highlight-lionfish-invasion (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2012-08
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL subsetVariables String year
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Effect of lionfish presence on native fish abundance in standardized habitat units in seagrass in Eleuthera, Bahamas during 2013 (Biodiversity Loss Effects Lionfish project)
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Effect of lionfish presence on native fish abundance in standardized habitat units in seagrass in Eleuthera, Bahamas during 2013 (Biodiversity Loss Effects Lionfish project)
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable year   short  
attribute year _FillValue short 32767
attribute year actual_range short 2013, 2013
attribute year bcodmo_name String year
attribute year description String Year of survey; YYYY
attribute year long_name String Year
attribute year nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/YEARXXXX/ (external link)
attribute year units String unitless
variable survey_type   String  
attribute survey_type bcodmo_name String sample_type
attribute survey_type description String Visual = species were surveyed visually (conducted in all weeks similar to all other habitat types); Shake = shells were brought back to the boat and shook to census cryptic/hidden species (conducted only in the final week fo the experiment)
attribute survey_type long_name String Survey Type
attribute survey_type units String unitless
variable month   byte  
attribute month _FillValue byte 127
attribute month actual_range byte 7, 8
attribute month bcodmo_name String month
attribute month description String Month of survey; mm
attribute month long_name String Month
attribute month nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/MNTHXXXX/ (external link)
attribute month units String unitless
variable visit_number   byte  
attribute visit_number _FillValue byte 127
attribute visit_number actual_range byte 2, 8
attribute visit_number bcodmo_name String numb_obs
attribute visit_number colorBarMaximum double 100.0
attribute visit_number colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute visit_number description String Visit number; one visit per reef per week
attribute visit_number long_name String Visit Number
attribute visit_number units String unitless
variable day   byte  
attribute day _FillValue byte 127
attribute day actual_range byte 1, 30
attribute day bcodmo_name String day
attribute day description String Day of survey; dd
attribute day long_name String Day
attribute day nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/DAYXXXXX/ (external link)
attribute day units String unitless
variable treatment   String  
attribute treatment bcodmo_name String treatment
attribute treatment description String Low = low lionfish treatment (lionfish removed from main reefs); High = high lionfish treatment (lionfish maintained on main reefs)
attribute treatment long_name String Treatment
attribute treatment units String unitless
variable reef   String  
attribute reef bcodmo_name String site
attribute reef description String Name of main reef
attribute reef long_name String Reef
attribute reef units String unitless
variable time_start   String  
attribute time_start bcodmo_name String time_start
attribute time_start description String Time that census began; HH:MM
attribute time_start long_name String Time Start
attribute time_start units String unitless
variable time_end   String  
attribute time_end bcodmo_name String time_end
attribute time_end description String Time that census ended; HH:MM
attribute time_end long_name String Time End
attribute time_end units String unitless
variable shu_row   byte  
attribute shu_row _FillValue byte 127
attribute shu_row actual_range byte 1, 2
attribute shu_row bcodmo_name String site
attribute shu_row description String Each row of Standardized Habitat Units (SHUs) around each main reef was assigned a unique number (1-2)
attribute shu_row long_name String Shu Row
attribute shu_row units String unitless
variable distance   byte  
attribute distance _FillValue byte 127
attribute distance actual_range byte 7, 30
attribute distance bcodmo_name String site_descrip
attribute distance description String Distance of Standardized Habitat Unit (SHU) to main reef
attribute distance long_name String Distance
attribute distance units String meters
variable presence   String  
attribute presence bcodmo_name String site_descrip
attribute presence description String Y = Yes at least one native fish was present on Standardized Habitat Unit (SHU); N = No native fishes were present on SHU.
attribute presence long_name String Presence
attribute presence units String unitless
variable species   String  
attribute species bcodmo_name String species
attribute species description String First 2 letters of genus and first 2 letters of species; see species key dataset for full species names.
attribute species long_name String Species
attribute species units String unitless
variable length_max_1   byte  
attribute length_max_1 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_1 actual_range byte 0, 4
attribute length_max_1 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_1 description String Number of individuals that were between 0-1 cm total length
attribute length_max_1 long_name String Length Max 1
attribute length_max_1 units String count
variable length_max_2   byte  
attribute length_max_2 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_2 actual_range byte 0, 6
attribute length_max_2 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_2 description String Number of individuals that were between 1.1-2 cm total length
attribute length_max_2 long_name String Length Max 2
attribute length_max_2 units String count
variable length_max_3   byte  
attribute length_max_3 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_3 actual_range byte 0, 6
attribute length_max_3 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_3 description String Number of individuals that were between 2.1-3 cm total length
attribute length_max_3 long_name String Length Max 3
attribute length_max_3 units String count
variable length_max_4   byte  
attribute length_max_4 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_4 actual_range byte 0, 10
attribute length_max_4 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_4 description String Number of individuals that were between 3.1-4 cm total length
attribute length_max_4 long_name String Length Max 4
attribute length_max_4 units String count
variable length_max_5   byte  
attribute length_max_5 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_5 actual_range byte 0, 10
attribute length_max_5 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_5 description String Number of individuals that were between 4.1-5 cm total length
attribute length_max_5 long_name String Length Max 5
attribute length_max_5 units String count
variable length_max_6   byte  
attribute length_max_6 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_6 actual_range byte 0, 18
attribute length_max_6 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_6 description String Number of individuals that were between 5.1-6 cm total length
attribute length_max_6 long_name String Length Max 6
attribute length_max_6 units String count
variable length_max_7   byte  
attribute length_max_7 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_7 actual_range byte 0, 17
attribute length_max_7 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_7 description String Number of individuals that were between 6.1-7 cm total length
attribute length_max_7 long_name String Length Max 7
attribute length_max_7 units String count
variable length_max_8   byte  
attribute length_max_8 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_8 actual_range byte 0, 5
attribute length_max_8 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_8 description String Number of individuals that were between 7.1-8 cm total length
attribute length_max_8 long_name String Length Max 8
attribute length_max_8 units String count
variable length_max_9   byte  
attribute length_max_9 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_9 actual_range byte 0, 5
attribute length_max_9 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_9 description String Number of individuals that were between 8.1-9 cm total length
attribute length_max_9 long_name String Length Max 9
attribute length_max_9 units String count
variable length_max_10   byte  
attribute length_max_10 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_10 actual_range byte 0, 4
attribute length_max_10 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_10 description String Number of individuals that were between 9.1-10 cm total length
attribute length_max_10 long_name String Length Max 10
attribute length_max_10 units String count
variable length_max_15   byte  
attribute length_max_15 _FillValue byte 127
attribute length_max_15 actual_range byte 0, 10
attribute length_max_15 bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute length_max_15 description String Number of individuals that were between 10.1-15 cm total length
attribute length_max_15 long_name String Length Max 15
attribute length_max_15 units String count
variable notes   String  
attribute notes bcodmo_name String comment
attribute notes description String Notes on site observations
attribute notes long_name String Notes
attribute notes units String unitless

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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