Accessing BCO-DMO data
log in    
Brought to you by BCO-DMO    

ERDDAP > info > bcodmo_dataset_661081

Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Kelp forest community surveys on invertebrate and algal density from nearshore in Monterey
and Carmel starting in 1999 (Kelp Forest Resilience project)
   ?     I   M   background (external link) RSS Subscribe BCO-DMO bcodmo_dataset_661081

The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Sampling consists of visual surveys of the density (number per 60m2) of all
non-cryptic sessile and mobile solitary invertebrates and macroalgae by SCUBA
divers. In addition, sizes of select species (sea urchins, abalone, giant
kelp) are recorded. Surveys are conducted at sites distributed throughout the
study region (Carmel Bay and southern Monterey Bay). Each sample site is
divided into three \"zones\" (by depth - 20m, 12.5m, 5m - or from offshore to
inshore at sites with little depth variation) to assure that samples are
distributed across the face of a reef from inshore to offshore. Where
possible, taxa (or taxonomic categories) are enumerated on six transects
stratified across the three depth strata (two per stratum) per site (typically
a 100m length of coastline, extending from onshore to the 20m isobath). Each
\"transect\" is a 2m x 30m swath haphazardly located within one of the three
depth strata.\u00a0 Transects within a stratum are separated end-to-end by
approximately 5m. Sampling of each transect is conducted by three divers
simultaneously. One diver records the number of individual invertebrates and
macroalgae within each of three 10m-long segments of the 60m2\u00a0swath. A
second diver records the organism and substratum type beneath each of 30
points uniformly distributed along the 30m length of the transect (i.e. 1.0m
increments) and the vertical relief (highest to lowest height of the reef
surface) within a 0.5m long by 1m wide area centered on each uniform
point.\u00a0 A third diver records the number and size of sea urchins and
abalone within each of the 10m long segments of the 60m2\u00a0swath. High
densities of any species are enumerated by recording the distance along the
transect at which 30 individuals are recorded within each 10m segment of the
30m-long transect. Surveys are designed to measure year-to-year site-wide
variability in species density or percent cover, from which community
structure and interannual dynamics are derived.\u00a0
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 653037
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1538582
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1538582 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String Michael E. Sieracki
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50446
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Community Survey Density Data
M. Carr and T. Tinker, PIs
Version 20 November 2017
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2016-10-06T21:35:43Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-04-22T20:37:41Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.661081.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double -121.894574
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double 36.640454
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double 36.397717
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double -121.894574
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double -121.982468
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_max double 23.0
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_min double 3.4
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_positive String down
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_units String m
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/661081 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, classcode, count, data, dataset, date, depth, dmo, erddap, latitude, longitude, management, notes, oceanography, office, preliminary, side, site, size, transect, year, zone
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/661081/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/661081 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double 36.640454
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'661081': {'lat': 'master - latitude', 'depth': 'flag - depth', 'lon': 'master - longitude'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/661081/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String University of California-Santa Cruz
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String UC Santa Cruz
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Mark Carr
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 51504
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String University of California-Santa Cruz
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String UC Santa Cruz
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Tim Tinker
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 51505
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String University of California-Santa Cruz
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String UC Santa Cruz
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Mark Carr
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 51504
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String Contact
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_name String Hannah Ake
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_nid String 650173
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Kelp_Forest_Resilience
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Kelp_Forest_Resilience
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String A key goal of ecology is to understand how species interactions -- competition, predation, mutualism -- influence the structure (e.g., biodiversity) and functions (e.g., productivity) of ecological communities and contribute to the stability and resilience of ecosystems. Kelp forests along the West Coast of North America have been a model ecosystem in which marine ecologists have explored these questions. That work has provided evidence that predators, including sea otters, sea stars, and fishes, can be important in controlling sea urchins that otherwise overgraze forests and create alternative "barrens" states, devoid of kelp. However, other examples suggest that disease and disturbance, not predators, suppress urchin overgrazing. Here we employ experiments and surveys to determine whether and how sea otters and sea stars act separately and in combination to control the rapid growth of sea urchin populations that is occurring in concert with a sea star "wasting" epidemic along the West Coast of North America. The results of this work will (i) advance our understanding of how multiple predators interact to influence community structure, stability and resilience, and (ii) shed light on how species interactions contribute to the stability of these forests that are the foundation of productive commercial and recreational fisheries. The project will involve citizen scientists contributing to surveys of sea otter abundance, foraging behavior and diet, and underrepresented (largely Latino) undergraduates and results will be disseminated in several public outreach facilities and K-12 educational programs.
This project will advance our understanding of the combined roles of species diversity and predators in contributing to the stability and resilience of community structure. Though both predators and diversity have been the focus of numerous studies, fewer have explored how predator diversity does or does not enhance the resilience of marine ecosystems. The investigators will determine the relative contributions of southern sea otters (Enyhda lutris lutris) and two species of sea stars (Pycnopodia helianthoides and Pisaster giganteus) in controlling the density and size structure of two prey species, the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and a snail (Promartynia pulligo), and the cascading effects on survival and density of giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). Orthogonal manipulations of predator access in large field enclosures/exclosures will be used to assess the relative roles of redundancy, complementarity and "sampling effect" (i.e. particular importance of either species) among the two predators on both direct mortality and indirect (trait-mediated) foraging behavior of their prey. The PIs will evaluate whether results from the experiments "scale up" to explain geographic variation in the relative densities of predators (otters and stars), prey (urchins) and the major primary producer (giant kelp) and the ability of sea otters to compensate for declines in sea stars to control the rapid growth in purple sea urchin populations that can otherwise cause phase shifts (forests to barrens) of these ecosystems.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2018-07
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Monterey Bay and Carmel Bay, California; 36 N, 121 W
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Kelp forest community resilience in action: adaptive responses of predators to a disease-driven food web perturbation
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 653038
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2015-08
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double 36.397717
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Kelp forest community surveys on invertebrate and algal density from nearshore in Monterey and Carmel starting in 1999 (Kelp Forest Resilience project)
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Kelp forest community surveys on invertebrate and algal density from nearshore in Monterey and Carmel starting in 1999 (Kelp Forest Resilience project)
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double -121.982468
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable year   short  
attribute year _FillValue short 32767
attribute year actual_range short 1999, 2016
attribute year bcodmo_name String year
attribute year description String The year that the survey was done. This date is expressed in YYYY format. Dates reflect measurements taken in Local Time.
attribute year long_name String Year
attribute year nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/YEARXXXX/ (external link)
attribute year units String unitless
variable site   String  
attribute site bcodmo_name String site
attribute site description String The unique site code where the survey was performed. This site code refers to a specific GPS location defined by a bounding box and is likely associated with a placename (i.e there may be multiple sitecodes at the 'Jalama Beach' placename).
attribute site long_name String Site
attribute site units String unitless
variable side   String  
attribute side bcodmo_name String site
attribute side description String A division of the site into two or three areas; referred to as sides. Sides may be East (E); West (W); South (S); North (N); CEN (central)
attribute side long_name String Side
attribute side units String unitless
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double 36.397717, 36.640454
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude bcodmo_name String latitude
attribute latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute latitude description String Latitude; north is positive.
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double -121.982468, -121.894574
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude bcodmo_name String longitude
attribute longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute longitude description String Longitude; east is positive.
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable zone   String  
attribute zone bcodmo_name String site
attribute zone description String A division of the side into 2 or 4 categories representing onshore-offshore stratification or targeted bottom depths for transects. Zones may be INNER; INMID; OUTMID; OUTER.
attribute zone long_name String Zone
attribute zone units String unitless
variable transect   byte  
attribute transect _FillValue byte 127
attribute transect actual_range byte 1, 3
attribute transect bcodmo_name String transect
attribute transect description String A number representing one of the parallel transects through the sitearea along which are located the sampling segments.
attribute transect long_name String Transect
attribute transect units String unitless
variable depth   double  
attribute depth _CoordinateAxisType String Height
attribute depth _CoordinateZisPositive String down
attribute depth _FillValue double NaN
attribute depth actual_range double 3.4, 23.0
attribute depth axis String Z
attribute depth bcodmo_name String depth
attribute depth colorBarMaximum double 8000.0
attribute depth colorBarMinimum double -8000.0
attribute depth colorBarPalette String TopographyDepth
attribute depth description String Average depth of the transect estimated by the diver. Each level is measured.
attribute depth ioos_category String Location
attribute depth long_name String Depth
attribute depth nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/DEPH/ (external link)
attribute depth positive String down
attribute depth standard_name String depth
attribute depth units String m
variable date   int  
attribute date _FillValue int 2147483647
attribute date actual_range int 19990907, 20161102
attribute date bcodmo_name String date
attribute date description String The date that the survey was done. This date is expressed in YYYYmmdd format. Dates reflect measurements taken in Local Time.
attribute date long_name String Date
attribute date nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/ (external link)
attribute date units String unitless
variable classcode   String  
attribute classcode bcodmo_name String species
attribute classcode description String The unique taxonomic or functional classification code that is being counted as defined in the PISCO classification table. This refers to a code that defines the Genus and Species. See "Species Key" dataset for definitions.
attribute classcode long_name String Classcode
attribute classcode units String unitless
variable count   short  
attribute count _FillValue short 32767
attribute count actual_range short 0, 5750
attribute count bcodmo_name String count
attribute count colorBarMaximum double 100.0
attribute count colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute count description String The count of the species or class indicated by the class code. The count is the number of points which fall on the identified classcode at 1m intervals along the transect tape.
attribute count long_name String Count
attribute count units String count
variable size   float  
attribute size _FillValue float NaN
attribute size actual_range float 1.0, 233.0
attribute size bcodmo_name String length
attribute size description String The size of an individual or group of individuals (of the same length). When referring to giant kelp (Macrocystis) size indicates the number of stipes per plant at 1m above bottom.
attribute size long_name String Size
attribute size units String centimeters (cm)
variable notes   String  
attribute notes bcodmo_name String comment
attribute notes description String Notes and field observations.
attribute notes long_name String Notes
attribute notes units String unitless

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

ERDDAP, Version 2.02
Disclaimers | Privacy Policy | Contact