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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Data describing interactions between neighboring coral colonies on St. John, Virgin Islands
in 2014.
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Methodology\u00a0from\u00a0Gambrel, B.\u00a0and\u00a0Lasker, H.R., 2016

To further examine the spatial distribution of colonies and potential
competition among them,\u00a0nearest neighbor data\u00a0were collected along
the belt\u00a0transects from\u00a0each site. Each transect had 20
sampling\u00a0points arranged\u00a0at the corners of every 1 m2
quadrat\u00a0along the\u00a0first 9 m of each transect. The
octocoral\u00a0colony closest\u00a0to each sampling point was selected,
identified,and the distance between its base and the\u00a0base of\u00a0its
nearest branching octocoral neighbor\u00a0was measured\u00a0to the nearest
centimeter (Fig. S1\u00a0in the\u00a0Supplement). The height, width, and
length\u00a0of each\u00a0colony was measured to the nearest\u00a0centimeter
to\u00a0calculate\u00a0cross-sectional\u00a0area (height \u00d7
length)\u00a0and volume\u00a0(height \u00d7 width \u00d7 length), and
the\u00a0proximity of\u00a0the colony\u2019s branches to nearby
octocorals\u00a0was also\u00a0noted. Due to the water flow and
the\u00a0resulting oscillation\u00a0of colony branches, measurements\u00a0were
made\u00a0when the branches were vertical in the\u00a0water column\u00a0to
optimize the precision of our measurements.To increase sample sizes, an
additional 9\u00a0m transect\u00a0parallel to the other 5 was sampled
at\u00a0each site.

The nature of the spatial distribution of\u00a0octocorals at\u00a0each site
was determined from the nearest-neighbor data\u00a0following Clark & Evans
(1954).\u00a0Observed and\u00a0expected mean distances between
the\u00a0octocoral neighbors\u00a0were calculated using the
total\u00a0distance between\u00a0neighbors, sample size (120 pairs
of\u00a0octocorals per\u00a0site) and the density of octocorals at each
site(calculated from the belt transect data). The ratio (R)of the observed and
expected (given a randomly\u00a0distributed octocoral\u00a0community) mean
distances between octocoral neighbors describes the\u00a0octocoral
distribution\u00a0at each site, where R = 1 denotes a\u00a0random
distribution, R < 1, an aggregated distribution,and R > 1, a uniform
distribution (Clark & Evans1954). The significance of R was determined
by\u00a0analyzing the\u00a0standard variate of the normal curve (c), since the
measured distances between neighbors in\u00a0a randomly\u00a0dispersed
community are expected to\u00a0follow a\u00a0normal distribution.

The effects of colony\u2212colony proximity on colony size were assessed by
correlating the distance\u00a0between\u00a0neighbors at the base with the sum
of\u00a0their sizes\u00a0(Pielou 1962). If competition affects growth, then
the closer\u00a0the organisms\u00a0are, the smaller their expected sizes will
be (Pielou 1962). Implicit in these analyses is the notion that size is both
an indicator of resource use and of success in acquiring resources.

The relationships among the distance between octocoral neighbors at the base
(divided into 3 distance groups to make the data categorical: 5\u221214 cm,
15\u221224\u00a0cm\u00a0and 25\u221234 cm), branch proximity and site were
analyzed using a hierarchical log-linear test in SPSS. The relationship
between the distance between neighbors and branch proximity was further
analyzed in a separate log-linear test in SPSS.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 562090
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1334052
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1334052 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Nearest Neighbor Survey
Howard Lasker, PI
Version 14 October 2016
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2016-10-25T21:41:41Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-04-18T17:39:09Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &amp;time&lt;now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.662791.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double -64.72415
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double 18.31685
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double 18.3166
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double -64.72415
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double -64.72988
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/662791 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, colony, data, dataset, distance, dmo, erddap, height, inhibition, latitude, longitude, management, meter, oceanography, office, preliminary, site, species, thickness, transect, visible, visibleInhibition, width
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/662791/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/662791 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double 18.31685
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'662791': {'lat': 'master - latitude', 'lon': 'master - longitude'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/662791/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String State University of New York at Buffalo
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String SUNY Buffalo
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Howard Lasker
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 562092
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Hannah Ake
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 650173
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String St. John LTREB,VI Octocorals
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String St. John LTREB
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String Long Term Research in Environmental Biology (LTREB) in US Virgin Islands:
From the NSF award abstract:
In an era of growing human pressures on natural resources, there is a critical need to understand how major ecosystems will respond, the extent to which resource management can lessen the implications of these responses, and the likely state of these ecosystems in the future. Time-series analyses of community structure provide a vital tool in meeting these needs and promise a profound understanding of community change. This study focuses on coral reef ecosystems; an existing time-series analysis of the coral community structure on the reefs of St. John, US Virgin Islands, will be expanded to 27 years of continuous data in annual increments. Expansion of the core time-series data will be used to address five questions: (1) To what extent is the ecology at a small spatial scale (1-2 km) representative of regional scale events (10's of km)? (2) What are the effects of declining coral cover in modifying the genetic population structure of the coral host and its algal symbionts? (3) What are the roles of pre- versus post-settlement events in determining the population dynamics of small corals? (4) What role do physical forcing agents (other than temperature) play in driving the population dynamics of juvenile corals? and (5) How are populations of other, non-coral invertebrates responding to decadal-scale declines in coral cover? Ecological methods identical to those used over the last two decades will be supplemented by molecular genetic tools to understand the extent to which declining coral cover is affecting the genetic diversity of the corals remaining. An information management program will be implemented to create broad access by the scientific community to the entire data set.
The importance of this study lies in the extreme longevity of the data describing coral reefs in a unique ecological context, and the immense potential that these data possess for understanding both the patterns of comprehensive community change (i.e., involving corals, other invertebrates, and genetic diversity), and the processes driving them. Importantly, as this project is closely integrated with resource management within the VI National Park, as well as larger efforts to study coral reefs in the US through the NSF Moorea Coral Reef LTER, it has a strong potential to have scientific and management implications that extend further than the location of the study.
The following publications and data resulted from this project:
2015    Edmunds PJ, Tsounis G, Lasker HR (2015) Differential distribution of octocorals and scleractinians around St. John and St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. Hydrobiologia. doi: 10.1007/s10750-015-2555-zoctocoral - sp. abundance and distributionDownload complete data for this publication (Excel file)
2015    Lenz EA, Bramanti L, Lasker HR, Edmunds PJ. Long-term variation of octocoral populations in St. John, US Virgin Islands. Coral Reefs DOI 10.1007/s00338-015-1315-xoctocoral survey - densitiesoctocoral counts - photoquadrats vs. insitu surveyoctocoral literature reviewDownload complete data for this publication (Excel file)
2015   Privitera-Johnson, K., et al., Density-associated recruitment in octocoral communities in St. John, US Virgin Islands, J.Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. DOI 10.1016/j.jembe.2015.08.006octocoral recruitmentDownload complete data for this publication (Excel file)
2014    Edmunds PJ. Landscape-scale variation in coral reef community structure in the United States Virgin Islands. Marine Ecology Progress Series 509: 137–152. DOI 10.3354/meps10891.
Data at MCR-VINP.
Download complete data for this publication (Excel file)
2014    Edmunds PJ, Nozawa Y, Villanueva RD.  Refuges modulate coral recruitment in the Caribbean and Pacific.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 454: 78-84. DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2014.02.00
Data at MCR-VINP.Download complete data for this publication (Excel file)
2014    Edmunds PJ, Gray SC.  The effects of storms, heavy rain, and sedimentation on the shallow coral reefs of St. John, US Virgin Islands.  Hydrobiologia 734(1):143-148.
Data at MCR-VINP.Download complete data for this publication (Excel file)
2014    Levitan, D, Edmunds PJ, Levitan K. What makes a species common? No evidence of density-dependent recruitment or mortality of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum after the 1983-1984 mass mortality.  Oecologia. DOI 10.1007/s00442-013-2871-9.
Data at MCR-VINP.Download complete data for this publication (Excel file)
2014    Lenz EA, Brown D, Didden C, Arnold A, Edmunds PJ.  The distribution of hermit crabs and their gastropod shells on shallow reefs in St. John, US Virgin Islands.  Bulletin of Marine Science 90(2):681-692. https://dx.doi.org/10.5343/bms.2013.1049
Data at MCR-VINP.Download complete data for this publication (Excel file)
2013    Edmunds PJ.  Decadal-scale changes in the community structure of coral reefs in St. John, US Virgin Islands.  Marine Ecology Progress Series 489: 107-123.
Data at MCR-VINP.Download complete data for this publication (zipped Excel files)
2013    Brown D, Edmunds PJ.  Long-term changes in the population dynamics of the Caribbean hydrocoral Millepora spp.  J. Exp Mar Biol Ecol 441: 62-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2013.01.013Millepora colony sizeMillepora cover - temps - storms 1992-2008Millepora cover 1992-2008seawater temperature USVI 1992-2008storms USVI 1992-2008Download complete data for this publication (Excel file)
2012    Brown D, Edmunds PJ. The hermit crab Calcinus tibicen lives commensally on Millepora spp. in St. John, United States Virgin Islands.  Coral Reefs 32: 127-135. doi: 10.1007/s00338-012-0948-2crab abundance and coral sizecrab displacement behaviorcrab nocturnal surveyscrab predator avoidanceDownload complete data for this publication (Excel file)
2011    Green DH, Edmunds PJ.  Spatio-temporal variability of coral recruitment on shallow reefs in St. John, US Virgin Islands.  Journal of Experimenal Marine Biology and Ecology 397: 220-229.
Data at MCR-VINP.Download complete data for this publication (Excel file)
2011    Colvard NB, Edmunds PJ. (2011) Decadal-scale changes in invertebrate abundances on a Caribbean coral reef.  Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 397(2): 153-160. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2010.11.015benthic invert codesinverts - Tektite and Yawzi Ptinverts - pooledDownload complete data for this publication (Excel file)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2014-04
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands; California State University Northridge
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String LTREB Long-term coral reef community dynamics in St. John, USVI: 1987-2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 2272
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_website String http://coralreefs.csun.edu/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2009-05
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_acronym String VI Octocorals
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_description String The recent past has not been good for coral reefs, and journals have been filled with examples of declining coral cover, crashing fish populations, rising cover of macroalgae, and a future potentially filled with slime. However, reefs are more than the corals and fishes for which they are known best, and their biodiversity is affected strongly by other groups of organisms. The non-coral fauna of reefs is being neglected in the rush to evaluate the loss of corals and fishes, and this project will add on to an on-going long term ecological study by studying soft corals. This project will be focused on the ecology of soft corals on reefs in St. John, USVI to understand the Past, Present and the Future community structure of soft corals in a changing world. For the Past, the principal investigators will complete a retrospective analysis of octocoral abundance in St. John between 1992 and the present, as well as Caribbean-wide since the 1960's. For the Present, they will: (i) evaluate spatio-temporal changes between soft corals and corals, (ii) test for the role of competition with macroalgae and between soft corals and corals as processes driving the rising abundance of soft corals, and (iii) explore the role of soft corals as "animal forests" in modifying physical conditions beneath their canopy, thereby modulating recruitment dynamics. For the Future the project will conduct demographic analyses on key soft corals to evaluate annual variation in population processes and project populations into a future impacted by global climate change.
This project was funded to provide and independent "overlay" to the ongoing LTREB award (DEB-1350146, co-funded by OCE, PI Edmunds) focused on the long-term dynamics of coral reefs in St. John.
Note: This project is closely associated with the project "RAPID: Resilience of Caribbean octocorals following Hurricanes Irma and Maria". See: https://www.bco-dmo.org/project/749653.
The following publications and data resulted from this project:
2017 Tsounis, G., and P. J. Edmunds. Three decades of coral reef community dynamics in St. John, USVI: a contrast of scleractinians and octocorals. Ecosphere 8(1):e01646. DOI: 10.1002/ecs2.1646Rainfall and temperature dataCoral and macroalgae abundance and distributionDescriptions of hurricanes affecting St. John
2016 Gambrel, B. and Lasker, H.R. Marine Ecology Progress Series 546: 85–95, DOI: 10.3354/meps11670Colony to colony interactionsEunicea flexuosa interactionsGorgonia ventalina asymmetryNearest neighbor surveys
2015 Lenz EA, Bramanti L, Lasker HR, Edmunds PJ. Long-term variation of octocoral populations in St. John, US Virgin Islands. Coral Reefs DOI 10.1007/s00338-015-1315-xoctocoral survey - densitiesoctocoral counts - photoquadrats vs. insitu surveyoctocoral literature reviewDownload complete data for this publication (Excel file)
2015 Privitera-Johnson, K., et al., Density-associated recruitment in octocoral communities in St. John, US Virgin Islands, J.Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2015.08.006octocoral density dependenceDownload complete data for this publication (Excel file)
Other datasets related to this project:octocoral transects - adult colony height
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_end_date String 2016-08
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_geolocation String St. John, US Virgin Islands: 18.3185, 64.7242
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_name String Ecology and functional biology of octocoral communities
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_project_nid String 562086
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_project_website String http://coralreefs.csun.edu/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_start_date String 2013-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double 18.3166
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Data describing interactions between neighboring coral colonies on St. John, Virgin Islands in 2014.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Data describing interactions between neighboring coral colonies on St. John, Virgin Islands in 2014.
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double -64.72988
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable site   String  
attribute site bcodmo_name String site
attribute site description String Site where sampling occurred
attribute site long_name String Site
attribute site units String unitless
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double 18.3166, 18.31685
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude bcodmo_name String latitude
attribute latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute latitude description String Latitude; N is positive
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double -64.72988, -64.72415
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude bcodmo_name String longitude
attribute longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute longitude description String Longitude; W is positve
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable colony   byte  
attribute colony _FillValue byte 127
attribute colony actual_range byte 1, 2
attribute colony bcodmo_name String sample
attribute colony description String PI issued colony ID
attribute colony long_name String Colony
attribute colony nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/ACYC/ (external link)
attribute colony units String unitless
variable transect   String  
attribute transect bcodmo_name String transect
attribute transect description String Transect where sampling occurred
attribute transect long_name String Transect
attribute transect units String unitless
variable meter   byte  
attribute meter _FillValue byte 127
attribute meter actual_range byte 0, 9
attribute meter bcodmo_name String transect
attribute meter description String Meter on transect where sampling occurred
attribute meter long_name String Meter
attribute meter units String meters
variable species   String  
attribute species bcodmo_name String species
attribute species description String The octocoral colony closest to each sampling point was selected and identified.
attribute species long_name String Species
attribute species units String unitless
variable height   byte  
attribute height _FillValue byte 127
attribute height actual_range byte 2, 120
attribute height bcodmo_name String height
attribute height description String Height of each colony was measured to the nearest centimeter.
attribute height long_name String Height
attribute height units String centimeters
variable width   byte  
attribute width _FillValue byte 127
attribute width actual_range byte 1, 90
attribute width bcodmo_name String width
attribute width description String Width of each colony was measured to the nearest centimeter.
attribute width long_name String Width
attribute width units String centimeters
variable thickness   byte  
attribute thickness _FillValue byte 127
attribute thickness actual_range byte 0, 55
attribute thickness bcodmo_name String length
attribute thickness description String Thickness of each colony was measured to the nearest centimeter.
attribute thickness long_name String Thickness
attribute thickness units String centimeters
variable visibleInhibition   byte  
attribute visibleInhibition _FillValue byte 127
attribute visibleInhibition actual_range byte 0, 2
attribute visibleInhibition bcodmo_name String sample_descrip
attribute visibleInhibition description String Visible inhibition (1) denotes colony asymmetry or damage due to abrasion between colonies; (0) indicates no visible inhibition.
attribute visibleInhibition long_name String Visible Inhibition
attribute visibleInhibition units String unitless
variable distance   byte  
attribute distance _FillValue byte 127
attribute distance actual_range byte 0, 48
attribute distance bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute distance description String The distance between the measured colony's base and the base of its nearest branching octocoral neighbor was measured to the nearest centimeter.
attribute distance long_name String Distance
attribute distance units String centimeters

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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