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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Data from an herbivore exclusion experiment conducted on Abaco Island in the Bahamas from
2014-2016 (Mangrove Die-off project)
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Count data was collected by the same person for each parameter during both
sampling years.\u00a0This study was conducted on Abaco Island in the Bahamas.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 653796
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1541637
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1541637 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Cage Experiment Data
Craig Layman, PI
Version 4 November 2016
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2016-11-16T19:06:37Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-04-18T15:41:04Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.664990.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/664990 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String bco, bco-dmo, biological, block, chemical, chewed, chewed_leaves, data, dataset, disease, disease_leaves, dmo, erddap, leaves, leaves_num, management, month, num, oceanography, office, preliminary, sampling, treatment, year
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/664990/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/664990 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'664990': {}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/664990/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String North Carolina State University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String NCSU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Craig Layman
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 51691
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Lead Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String North Carolina State University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String NCSU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Ryann Rossi
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 664999
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Student
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String North Carolina State University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String NCSU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Ryann Rossi
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 664999
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String Contact
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_name String Hannah Ake
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_nid String 650173
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Mangrove Die-off
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Mangrove Die-off
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String Foundation species are those that form the basis for entire ecosystems, substantially altering the physical and biological characteristics of the areas in which they are found. Mangroves are one of the most conspicuous groups of foundation species, providing numerous ecosystems services which we highly value, e.g., habitat for ecologically and economically important species, shoreline stablilization and carbon storage. As such, global declines in mangroves is of upmost concern. For example, an extensive die-off of dwarf red mangrove has been identified in a remote area on the west side of Abaco Island, The Bahamas. Because of its remote nature of the site, the die-off is unlikely to be directly due to human activities. Despite its largely inaccessible nature, the area is ecologically and economically important, e.g., it is the primary bonefishing area on Abaco - an industry worth more than $150 million annually in The Bahamas. Therefore, it is of pressing concern for stakeholders in The Bahamas to identify the underlying cause(s) of decline and assess potential threat to mangroves in other areas. To do so, a series of activities will be carried out, included widespread surveys for a recently identified fungal pathogen, laboratory efforts to isolate and identify this pathogen, satellite imagery mapping activities, and simulated grazing experiments. The area in which the die-off is occurring is currently being considered for designation as a national park by the Bahamian National Trust (BNT). The results of the study will be directly communicated to the BNT and will be used to make immediate management decisions. In collaboration with two Bahamian environmental NGOs, Friends of the Environment and Bahamas Reef Environmental Education Foundation (BREEF), a citizen science-based survey for fungal lesions, as well as an educational module on mangrove ecology, will be designed. The data from the citizen-science and student surveys will be integrated in a map of the incidence of the lesions across The Bahamas. The citizen-science component, and interaction with bonefish guides, provides the opportunity to further integrate science and education. The educational module will be introduced at the BREEF summer teaching training workshop in July. This annual event typically includes 30 teachers from 10 islands. The investigators will continue to make all of our research findings immediately available and accessible to the public through the Abaco Scientist website (http://appliedecology.cals.ncsu.edu/absci/).
Provisioning of ecosystem services in the coastal realm is largely mediated by foundation species, such as mangroves, coral and salt marsh grasses. Many of these species are undergoing substantial declines throughout the world. These declines are often driven by complex, interacting, stressors that may be difficult to identify and elucidate. Despite the difficulty, unraveling such mechanistic drivers is essential for stemming declines and developing management strategies for these ecosystems. Mangroves provide many highly valued ecosystem services to coastal communities, yet worldwide these forests are rapidly declining. Much of this loss is related to various human activities along coastlines, but natural ecological mechanisms contribute to declines in many areas as well. An extensive die-off of dwarf red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) was observed in a remote area on the west side of Abaco Island, The Bahamas. Preliminary observations suggest the die-off may be due to a combination of fungal pathogens, grazing, and physical stress. This combination of stressors is strikingly parallel to the drivers of salt marsh decline on the East and Gulf coasts of the U.S. To date, different fungal strains from mangrove leaves have been identified. One fungus is a species of Pestalotiopsis, an Ascomycete fungus, and members of this genus are known plant pathogens. There are also high densities of a nocturnally active herbivorous cricket (Tafilasca eleuthera) in die-off areas. It is unclear whether this species has recently colonized the area, is increasing in density, or both. In addition, high salinities in the sediment porewater in the die-off area suggest another potential stressor for the plants. A series of observations and experimental studies will be used to examine potential mechanistic drivers of the mangrove die-off. First, the extent of the die-off areas will be mapped using aerial surveys conducted with a GPS-integrated drone equipped with a video camera. Progression of the die-off will be examined with historical spectral profiles of mangroves from 1980s-present (on an annual basis) using Landsat satellite data. Second, the incidence of lesions on mangroves across Abaco Island and throughout The Bahamas will be explored using a series of citizen science initiatives. Third, identification of fungi will require DNA sequencing and examination of the morphology of fungal spores/conidia at North Carolina State University. Fourth, maintenance of a grazer exclusion experiment near the die-off location will provide an assessment of the role of herbivory in this system. Finally, simulated grazing scar experiments will be used to assess if grazing can indeed facilitate fungal infections.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2016-04
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Abaco Island, The Bahamas
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String An interdisciplinary approach to elucidating the causes of widespread mangrove die-off
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 653797
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2015-05
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Data from an herbivore exclusion experiment conducted on Abaco Island in the Bahamas from 2014-2016 (Mangrove Die-off project)
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Data from an herbivore exclusion experiment conducted on Abaco Island in the Bahamas from 2014-2016 (Mangrove Die-off project)
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable year   short  
attribute year _FillValue short 32767
attribute year actual_range short 2014, 2016
attribute year bcodmo_name String year
attribute year description String Year sampling took place; YYYY
attribute year long_name String Year
attribute year nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/YEARXXXX/ (external link)
attribute year units String unitless
variable month   byte  
attribute month _FillValue byte 127
attribute month actual_range byte 1, 6
attribute month bcodmo_name String month
attribute month description String Month sampling took place; mm
attribute month long_name String Month
attribute month nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/MNTHXXXX/ (external link)
attribute month units String unitless
variable sampling   byte  
attribute sampling _FillValue byte 127
attribute sampling actual_range byte 1, 4
attribute sampling bcodmo_name String sample_descrip
attribute sampling description String Sampling rotation; 1-4
attribute sampling long_name String Sampling
attribute sampling units String unitless
variable location   String  
attribute location bcodmo_name String site_descrip
attribute location description String Area of within the die-off site. Boundary refers to mix of live and dead trees; live refers to all live trees
attribute location long_name String Location
attribute location units String unitless
variable block   byte  
attribute block _FillValue byte 127
attribute block actual_range byte 1, 16
attribute block bcodmo_name String Site_Desig
attribute block description String There were 16 blocks total in the sampling design
attribute block long_name String Block
attribute block units String unitless
variable treatment   byte  
attribute treatment _FillValue byte 127
attribute treatment actual_range byte 1, 3
attribute treatment bcodmo_name String treatment
attribute treatment description String Three treatments were used throughout the experiment. 1=cage (fully enclosed); 2=cage control (cage with 1 side removed); 3=control (no cage at all)
attribute treatment long_name String Treatment
attribute treatment units String unitless
variable leaves_num   short  
attribute leaves_num _FillValue short 32767
attribute leaves_num actual_range short 0, 509
attribute leaves_num bcodmo_name String count
attribute leaves_num description String Count of leaves present on each experimental unit (tree)
attribute leaves_num long_name String Leaves Num
attribute leaves_num units String count
variable disease_leaves   float  
attribute disease_leaves _FillValue float NaN
attribute disease_leaves actual_range float 0.0, 458.0
attribute disease_leaves bcodmo_name String count
attribute disease_leaves description String Count of leaves with disease on each experimental unit
attribute disease_leaves long_name String Disease Leaves
attribute disease_leaves units String count
variable chewed_leaves   float  
attribute chewed_leaves _FillValue float NaN
attribute chewed_leaves actual_range float 0.0, 136.0
attribute chewed_leaves bcodmo_name String count
attribute chewed_leaves description String Count of grazed leaves on each experimental unit
attribute chewed_leaves long_name String Chewed Leaves
attribute chewed_leaves units String count

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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