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|data||graph||files||public||Benthic cover data from six sites in Viti Levu, Fiji from 2010-2012 (Killer Seaweeds project)||I M||background||BCO-DMO||bcodmo_dataset_674104|
|Row Type||Variable Name||Attribute Name||Data Type||Value|
|attribute||NC_GLOBAL||acquisition_description||String||The study was conducted from November 2010 through February 2011 and between
November 2011 and January 2012 on shallow (~1 m below the surface at low tide,
equal or shallower than 2 m at high tide), intertidal fringing reefs platforms
(up to 800-m wide) along the Coral Coast (18\u00ba\u00a013.05\u2019S,
177\u00ba\u00a042.97\u2019E) of Viti Levu, Fiji\u2019s main island. Many of
the owners of traditional fishing rights along the Coral Coast have
established small, customary no-take MPAs to improve and sustain their
adjacent fishing grounds. The MPAs in this region are delimited by surface
markings and enforced by local villagers, and they have been closed to all
fishing activities since their inception (about 10 years). The only exception
to this closure was a small experimental hook and line fishing research
project that was conducted in the MPAs of Votua and\u00a0Namada. In the
\u00a0non-MPAs, the main fishing targets are species of Acanthuridae
(Nasinae), Epinephelidae, Labridae, Mullidae, and Lutjanidae. Permission for
the research was granted by the Fijian Ministry of Education, National
Heritage, Culture & Arts, Youth & Sports, which is authorized to approve field
studies in Fijian waters. No animal collection or experimental procedures
involving animals were conducted during the study, and no endangered species
were recorded during our assessments.\u00a0
To assess the effects of MPAs on fish assemblages, fish feeding group
composition, herbivory rates, benthic cover, and coral recruit density, we
compared three spatially paired MPA and adjacent, fished, areas (non-MPAs)
associated with the villages of
Votua,\u00a0Vatu-o-lalai\u00a0and\u00a0Namada.\u00a0 Comparisons of fish
assemblages inside and outside of closures are widely used for determining the
effects of reserves, but it should be acknowledged that this approach does not
reveal the state of an MPA relative to an undisturbed baseline.\u00a0
The studied MPAs were established in 2002 (Vatu-o-lalai,\u00a0Namada) and 2003
(Votua), and shortly after establishment, coral cover was low (~7%),
and\u00a0macroalgal\u00a0cover was high (~35\u201345%) in both the MPAs and
\u00a0non-MPAs. All surveys and assays were conducted during the same season
(austral summer) to minimize seasonal variation in sampling. The reef extends
approx. 1 km from shore within each MPA and\u00a0non-MPA,\u00a0and all data
were collected between 30 and 700 m of the shore (i.e., shoreward of the reef
crest) parallel to the\u00a0shoreline.
Benthic cover:\u00a0The benthic cover of the six study sites was surveyed
along 30-m long transects running parallel to the shore in each MPA and non-
MPA. Along each transect, photographs were taken from 0.5 m above the bottom
every 2 m along each transect (i.e., 16 photos per transect), so that
consecutive photographs did not overlap. The area of each photograph was about
25 cm x 30 cm, therefore sampled area per transect was about 1.2m2. Photos
were analyzed for percentage cover of corals and macrophytes using CPC with
Excel extensions; the program randomly placed 20 points on each photo, and we
identified the organism beneath each point. Organisms were further classified
into four main categories: scleractinian corals, macroalgae, epilithic algal
matrix [the EAM\u00a0sensu\u00a064], and others.
A total of 273 transects were conducted: 87 in Votua (48 in the MPA and 39 in
the non-MPA), 94 in Vatu-o-lalai\u00a0(44 in the MPA and 50 in the non-MPA),
and 87 in\u00a0Namada\u00a0(41 in the MPA and 51 in the non-MPA). Transects
were conducted from December 2010 to January 2011 and from December 2011 to
January 2012, and there was no spatial overlap between transects even between
different sampled year periods. On each sampling day, four to six transects
were deployed on the reef parallel to the shoreline. To ensure that transects
were independent and non-overlapping, they were separated by a minimum of 15
m, and the ends of each transect were marked with small surface buoys.
Additionally, after conducting every 4\u20136 transects, the snorkeler swam
approx. 25 m towards the reef crest to start a new set of transects, so
sampling was widespread within each area.
|attribute||NC_GLOBAL||awards_0_funder_name||String||NSF Division of Ocean Sciences|
|attribute||NC_GLOBAL||awards_0_program_manager||String||David L. Garrison|
|attribute||NC_GLOBAL||awards_1_funder_name||String||National Institutes of Health|
Version 6 January 2017
|attribute||NC_GLOBAL||Conventions||String||COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3|
|attribute||NC_GLOBAL||creator_email||String||info at bco-dmo.org|
|attribute||NC_GLOBAL||data_source||String||extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019|
|attribute||NC_GLOBAL||keywords||String||bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, coral, data, dataset, dmo, eam, erddap, management, oceanography, office, preliminary, site, status, transect, year|
|attribute||NC_GLOBAL||people_0_affiliation||String||Georgia Institute of Technology|
|attribute||NC_GLOBAL||people_1_affiliation||String||Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution|
|attribute||NC_GLOBAL||people_1_role||String||BCO-DMO Data Manager|
|attribute||NC_GLOBAL||projects_0_description||String||Extracted from the NSF award abstract:
Coral reefs are in dramatic global decline, with reefs commonly converting from species-rich and topographically-complex communities dominated by corals to species- poor and topographically-simplified communities dominated by seaweeds. These phase-shifts result in fundamental loss of ecosystem function. Despite debate about whether coral-to-algal transitions are commonly a primary cause, or simply a consequence, of coral mortality, rigorous field investigation of seaweed-coral competition has received limited attention. There is limited information on how the outcome of seaweed-coral competition varies among species or the relative importance of different competitive mechanisms in facilitating seaweed dominance. In an effort to address this topic, the PI will conduct field experiments in the tropical South Pacific (Fiji) to determine the effects of seaweeds on corals when in direct contact, which seaweeds are most damaging to corals, the role allelopathic lipids that are transferred via contact in producing these effects, the identity and surface concentrations of these metabolites, and the dynamic nature of seaweed metabolite production and coral response following contact. The herbivorous fishes most responsible for controlling allelopathic seaweeds will be identified, the roles of seaweed metabolites in allelopathy vs herbivore deterrence will be studied, and the potential for better managing and conserving critical reef herbivores so as to slow or reverse conversion of coral reef to seaweed meadows will be examined.
Preliminary results indicate that seaweeds may commonly damage corals via lipid- soluble allelochemicals. Such chemically-mediated interactions could kill or damage adult corals and produce the suppression of coral fecundity and recruitment noted by previous investigators and could precipitate positive feedback mechanisms making reef recovery increasingly unlikely as seaweed abundance increases. Chemically-mediated seaweed-coral competition may play a critical role in the degradation of present-day coral reefs. Increasing information on which seaweeds are most aggressive to corals and which herbivores best limit these seaweeds may prove useful in better managing reefs to facilitate resilience and possible recovery despite threats of global-scale stresses. Fiji is well positioned to rapidly use findings from this project for better management of reef resources because it has already erected >260 MPAs, Fijian villagers have already bought-in to the value of MPAs, and the Fiji Locally-Managed Marine Area (FLMMA) Network is well organized to get information to villagers in a culturally sensitive and useful manner.
The broader impacts of this project are far reaching. The project provides training opportunities for 2-2.5 Ph.D students and 1 undergraduate student each year in the interdisciplinary areas of marine ecology, marine conservation, and marine chemical ecology. Findings from this project will be immediately integrated into classes at Ga Tech and made available throughout Fiji via a foundation and web site that have already set-up to support marine conservation efforts in Fiji and marine education efforts both within Fiji and internationally. Business and community leaders from Atlanta (via Rotary International Service efforts) have been recruited to help organize and fund community service and outreach projects in Fiji -- several of which are likely to involve marine conservation and education based in part on these efforts there. Media outlets (National Geographic, NPR, Animal Planet, Audubon Magazine, etc.) and local Rotary clubs will be used to better disseminate these discoveries to the public.
PUBLICATIONS PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF THIS RESEARCH
Rasher DB, Stout EP, Engel S, Kubanek J, and ME Hay. "Macroalgal terpenes function as allelopathic agents against reef corals", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 108, 2011, p. 17726.
Beattie AJ, ME Hay, B Magnusson, R de Nys, J Smeathers, JFV Vincent. "Ecology and bioprospecting," Austral Ecology, v.36, 2011, p. 341.
Rasher DB and ME Hay. "Seaweed allelopathy degrades the resilience and function of coral reefs," Communicative and Integrative Biology, v.3, 2010.
Hay ME, Rasher DB. "Corals in crisis," The Scientist, v.24, 2010, p. 42.
Hay ME and DB Rasher. "Coral reefs in crisis: reversing the biotic death spiral," Faculty 1000 Biology Reports 2010, v.2, 2010.
Rasher DB and ME Hay. "Chemically rich seaweeds poison corals when not controlled by herbivores", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v.107, 2010, p. 9683.
|attribute||NC_GLOBAL||projects_0_geolocation||String||Viti Levu, Fiji (18º13.049’S, 177º42.968’E)|
|attribute||NC_GLOBAL||projects_0_name||String||Killer Seaweeds: Allelopathy against Fijian Corals|
|attribute||NC_GLOBAL||publisher_name||String||Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)|
|attribute||NC_GLOBAL||standard_name_vocabulary||String||CF Standard Name Table v55|
|attribute||NC_GLOBAL||summary||String||Benthic cover data from six sites in Viti Levu, Fiji from 2010-2012 (Killer Seaweeds project)|
|attribute||NC_GLOBAL||title||String||Benthic cover data from six sites in Viti Levu, Fiji from 2010-2012 (Killer Seaweeds project)|
|attribute||status||description||String||Status of area where sampling was done; Marine Protected Area (MPA) or non-MPA (NON)|
|attribute||year||description||String||(A) Sampling took place between December 2010 and January 2011; (B) Sampling took place between December 2011 and January 2012|
|attribute||coral||description||String||Percent cover of coral|
|attribute||ma||description||String||Percent cover of macroalgae|
|attribute||eam||description||String||Percent cover of epilithic algal matrix|
|attribute||other||description||String||Percent cover of other categories|
The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.