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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Rates of grazing by parrotfishes and macroalgal browsing in Fiji during 2010-2012 (Killer
Seaweeds project)
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String The study was conducted from November 2010 through February 2011 and between
November 2011 and January 2012 on shallow (~1 m below the surface at low tide,
equal or shallower than 2 m at high tide), intertidal fringing reefs platforms
(up to 800-m wide) along the Coral Coast (18\u00ba\u00a013.05\u2019S,
177\u00ba\u00a042.97\u2019E) of Viti Levu, Fiji\u2019s main island. Many of
the owners of traditional fishing rights along the Coral Coast have
established small, customary no-take MPAs to improve and sustain their
adjacent fishing grounds. The MPAs in this region are delimited by surface
markings and enforced by local villagers, and they have been closed to all
fishing activities since their inception (about 10 years). The only exception
to this closure was a small experimental hook and line fishing research
project that was conducted in the MPAs of Votua and\u00a0Namada. In the
\u00a0non-MPAs, the main fishing targets are species of Acanthuridae
(Nasinae), Epinephelidae, Labridae, Mullidae, and Lutjanidae. Permission for
the research was granted by the Fijian Ministry of Education, National
Heritage, Culture & Arts, Youth & Sports, which is authorized to approve field
studies in Fijian waters. No animal collection or experimental procedures
involving animals were conducted during the study, and no endangered species
were recorded during our assessments.\u00a0

To assess the effects of MPAs on fish assemblages, fish feeding group
composition, herbivory rates, benthic cover, and coral recruit density, we
compared three spatially paired MPA and adjacent, fished, areas (non-MPAs)
associated with the villages of
Votua,\u00a0Vatu-o-lalai\u00a0and\u00a0Namada.\u00a0 Comparisons of fish
assemblages inside and outside of closures are widely used for determining the
effects of reserves, but it should be acknowledged that this approach does not
reveal the state of an MPA relative to an undisturbed baseline.\u00a0

The studied MPAs were established in 2002 (Vatu-o-lalai,\u00a0Namada) and 2003
(Votua), and shortly after establishment, coral cover was low (~7%),
and\u00a0macroalgal\u00a0cover was high (~35\u201345%) in both the MPAs and
\u00a0non-MPAs. All surveys and assays were conducted during the same season
(austral summer) to minimize seasonal variation in sampling. The reef extends
approx. 1 km from shore within each MPA and\u00a0non-MPA,\u00a0and all data
were collected between 30 and 700 m of the shore (i.e., shoreward of the reef
crest) parallel to the\u00a0shoreline.

Herbivory rates: Rates of grazing by parrotfishes and macroalgal browsing were
assessed across the six study sites using established techniques. The feeding
rates of parrotfishes were estimated within each of the six study sites from
December 2011\u2013January 2012 using remote stationary video cameras; this
method was selected as it has been shown to reduce observer effects on fish
behavior. Underwater cameras (GoPro) attached to a small lead weight were
randomly positioned next to areas covered by algal turfs within each study
site, and all feeding on the benthos was recorded for 2 hours. At the start of
each video, a length of chain was used to demarcate a 4-m2 area and
probablyvide a scale for estimating the length of any fishes in the video. The
chain was removed after one minute, and the cameras were left to record all
feeding activities in the absence of divers.\u00a0

To ensure similar sampling effort among sites, sampling was conducted over 18
days, always during high tide. In the first week, during which high tide
occurred in the morning, four cameras were distributed in the MPA and four in
the non-MPA of a given village, and over the following two days, the same
procedure was repeated for the remaining two villages. A few days later, when
high tide occurred during the middle of the day, the same procedure was
repeated and then repeated again for the afternoon period. This entire
sampling scheme was performed twice, so we recorded a total of eight videos
per study site per time period within each village. All videos were
subsequently viewed, and all parrotfishes observed feeding on the reef
substrata were identified to species, and their length estimated. Grazing
rates were then calculated as the product of species-specific bite rates and
bite areas, and expressed as the percentage of the 4m2 area grazed per day.
Species-specific bite areas were obtained from the literature, and where these
were not available the bite area of a closely related species with a similar
feeding type and body size was used.

Macroalgal browsing was assessed at each site using a series of macroalgal
assays during December 2011. Five common macroalgal species in the non-MPAs
(Hormophysa triquetra, Padina boryana, Sargassum polycystum, Sargassum sp.,
and Turbinaria ornata) were collected by hand, spun in a salad spinner for 20
revolutions to remove water and weighed . One thallus of each alga was
randomly selected and attached at equal intervals along a 60-cm length of
3-ply rope by inserting the holdfast between the strands. The order of the
algal species along the rope was randomized among replicates. Three replicate
assays (or ropes) were exposed to herbivores, and three assays were placed in
exclusion cages (60 x 20 x 20 cm, 1-cm square mesh) at each site and left on
the reef for 5 h. Assays within each site were separated by 20-50 m. After 5h
the assays were collected and each thallus was carefully removed from the
rope, spun and weighed, and the reduction in algal biomass was calculated.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 480718
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-0929119
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=0929119 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_award_nid String 674109
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_award_number String U01-TW007401
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_data_url String https://projectreporter.nih.gov/project_info_description.cfm?icde=0&aid=7741942 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funder_name String National Institutes of Health
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funding_acronym String NIH
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funding_source_nid String 636502
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_program_manager String Flora Katz
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_program_manager_nid String 674108
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String M. Hay
Browsing data
Version 6 January 2017
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2017-01-07T00:29:35Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-04-05T15:37:15Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.674125.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/674125 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String after, bco, bco-dmo, before, biological, chemical, data, dataset, dmo, erddap, hormo, Hormo_after, Hormo_before, Hormo_log, Hormo_loss, Hormo_loss_g, log, loss, management, oceanography, office, padina, Padina_after, Padina_before, Padina_log, Padina_loss, Padina_loss_g, poly, preliminary, protection, S_poly_after, S_poly_before, S_poly_log, S_poly_loss, S_poly_loss_g, sarg, Sarg_sp_after, Sarg_sp_before, Sarg_sp_log, Sarg_sp_loss, Sarg_sp_loss_g, turbinaria, Turbinaria_after, Turbinaria_before, Turbinaria_log, Turbinaria_loss, Turbinaria_loss_g, village
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/674125/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/674125 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'674125': {}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/674125/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String Georgia Institute of Technology
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String Georgia Tech
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Mark Hay
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 480720
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Hannah Ake
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 650173
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Killer Seaweeds
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Killer Seaweeds
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String Extracted from the NSF award abstract:
Coral reefs are in dramatic global decline, with reefs commonly converting from species-rich and topographically-complex communities dominated by corals to species- poor and topographically-simplified communities dominated by seaweeds. These phase-shifts result in fundamental loss of ecosystem function. Despite debate about whether coral-to-algal transitions are commonly a primary cause, or simply a consequence, of coral mortality, rigorous field investigation of seaweed-coral competition has received limited attention. There is limited information on how the outcome of seaweed-coral competition varies among species or the relative importance of different competitive mechanisms in facilitating seaweed dominance. In an effort to address this topic, the PI will conduct field experiments in the tropical South Pacific (Fiji) to determine the effects of seaweeds on corals when in direct contact, which seaweeds are most damaging to corals, the role allelopathic lipids that are transferred via contact in producing these effects, the identity and surface concentrations of these metabolites, and the dynamic nature of seaweed metabolite production and coral response following contact. The herbivorous fishes most responsible for controlling allelopathic seaweeds will be identified, the roles of seaweed metabolites in allelopathy vs herbivore deterrence will be studied, and the potential for better managing and conserving critical reef herbivores so as to slow or reverse conversion of coral reef to seaweed meadows will be examined.
Preliminary results indicate that seaweeds may commonly damage corals via lipid- soluble allelochemicals. Such chemically-mediated interactions could kill or damage adult corals and produce the suppression of coral fecundity and recruitment noted by previous investigators and could precipitate positive feedback mechanisms making reef recovery increasingly unlikely as seaweed abundance increases. Chemically-mediated seaweed-coral competition may play a critical role in the degradation of present-day coral reefs. Increasing information on which seaweeds are most aggressive to corals and which herbivores best limit these seaweeds may prove useful in better managing reefs to facilitate resilience and possible recovery despite threats of global-scale stresses. Fiji is well positioned to rapidly use findings from this project for better management of reef resources because it has already erected >260 MPAs, Fijian villagers have already bought-in to the value of MPAs, and the Fiji Locally-Managed Marine Area (FLMMA) Network is well organized to get information to villagers in a culturally sensitive and useful manner.
The broader impacts of this project are far reaching. The project provides training opportunities for 2-2.5 Ph.D students and 1 undergraduate student each year in the interdisciplinary areas of marine ecology, marine conservation, and marine chemical ecology. Findings from this project will be immediately integrated into classes at Ga Tech and made available throughout Fiji via a foundation and web site that have already set-up to support marine conservation efforts in Fiji and marine education efforts both within Fiji and internationally. Business and community leaders from Atlanta (via Rotary International Service efforts) have been recruited to help organize and fund community service and outreach projects in Fiji -- several of which are likely to involve marine conservation and education based in part on these efforts there. Media outlets (National Geographic, NPR, Animal Planet, Audubon Magazine, etc.) and local Rotary clubs will be used to better disseminate these discoveries to the public.
Rasher DB, Stout EP, Engel S, Kubanek J, and ME Hay. "Macroalgal terpenes function as allelopathic agents against reef corals", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 108, 2011, p. 17726.
Beattie AJ, ME Hay, B Magnusson, R de Nys, J Smeathers, JFV Vincent. "Ecology and bioprospecting," Austral Ecology, v.36, 2011, p. 341.
Rasher DB and ME Hay. "Seaweed allelopathy degrades the resilience and function of coral reefs," Communicative and Integrative Biology, v.3, 2010.
Hay ME, Rasher DB. "Corals in crisis," The Scientist, v.24, 2010, p. 42.
Hay ME and DB Rasher. "Coral reefs in crisis: reversing the biotic death spiral," Faculty 1000 Biology Reports 2010, v.2, 2010.
Rasher DB and ME Hay. "Chemically rich seaweeds poison corals when not controlled by herbivores", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v.107, 2010, p. 9683.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2014-08
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Viti Levu, Fiji (18º13.049’S, 177º42.968’E)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Killer Seaweeds: Allelopathy against Fijian Corals
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 480717
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2009-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Rates of grazing by parrotfishes and macroalgal browsing in Fiji during 2010-2012 (Killer Seaweeds project)
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Rates of grazing by parrotfishes and macroalgal browsing in Fiji during 2010-2012 (Killer Seaweeds project)
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable protection   String  
attribute protection bcodmo_name String site_descrip
attribute protection description String Status of area where sampling was done; Marine Protected Area (MPA) or non-MPA (NON)
attribute protection long_name String Protection
attribute protection units String unitless
variable village   String  
attribute village bcodmo_name String site
attribute village description String The village where sampling was performed.
attribute village long_name String Village
attribute village units String unitless
variable Turbinaria_before   float  
attribute Turbinaria_before _FillValue float NaN
attribute Turbinaria_before actual_range float 6.76, 16.76
attribute Turbinaria_before bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Turbinaria_before description String Percentage of Turbinaria ornata in the 4m2 area.
attribute Turbinaria_before long_name String Turbinaria Before
attribute Turbinaria_before units String percent
variable Padina_before   float  
attribute Padina_before _FillValue float NaN
attribute Padina_before actual_range float 3.25, 28.47
attribute Padina_before bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Padina_before description String Percentage of Padina boryana in the 4m2 area.
attribute Padina_before long_name String Padina Before
attribute Padina_before units String percent
variable S_poly_before   float  
attribute S_poly_before _FillValue float NaN
attribute S_poly_before actual_range float 5.44, 14.87
attribute S_poly_before bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute S_poly_before description String Percentage of Sargassum polycystum in the 4m2 area.
attribute S_poly_before long_name String S poly before
attribute S_poly_before units String percent
variable Sarg_sp_before   float  
attribute Sarg_sp_before _FillValue float NaN
attribute Sarg_sp_before actual_range float 15.56, 38.33
attribute Sarg_sp_before bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Sarg_sp_before description String Percentage of Sargassum sp. in the 4m2 area.
attribute Sarg_sp_before long_name String Sarg Sp Before
attribute Sarg_sp_before units String percent
variable Hormo_before   float  
attribute Hormo_before _FillValue float NaN
attribute Hormo_before actual_range float 15.07, 36.02
attribute Hormo_before bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Hormo_before description String Percentage of Hormophysa triquetra in the 4m2 area.
attribute Hormo_before long_name String Hormo Before
attribute Hormo_before units String percent
variable Turbinaria_after   float  
attribute Turbinaria_after _FillValue float NaN
attribute Turbinaria_after actual_range float 1.4, 16.0
attribute Turbinaria_after bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Turbinaria_after description String Percentage of Turbinaria ornata in the 4m2 area after browsing.
attribute Turbinaria_after long_name String Turbinaria After
attribute Turbinaria_after units String percent
variable Padina_after   float  
attribute Padina_after _FillValue float NaN
attribute Padina_after actual_range float 0.0, 26.49
attribute Padina_after bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Padina_after description String Percentage of Padina boryana in the 4m2 area after browsing.
attribute Padina_after long_name String Padina After
attribute Padina_after units String percent
variable S_poly_after   float  
attribute S_poly_after _FillValue float NaN
attribute S_poly_after actual_range float 0.0, 11.19
attribute S_poly_after bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute S_poly_after description String Percentage of Sargassum polycystum in the 4m2 area after browsing.
attribute S_poly_after long_name String S poly after
attribute S_poly_after units String percent
variable Sarg_sp_after   float  
attribute Sarg_sp_after _FillValue float NaN
attribute Sarg_sp_after actual_range float 0.0, 36.57
attribute Sarg_sp_after bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Sarg_sp_after description String Percentage of Sargassum sp. in the 4m2 area after browsing.
attribute Sarg_sp_after long_name String Sarg Sp After
attribute Sarg_sp_after units String percent
variable Hormo_after   float  
attribute Hormo_after _FillValue float NaN
attribute Hormo_after actual_range float 2.7, 36.02
attribute Hormo_after bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Hormo_after description String Percentage of Hormophysa triquetra in the 4m2 area after browsing.
attribute Hormo_after long_name String Hormo After
attribute Hormo_after units String percent
variable Turbinaria_loss   float  
attribute Turbinaria_loss _FillValue float NaN
attribute Turbinaria_loss actual_range float -0.16, 0.87
attribute Turbinaria_loss bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Turbinaria_loss description String Percentage of Turbinaria ornata loss in the 4m2 area.
attribute Turbinaria_loss long_name String Turbinaria Loss
attribute Turbinaria_loss units String percent
variable Padina_loss   float  
attribute Padina_loss _FillValue float NaN
attribute Padina_loss actual_range float -0.03, 1.0
attribute Padina_loss bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Padina_loss description String Percentage of Turbinaria ornata loss in the 4m2 area.
attribute Padina_loss long_name String Padina Loss
attribute Padina_loss units String percent
variable S_poly_loss   float  
attribute S_poly_loss _FillValue float NaN
attribute S_poly_loss actual_range float -0.01, 1.0
attribute S_poly_loss bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute S_poly_loss description String Percentage of Turbinaria ornata loss in the 4m2 area.
attribute S_poly_loss long_name String S poly loss
attribute S_poly_loss units String percent
variable Sarg_sp_loss   float  
attribute Sarg_sp_loss _FillValue float NaN
attribute Sarg_sp_loss actual_range float -0.04, 1.0
attribute Sarg_sp_loss bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Sarg_sp_loss description String Percentage of Turbinaria ornata loss in the 4m2 area.
attribute Sarg_sp_loss long_name String Sarg Sp Loss
attribute Sarg_sp_loss units String percent
variable Hormo_loss   float  
attribute Hormo_loss _FillValue float NaN
attribute Hormo_loss actual_range float -0.06, 0.87
attribute Hormo_loss bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Hormo_loss description String Percentage of Turbinaria ornata loss in the 4m2 area.
attribute Hormo_loss long_name String Hormo Loss
attribute Hormo_loss units String percent
variable Turbinaria_loss_g   float  
attribute Turbinaria_loss_g _FillValue float NaN
attribute Turbinaria_loss_g actual_range float -1.82, 12.84
attribute Turbinaria_loss_g bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Turbinaria_loss_g description String Percentage of loss g error.
attribute Turbinaria_loss_g long_name String Turbinaria Loss G
attribute Turbinaria_loss_g units String percent
variable Padina_loss_g   float  
attribute Padina_loss_g _FillValue float NaN
attribute Padina_loss_g actual_range float -0.12, 23.58
attribute Padina_loss_g bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Padina_loss_g description String Percentage of loss g error.
attribute Padina_loss_g long_name String Padina Loss G
attribute Padina_loss_g units String percent
variable S_poly_loss_g   float  
attribute S_poly_loss_g _FillValue float NaN
attribute S_poly_loss_g actual_range float -0.05, 14.36
attribute S_poly_loss_g bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute S_poly_loss_g description String Percentage of loss g error.
attribute S_poly_loss_g long_name String S poly loss g
attribute S_poly_loss_g units String percent
variable Sarg_sp_loss_g   float  
attribute Sarg_sp_loss_g _FillValue float NaN
attribute Sarg_sp_loss_g actual_range float -0.7, 27.07
attribute Sarg_sp_loss_g bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Sarg_sp_loss_g description String Percentage of loss g error.
attribute Sarg_sp_loss_g long_name String Sarg Sp Loss G
attribute Sarg_sp_loss_g units String percent
variable Hormo_loss_g   float  
attribute Hormo_loss_g _FillValue float NaN
attribute Hormo_loss_g actual_range float -1.33, 22.07
attribute Hormo_loss_g bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Hormo_loss_g description String Percentage of loss g error.
attribute Hormo_loss_g long_name String Hormo Loss G
attribute Hormo_loss_g units String percent
variable Turbinaria_log   float  
attribute Turbinaria_log _FillValue float NaN
attribute Turbinaria_log actual_range float -0.74, 1.17
attribute Turbinaria_log bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Turbinaria_log description String Log transformed percentage loss.
attribute Turbinaria_log long_name String Turbinaria Log
attribute Turbinaria_log units String log
variable Padina_log   float  
attribute Padina_log _FillValue float NaN
attribute Padina_log actual_range float 0.27, 1.41
attribute Padina_log bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Padina_log description String Log transformed percentage loss.
attribute Padina_log long_name String Padina Log
attribute Padina_log units String log
variable S_poly_log   float  
attribute S_poly_log _FillValue float NaN
attribute S_poly_log actual_range float 0.29, 1.21
attribute S_poly_log bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute S_poly_log description String Log transformed percentage loss.
attribute S_poly_log long_name String S poly log
attribute S_poly_log units String log
variable Sarg_sp_log   float  
attribute Sarg_sp_log _FillValue float NaN
attribute Sarg_sp_log actual_range float 0.11, 1.46
attribute Sarg_sp_log bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Sarg_sp_log description String Log transformed percentage loss.
attribute Sarg_sp_log long_name String Sarg Sp Log
attribute Sarg_sp_log units String log
variable Hormo_log   float  
attribute Hormo_log _FillValue float NaN
attribute Hormo_log actual_range float -0.17, 1.38
attribute Hormo_log bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Hormo_log description String Log transformed percentage loss.
attribute Hormo_log long_name String Hormo Log
attribute Hormo_log units String log

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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