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   set  data   graph     files  public Fish species survey from the Bahamas from 2009-2012.    ?     I   M   background (external link) RSS BCO-DMO bcodmo_dataset_700226

The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Methods from Kindinger and Albins (2016) \"Consumptive and non-consumptive
effects of an invasive marine predator on native\u00a0coral-
reef\u00a0herbivores\"\u00a0doi:\u00a0[10.1007/s10530-016-1268-1](\\"https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10530-016-1268-1\\")

Visual surveys of reef fishes were conducted by a pair of SCUBA divers
throughout (seafloor to surface) two permanent square plots (10 9 10 m) and
four permanent strip transects (2 9 25 m), for a total area of 400 m2 per reef
(see Albins 2015 for detailed description). We positioned square plots to
include areas of the reef with the highest apparent relief, and strip
transects were placed randomly across the remaining hard substrate, with the
intent of including all important high-relief habitat features. Divers
conducted censuses of each sampling unit whereby each fish was identified to
the species-level and total length (TL) was visually estimated to the nearest
cm. Paired reefs (low- and high-lionfish-densities) were surveyed within 24 h
by the same set of observers, and all reefs were surveyed by the author (M.
Albins). Every 3\u20135 months thereafter, we resurveyed the fish community at
all experimental reefs.

We quantified CEs of invasive lionfish on native herbivorous fish populations
throughout the 2-year experiment by comparing the change in density and
biomass of small and large herbivorous fishes between lionfish-density
treatments. Small fish were B 10 cm TL, which encompasses the majority of prey
fish sizes reported in invasive lionfish gut-content studies for the size
range of lionfish (2\u201335 cm TL) observed on our experimental reefs (Morris
and Akins 2009 ; Mun\u02dcoz et al. 2011 ). Responses of fish [ 10 cm TL were
consistent, regardless of whether individuals were binned into medium
(11\u201320 cm TL) and large ([ 20 cm TL) size classes, so hereafter we refer
to all fish[ 10 cm TL as large . To determine the relative response of
different sub guilds of herbivorous fishes, we also calculated the change in
small and large fish density and biomass by fish family: (1) parrotfishes
(Labridae); (2) surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae); (3) angelfishes (Pomacanthidae);
and (4) damselfishes (Pomacentridae). We used published length-weight
conversions to calculate fish biomass; parameters of closely related species
were used when conversions were not available (Online Resource 1). We
calculated changes in fish density and biomass at every survey interval by
subtracting the baseline value (prior to initial lionfish manipulation) for
each sub-sample (plots and transects) from the corresponding value of each
subsequent survey.

To test for an effect of invasive lionfish through time on changes in density
and/or biomass of each group of native fishes (described above), we fitted
linear mixed effects models (LMMs) with lionfish density treatment and time as
categorical fixed effects, and sub -sample nested within reef as random
effects (Pinheiro and Bates 2000 ; Bolker et al. 2009 ; Zuur et al. 2009 ).
Time was a categorical variable because we had no a priori reason to assume
any linear relationships with response variables. Full models included
weighted terms allowing variances to differ among reefs and AR1 covariance
structures to account for temporal autocorrelation (Zuur et al. 2009 ). We
fitted full and reduced models (with vs. without weighted terms and/or AR1
structures) using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and compared full and
reduced models using Akaike\u2019s Information Criterion (AIC) and likelihood
ratio tests (LRTs, Online Resource 2). Visual examination of residuals of the
best-fit models indicated that the assumptions of normality, homogeneity, and
independence were all met.

To assess the significance of fixed effects, we refit each model using maximum
likelihood estimation (ML) and applied LRTs (Zuur et al. 2009 ). Fixed effects
that were not significant were sequentially dropped from models. The resulting
best-fit models in terms of variance structure, temporal correlation, and
fixed effects were refit using REML in order to estimate the fixed-effects
parameters and associated effect sizes. If LRTs indicated the lionfish 9 time
interaction was significant, we made simultaneous inferences about the
marginal effects of the lionfish treatment at each survey period, and adjusted
the associated p values to maintain an approximately 5 % family-wise error
rate (Hothorn et al. 2008 ). Regardless of whether the lionfish 9 time
interaction was significant, we estimated expected values and standard error
of the means (SEMs) for all response variables from low- and high-lionfish-
density treatments during each survey period. We also fit LMMs to compare the
baseline levels of each response variable between lionfish-density treatments
using a similar procedure to the one outlined above, but with density and
biomass of each group of small and large fishes (described above) as the
response (rather than the change in these variables). Additionally, we fit
LMMs to assess whether small (B 10 cm) and large ([ 10 cm) native
mesopredators (Online Resource 1) that are potentially ecologically-similar to
invasive lionfish differed between the reefs assigned to each lionfish density
treatment at the baseline survey (mesopredator density and biomass) and at
each subsequent survey period (change in mesopredator density and biomass).
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 561016
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1233027
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1233027 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String Dr David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Fish Survey
M. Hixon and T. Kindinger
Version 16 May 2017
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.2d 13 Jun 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2017-05-18T16:12:37Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-03-28T18:34:53Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.700226.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/700226 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, data, dataset, dmo, erddap, family, identifier, management, oceanography, office, pair, preliminary, sample, sample_type, site, site_pair, site_treatment, size, size_1, size_100, size_15, size_150, size_2, size_20, size_200, size_25, size_250, size_3, size_30, size_35, size_4, size_40, size_45, size_5, size_50, size_6, species, subsample, subsample_ID, taxonomy, time, time2, treatment, type, year
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String The data may be used and redistributed for free but is not intended
for legal use, since it may contain inaccuracies. Neither the data
Contributor, ERD, NOAA, nor the United States Government, nor any
of their employees or contractors, makes any warranty, express or
implied, including warranties of merchantability and fitness for a
particular purpose, or assumes any legal liability for the accuracy,
completeness, or usefulness, of this information.
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/700226 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'700226': {}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/700226/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String University of Hawaii
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Dr Mark Hixon
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 51647
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Auburn University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Mark A Albins
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 51666
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Scientist
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Oregon State University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String OSU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Tye L Kindinger
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 51707
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String Contact
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_name String Hannah Ake
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_nid String 650173
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Mechanisms and Consequences of Fish Biodiversity Loss on Atlantic Coral Reefs Caused by Invasive Pacific Lionfish
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String BiodiversityLossEffects_lionfish
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String The Pacific red lionfish (Pterois volitans), a popular aquarium fish, was introduced to the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Florida in the late 20th century. Voraciously consuming small native coral-reef fishes, including the juveniles of fisheries and ecologically important species, the invader has undergone a population explosion that now ranges from the U.S. southeastern seaboard to the Gulf of Mexico and across the greater Caribbean region. The PI's past research determined that invasive lionfish (1) have escaped their natural enemies in the Pacific (lionfish are much less abundant in their native range); (2) are not yet controlled by Atlantic predators, competitors, or parasites; (3) have strong negative effects on populations of native Atlantic fishes; and (4) locally reduce the diversity (number of species) of native fishes. The lionfish invasion has been recognized as one of the major conservation threats worldwide.
The Bahamas support the highest abundances of invasive lionfish globally. This system thus provides an unprecedented opportunity to understand the direct and indirect effects of a major invader on a diverse community, as well as the underlying causative mechanisms. The PI will focus on five related questions: (1) How does long-term predation by lionfish alter the structure of native reef-fish communities? (2) How does lionfish predation destabilize native prey population dynamics, possibly causing local extinctions? (3) Is there a lionfish-herbivore-seaweed trophic cascade on invaded reefs? (4) How do lionfish modify cleaning mutualisms on invaded reefs? (5) Are lionfish reaching densities where natural population limits are evident?�
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2016-07
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Three Bahamian sites: 24.8318, -076.3299; 23.8562, -076.2250; 23.7727, -076.1071; Caribbean Netherlands: 12.1599, -068.2820
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Mechanisms and Consequences of Fish Biodiversity Loss on Atlantic Coral Reefs Caused by Invasive Pacific Lionfish
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 561017
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_website String http://hixon.science.oregonstate.edu/content/highlight-lionfish-invasion (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2012-08
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Hannah Ake
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager(s)
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v29
attribute NC_GLOBAL subsetVariables String size_150, size_200, size_250
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Fish species survey from the Bahamas from 2009-2012.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Fish species survey from the Bahamas from 2009-2012.
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.5-beta
variable year   short  
attribute year _FillValue short 32767
attribute year actual_range short 2009, 2011
attribute year description String Year of observation
attribute year ioos_category String Time
attribute year long_name String Year
attribute year units String unitless
variable family   String  
attribute family description String Family of fish
attribute family ioos_category String Taxonomy
attribute family long_name String Family
attribute family units String unitless
variable site   String  
attribute site description String Name of study site (reef)
attribute site ioos_category String Unknown
attribute site long_name String Site
attribute site units String unitless
variable site_treatment   String  
attribute site_treatment description String Lionfish treatment of site (reef): Low-lionfish-density reef or High-lionfish-density reef
attribute site_treatment ioos_category String Unknown
attribute site_treatment long_name String Site Treatment
attribute site_treatment units String unitless
variable time2   byte  
attribute time2 _FillValue byte 127
attribute time2 actual_range byte 0, 7
attribute time2 description String Time step of observation (0 -7 where 0 = baseline)
attribute time2 ioos_category String Time
attribute time2 long_name String Time
attribute time2 units String unitless
variable site_pair   String  
attribute site_pair description String Site pairs
attribute site_pair ioos_category String Unknown
attribute site_pair long_name String Site Pair
attribute site_pair units String unitless
variable sample_type   String  
attribute sample_type description String Sampling method used: PLOT = square 10 x 10 m plots; STRIP = 2 x 25 m line transects
attribute sample_type ioos_category String Unknown
attribute sample_type long_name String Sample Type
attribute sample_type units String unitless
variable subsample_ID   String  
attribute subsample_ID description String ID of sampling area per study site
attribute subsample_ID ioos_category String Identifier
attribute subsample_ID long_name String Subsample ID
attribute subsample_ID units String unitless
variable species   String  
attribute species description String Species of fish: species codes are first two letters of genus and species (see species key)
attribute species ioos_category String Taxonomy
attribute species long_name String Species
attribute species units String unitless
variable size_1   byte  
attribute size_1 _FillValue byte 127
attribute size_1 actual_range byte 0, 4
attribute size_1 description String Number of individuals counted of each size (1 cm total body length)
attribute size_1 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute size_1 long_name String Size 1
attribute size_1 units String count
variable size_2   byte  
attribute size_2 _FillValue byte 127
attribute size_2 actual_range byte 0, 90
attribute size_2 description String Number of individuals counted of each size (2 cm total body length)
attribute size_2 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute size_2 long_name String Size 2
attribute size_2 units String count
variable size_3   byte  
attribute size_3 _FillValue byte 127
attribute size_3 actual_range byte 0, 84
attribute size_3 description String Number of individuals counted of each size (3 cm total body length)
attribute size_3 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute size_3 long_name String Size 3
attribute size_3 units String count
variable size_4   byte  
attribute size_4 _FillValue byte 127
attribute size_4 actual_range byte 0, 51
attribute size_4 description String Number of individuals counted of each size (4 cm total body length)
attribute size_4 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute size_4 long_name String Size 4
attribute size_4 units String count
variable size_5   byte  
attribute size_5 _FillValue byte 127
attribute size_5 actual_range byte 0, 44
attribute size_5 description String Number of individuals counted of each size (5 cm total body length)
attribute size_5 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute size_5 long_name String Size 5
attribute size_5 units String count
variable size_6   byte  
attribute size_6 _FillValue byte 127
attribute size_6 actual_range byte 0, 81
attribute size_6 description String Number of individuals counted of each size (6 cm total body length)
attribute size_6 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute size_6 long_name String Size 6
attribute size_6 units String count
variable size_15   byte  
attribute size_15 _FillValue byte 127
attribute size_15 actual_range byte 0, 75
attribute size_15 description String Number of individuals counted of each size (15 cm total body length)
attribute size_15 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute size_15 long_name String Size 15
attribute size_15 units String count
variable size_20   byte  
attribute size_20 _FillValue byte 127
attribute size_20 actual_range byte 0, 50
attribute size_20 description String Number of individuals counted of each size (20 cm total body length)
attribute size_20 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute size_20 long_name String Size 20
attribute size_20 units String count
variable size_25   byte  
attribute size_25 _FillValue byte 127
attribute size_25 actual_range byte 0, 20
attribute size_25 description String Number of individuals counted of each size (25 cm total body length)
attribute size_25 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute size_25 long_name String Size 25
attribute size_25 units String count
variable size_30   byte  
attribute size_30 _FillValue byte 127
attribute size_30 actual_range byte 0, 6
attribute size_30 description String Number of individuals counted of each size (30 cm total body length)
attribute size_30 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute size_30 long_name String Size 30
attribute size_30 units String count
variable size_35   byte  
attribute size_35 _FillValue byte 127
attribute size_35 actual_range byte 0, 4
attribute size_35 description String Number of individuals counted of each size (35 cm total body length)
attribute size_35 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute size_35 long_name String Size 35
attribute size_35 units String count
variable size_40   byte  
attribute size_40 _FillValue byte 127
attribute size_40 actual_range byte 0, 2
attribute size_40 description String Number of individuals counted of each size (40 cm total body length)
attribute size_40 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute size_40 long_name String Size 40
attribute size_40 units String count
variable size_45   byte  
attribute size_45 _FillValue byte 127
attribute size_45 actual_range byte 0, 2
attribute size_45 description String Number of individuals counted of each size (45 cm total body length)
attribute size_45 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute size_45 long_name String Size 45
attribute size_45 units String count
variable size_50   byte  
attribute size_50 _FillValue byte 127
attribute size_50 actual_range byte 0, 1
attribute size_50 description String Number of individuals counted of each size (50 cm total body length)
attribute size_50 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute size_50 long_name String Size 50
attribute size_50 units String count
variable size_100   byte  
attribute size_100 _FillValue byte 127
attribute size_100 actual_range byte 0, 1
attribute size_100 description String Number of individuals counted of each size (100 cm total body length)
attribute size_100 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute size_100 long_name String Size 100
attribute size_100 units String count
variable size_150   byte  
attribute size_150 _FillValue byte 127
attribute size_150 actual_range byte 0, 0
attribute size_150 description String Number of individuals counted of each size (150 cm total body length)
attribute size_150 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute size_150 long_name String Size 150
attribute size_150 units String count
variable size_200   byte  
attribute size_200 _FillValue byte 127
attribute size_200 actual_range byte 0, 0
attribute size_200 description String Number of individuals counted of each size (200 cm total body length)
attribute size_200 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute size_200 long_name String Size 200
attribute size_200 units String count
variable size_250   byte  
attribute size_250 _FillValue byte 127
attribute size_250 actual_range byte 0, 0
attribute size_250 description String Number of individuals counted of each size (250 cm total body length)
attribute size_250 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute size_250 long_name String Size 250
attribute size_250 units String count

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.


 
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