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Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Comparison of bleaching data to stress bands in Porites corals on Palau reefs    ?     I   M   background (external link) RSS Subscribe BCO-DMO bcodmo_dataset_709454

The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Coral skeletal core collection:\u00a0We collected 101 skeletal cores from
massive Porites coral colonies at ten reef sites representing two major reef
environments, barrier reef and lagoon, the latter including fringing reefs
around the uplifted karst Rock Islands. The two environments are broadly
distinguishable in both physical (flow, temperature, and light regimes) and
chemical (carbon system parameters, salinity) characteristics with generally
higher flow, light, pH, and salinity and lower SST on the barrier reefs
(Shamberger et al. 2014; Barkley et al. 2015).


Skeletal cores (20-40 cm in length) were collected in April 2011, September
2011, April 2012, August 2014, and January 2015 vertically from live coral
colonies at 1-6 m depth using pneumatic drills with 3.8 cm diameter diamond
drill bits. Core holes were filled with cement plugs hammered flush with the
colony surface and sealed with underwater epoxy. Visual inspections of
colonies 6-12 months after coring revealed significant overgrowth of plugs and
no long-term impacts to the corals. Coral cores were oven-dried and scanned
with a Siemens Volume Zoom Helical Computerized Tomography (CT) Scanner at
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. 3-D CT scans of coral cores were
analyzed using OsiriX freeware to visualize the 3-D image (Cantin et al. 2010;
Crook et al. 2013) and an automated MATLAB code to quantify skeletal growth
parameters and stress banding (DeCarlo et al. 2015).\u00a0

Stress bands: Coral cores that included growth records prior to 1998 were
assessed for the presence of high-density stress bands associated with
elevated temperatures in 1998 (n = 86), and all cores were examined for stress
bands in 2010. A stress band was defined as a region of the coral core > 1 mm
in height and extending the entire width of the core where density values
exceeded two standard deviations of the whole-core density mean. We defined a
minimum band thickness in order to filter out smaller-scale density
variability and high-density noise. A value of 1 mm for this thickness
threshold was selected based on the average linear extension rates of Palau
Porites corals (0.88 cm yr-1, interquartile range = 0.35 cm yr-1), where 1 mm
represents, on average, approximately 10% of overall annual linear extension.
High-density anomalies of this width therefore represent significant
perturbations in growth. Density thresholds were set based on standard
deviations from mean values in order to account for significant differences in
density means and variability between individuals. Density values were
normally distributed within coral cores, and values greater than two standard
deviations were defined as the threshold for a stress band. This threshold was
selected to aid in the identification of only the most anomalously high-
density areas (i.e., areas with densities greater than approximately 95% of
all values) while also minimizing the probability of type II errors in coral
cores where stress bands exist but high-density values are slightly less
extreme. Stress bands were identified as occurring within a particular year
(specifically, 1998 and 2010) based on annual patterns of density banding, in
which successive low density bands were counted down from the top of the core
and subsequently dated based on the known date of collection. Although a small
number of coral skeletal cores had occasional high-density regions in
additional years, we did not consistently detect stress bands corresponding to
years other than 1998 and 2010.

The percentage of Porites corals with stress bands was compared with community
bleaching data for each reef site collected during the 1998 and 2010 high-
temperature events. Bleaching data from 1998 were collected at nine reef sites
in November 1998 using a point-intercept technique with three replicate 20-m
transect surveys per site conducted at 3-5 m depth (Bruno et al. 2001). A
subset of six of these nine sites was used to compare bleaching data to stress
band records based on proximity to our core collection sites. Data from 2010
were collected at 80 randomly assigned reef sites in July and August 2010 with
three replicate 30-m transect surveys conducted at 2-5 m depth (van Woesik et
al. 2012).\u00a0 A subset of 31 of these sites was included in this study.
Because in situ bleaching data were collected at randomized locations, the
spatial matches between sites with bleaching data and sites with coral cores
were not always exact. Therefore, for each coral core collection site, we
averaged bleaching data from the two or three sites that both fell within a
10-km radius of each core site and that represented the same environment type
to calculate a community bleaching estimate. Bleaching information about
specific coral colonies from which we collected cores was not available.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 560427
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1031971
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1031971 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Stress bands bleaching
PI: Anne Cohen (WHOI)
Contact: Hannah Barkley (WHOI)
Version: 21 July 2017
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2017-07-21T19:01:22Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-08-02T16:19:49Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.709454.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double 134.562
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double 7.822
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double 7.16
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double 134.562
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double 134.22
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/709454 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_acronym String CT Scanner
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description String Siemens Volume Zoom Helical Computerized Tomography (CT) Scanner
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 709461
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String A CT scan makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String Computerized Tomography (CT) Scanner
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 707113
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_supplied_name String Siemens Volume Zoom Helical Computerized Tomography (CT) Scanner
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String bands, bco, bco-dmo, biological, bleaching, chemical, cores, data, dataset, dmo, erddap, latitude, longitude, management, mean, mean_pcnt_bleaching, mean_pcnt_bleaching_SE, num, num_cores, oceanography, office, pcnt, pcnt_stress_bands, pcnt_stress_bands_SE, preliminary, reef, reef_type, site, stress, type, year
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/709454/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/709454 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double 7.822
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'709454': {'latitude': 'flag - latitude', 'longitude': 'flag - longitude'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/709454/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String WHOI
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Anne L Cohen
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 51428
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String WHOI
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Hannah Barkley
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 560803
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Contact
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Shannon Rauch
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 51498
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Thermal Thresholds and Projections
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Thermal Thresholds and Projections
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String Description from NSF award abstract:
Sea surface temperature (SST) across much of the global tropics has increased by 0.5-1 degrees C in the past 4 decades and, with it, the frequency and geographic extent of coral bleaching events and reef mortality. As levels of atmospheric CO2 continue to rise, there is mounting concern that CO2-induced climate change will pose the single greatest threat to the survival of coral reefs. Averaged output of 21 IPCC climate models for a mid-range CO2 emissions scenario predicts that tropical SSTs will increase another 1.5-3 degrees C by the end of this century. Combined with current estimates of thermal thresholds for coral bleaching, the outlook for the future of coral-reef ecosystems, worldwide, appears bleak. There are several key issues that limit accurate predictions of the full and lasting impact of rising SSTs. These include (1) level of confidence in the spatial and temporal patterns of the predicted warming, (2) knowledge of thermal thresholds of different reef-building coral species, and (3) the potential for corals to increase resistance to thermal stress through repeated exposure to high temperature events.
New skeletal markers have been developed that constrain the thermal thresholds and adaptive potential of multiple, individual coral colonies across 3-D space and through time. The method, based on 3-D CAT scan reconstructions of coral skeletons, has generated initial data from two coral species in the Red Sea, Great Barrier Reef and Phoenix Islands. Results showed that large, abrupt declines in skeletal growth occur at thresholds of accumulated heat stress defined by NOAA's Degree Heating Weeks Index (DHWs). In addition, there was a significant correlation between host lipid reserve, an independent measure of stress and mortality risk, and rates of skeletal growth. Because the coral skeleton archives the history of each coral's response to and recovery from successive, documented thermal anomalies, this approach pinpoints the thermal thresholds for sub-lethal impacts, the recovery time (if any) following a return to normal oceanographic conditions, and tests for a dampened response following successive events, indicative of acclimation.
This research program builds on initial work, focusing on method refinement and application to corals on two central Pacific reefs. With contrasting thermal histories, these reefs are considered at greatest risk from future ocean warming. In parallel, new experiments will be run on an ocean general-circulation model (OGCM) that is well suited to the tropical Pacific and of sufficiently high resolution, both horizontal and vertical, to maximize projections of thermal stress on specific central Pacific Reef sites over the next few decades. The OGCM output will also be of sufficient temporal resolution to compute DHWs, thus addressing a major limitation of the direct application of global climate model output (as archived for the IPCC AR4) toward coral-reef studies. Specifically, this study will: (1) collect multiple new, medium-length (15-30 yrs) cores and branches from two dominant reef-building species at 1-30m depth in the Gilbert and Jarvis Islands, central tropical Pacific; (2) apply 3-D CAT scanning and image analysis techniques to quantify systematically thermal thresholds, rates of recovery and resilience for each species, at each reef site and with depth; (3) quantify energetic reserve and symbiont genotype amongst thermally more- and less- resilient colonies, establishing a quantitative link between calcification stress and mortality risk, and determining the physiological basis for calcification responses to thermal stress; (4) use an OGCM specifically tailored to the tropical Pacific to produce a dynamically consistent set of forecasts for near-term climate change at the target reef sites; and (5) combine coral data with model output and refine the projected thermal stress forecast, in degree heating weeks, for corals in this central Pacific Island group over the 21st century.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2014-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Constraining Thermal Thresholds and Projections of Temperature Stress on Pacific Coral Reefs Over the 21st Century: Method Refinement and Application
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 560428
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2010-10
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double 7.16
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Comparison of bleaching data to stress bands in Porites corals on Palau reefs.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Comparison of bleaching data to stress bands in Porites corals on Palau reefs
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double 134.22
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable site   String  
attribute site bcodmo_name String site
attribute site description String Name of reef site where cores were collected
attribute site long_name String Site
attribute site units String unitless
variable reef_type   String  
attribute reef_type bcodmo_name String site_descrip
attribute reef_type description String Reef environment at core collection site (Barrier or Lagoon)
attribute reef_type long_name String Reef Type
attribute reef_type units String unitless
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double 7.16, 7.822
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude bcodmo_name String latitude
attribute latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute latitude description String Latitude of the reef site; North = positive
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double 134.22, 134.562
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude bcodmo_name String longitude
attribute longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute longitude description String Longitude of the reef site; East = positive
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable year   short  
attribute year _FillValue short 32767
attribute year actual_range short 1998, 2010
attribute year bcodmo_name String year
attribute year description String Year for which stress bands and bleaching data were analyzed
attribute year long_name String Year
attribute year nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/YEARXXXX/ (external link)
attribute year units String unitless
variable num_cores   byte  
attribute num_cores _FillValue byte 127
attribute num_cores actual_range byte 5, 15
attribute num_cores bcodmo_name String numb_obs
attribute num_cores description String Number of cores analyzed
attribute num_cores long_name String Num Cores
attribute num_cores units String unitless
variable pcnt_stress_bands   byte  
attribute pcnt_stress_bands _FillValue byte 127
attribute pcnt_stress_bands actual_range byte 10, 67
attribute pcnt_stress_bands bcodmo_name String sample_descrip
attribute pcnt_stress_bands description String Percent of coral cores containing stress bands
attribute pcnt_stress_bands long_name String Pcnt Stress Bands
attribute pcnt_stress_bands units String unitless (percent)
variable pcnt_stress_bands_SE   byte  
attribute pcnt_stress_bands_SE _FillValue byte 127
attribute pcnt_stress_bands_SE actual_range byte 9, 22
attribute pcnt_stress_bands_SE bcodmo_name String standard error
attribute pcnt_stress_bands_SE description String Standard error of proportion for percent of coral cores containing stress bands
attribute pcnt_stress_bands_SE long_name String Pcnt Stress Bands SE
attribute pcnt_stress_bands_SE units String unitless (percent)
variable mean_pcnt_bleaching   String  
attribute mean_pcnt_bleaching bcodmo_name String bleach_percent
attribute mean_pcnt_bleaching description String Mean observed community bleaching levels
attribute mean_pcnt_bleaching long_name String Mean Pcnt Bleaching
attribute mean_pcnt_bleaching units String unitless (percent)
variable mean_pcnt_bleaching_SE   String  
attribute mean_pcnt_bleaching_SE bcodmo_name String standard error
attribute mean_pcnt_bleaching_SE description String Standard error of mean observed community bleaching levels
attribute mean_pcnt_bleaching_SE long_name String Mean Pcnt Bleaching SE
attribute mean_pcnt_bleaching_SE units String unitless (percent)

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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