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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Annual growth chronologies of Siderastrea siderea and Pseudodiploria strigosa on the Florida
Keys Reef Tract, 2015-2016
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String In May 2015 and 2016, skeletal cores were collected from 39 colonies of
Siderastrea siderea and 31 colonies of Pseudodiploria strigosa at four pairs
of inner-outer reef sites spanning the Florida Keys Reef Tract. All cores were
extracted from the vertical growth axis of each coral colony using a CS Unitec
model 2 1335 0010 hydraulic drill affixed with hollow extension rods and a 5
cm diameter wet diamond core bit. Collected cores were then stored in capped
PVC tubes filled with 100% EtOH and transported to the University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill where they were air dried in preparation for
sclerochronology development. To assess coral skeletal growth histories, all
cores were scanned using X-ray computed tomography (CT) on a Siemens Biograph
CT scanner at the Biomedical Research Imaging Center, University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill. Coral cores were oriented lengthwise in rows of 4 to
5 on the scanning table, and equipment parameters were set to 120 kV, 250 mAs
and 0.6 mm slice thickness with images reconstructed at 0.1 mm increments
using the H70h \u201cVery Sharp Spine\u201d window.

All images were exported from the CT scanner as DICOM files, which were then
3-dimensionally reconstructed using the open-access Horos v2.0.2 medical image
viewing software. High- and low-density bands were visualized using a 10-mm
thick \u2018Mean\u2019 projection oriented as a rectangular prism through the
center of each core. All boundaries between semiannual density bands were
delineated manually and three sets of linear transects were drawn down the
length of the cores using the Region of Interest (ROI) tool in Horos. Note,
each set of transects was drawn within the exothecal space between corallite
walls in order to standardize density measurements and to avoid aberrant
density spikes in areas where the transect may otherwise have crossed a high-
density corallite wall. Density and calcification measurements are therefore
lower than would be expected if all features of the skeletal architecture were
taken into account. Additionally, it has been shown that individual colonies
may vary in their timing of high- and low-density band deposition due to
intraspecific differences in tissue thickness and morphology (Barnes and
Lough, 1996; Carricart-Ganivet, 2013). Thus, to approximate a consistent time
standard between cores, we begin all chronologies at the top of the first
fully deposited density band beneath the band of terminal growth. By-pixel
density measurements were extracted from linear transects and average density
was calculated for each semiannual high- and low-density band. Following
DeCarlo et al (2015), nine coral standards of known density were included in
every scanning session to convert density measurements from CT Hounsfield
units to g cm-3. Average density of each standard was assessed in Hounsfield
units using Horos and a standard curve was created for all cores scanned in
the corresponding session. Linear extension (cm) was measured in Horos as the
width of each annual density band couplet, and calcification (g cm-2 yr-1) was
calculated as the product of density and linear extension.

Note, because cores were collected in subsequent years, the most recent year
of growth (2015) was not included for cores collected in 2016 in order to keep
the beginning of chronologies uniform throughout.

Analysis was based on previously published methods in Castillo et al (2011),
Castillo et al (2012).

attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 635862
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1459522
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1459522 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String Michael E. Sieracki
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50446
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Coral growth: 1878-2014
Florida Keys Reef Tract
PI's: K. Castillo, J. Rippe
version: 2018-04-30
NOTE: Species code list: <a href="https://datadocs.bco-dmo.org/docs/Thermal_History_Coral_Growth/data_docs/AGRRA_Coral_UW_Codes.pdf" target="_blank">AGRRA_Coral_UW_Codes.pdf</a>
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2018-04-30T19:45:33Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-02-11T19:08:12Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &amp;time&lt;now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.734706.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double -80.09561
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double 25.5919
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double 24.495633
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double -80.09561
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double -81.64903
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/734706 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_acronym String Drill Core
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description String Used to collect coral cores.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 734714
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String A core drill is a drill specifically designed to remove a cylinder of material, much like a hole saw. The material left inside the drill bit is referred to as the core.

Core drills are used frequently in mineral exploration where the coring may be several hundred to several thousand feet in length. The core samples are recovered and examined by geologists for mineral percentages and stratigraphic contact points. This gives exploration companies the information necessary to begin or abandon mining operations in a particular area.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String Drill Core
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 644572
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_supplied_name String CS Unitec model 2 1335 0010 hydraulic core drill
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_acronym String CT Scanner
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_description String Used to collect coral slice densities measurements. Settings: 120 kV, 250 mAs, 0.6 mm slice thickness with images reconstructed at 0.1 mm increments using the H70h “Very Sharp Spine” window.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_nid String 734713
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_description String A CT scan makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_name String Computerized Tomography (CT) Scanner
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_nid String 707113
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_supplied_name String Siemens Biograph CT scanner
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String bco, bco-dmo, biological, calc, chemical, core, coreID, data, dataset, density, dmo, erddap, latitude, linext, longitude, management, oceanography, office, preliminary, reef, reefZone, site, species, transect, year, zone
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/734706/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/734706 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double 25.5919
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'734706': {'lat': 'master - latitude', 'lon': 'master - longitude'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/734706/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String UNC-Chapel Hill
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Karl D. Castillo
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 51711
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String UNC-Chapel Hill
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String John P. Rippe
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 734717
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Student
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String UNC-Chapel Hill
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String John P. Rippe
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 734717
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String Contact
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_name String Nancy Copley
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_nid String 50396
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Thermal History and Coral Growth
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Thermal History and Coral Growth
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String Description from NSF award abstract:
Rising global ocean surface temperatures have reduced coral growth rates, thereby negatively impacting the health of coral reef ecosystems worldwide. Recent studies on tropical reef building corals reveal that corals' growth in response to ocean warming may be influenced by their previous seawater temperature exposure - their thermal history. Although these recent findings highlight significant variability in coral growth in response to climate change, uncertainty remains as to the spatial scale at which corals' thermal history influences how they have responded to ocean warming and how they will likely respond to predicted future increases in ocean temperature. This study investigates the influence of thermal history on coral growth in response to recent and predicted seawater temperatures increases across four ecologically relevant spatial scales ranging from reef ecosystems, to reef communities, to reef populations, to an individual coral colony. By understanding how corals have responded in the past across a range of ecological scales, the Principal Investigator will be able to improve the ability to predict their susceptibility and resilience, which could then be applied to coral reef conservation in the face of climate change. This research project will broaden the participation of undergraduates from underrepresented groups and educate public radio listeners using minority voices and narratives. The scientist will leverage current and new partnerships to recruit and train minority undergraduates, thus allowing them to engage high school students near field sites in Florida, Belize, and Panama. Through peer advising, undergraduates will document this research on a digital news site for dissemination to the public. The voice of the undergraduates and scientist will ground the production of a public radio feature exploring the topic of acclimatization and resilience - a capacity for stress tolerance within coral reef ecosystems. This project will provide a postdoctoral researcher and several graduate students with opportunities for field and laboratory research training, teaching and mentoring, and professional development. The results will allow policy makers from Florida, the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System countries, and several Central American countries to benefit from Caribbean-scale inferences that incorporate corals' physiological abilities, thereby improving coral reef management for the region.
Coral reefs are at significant risk due to a variety of local and global scale anthropogenic stressors. Although various stressors contribute to the observed decline in coral reef health, recent studies highlight rising seawater temperatures due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration as one of the most significant stressors influencing coral growth rates. However, there is increasing recognition of problems of scale since a coral's growth response to an environmental stressor may be conditional on the scale of description. This research will investigate the following research questions: (1) How has seawater temperature on reef ecosystems (Florida Keys Reef Tract, USA; Belize Barrier Reef System, Belize; and Bocas Del Toro Reef Complex, Panama), reef communities (inshore and offshore reefs), reef populations (individual reefs), and near reef colonies (individual colonies), varied in the past? (2) How has seawater temperature influenced rates of coral growth and how does the seawater temperature-coral growth relationship vary across these four ecological spatial scales? (3) Does the seawater temperature-coral growth relationship forecast rates of coral growth under predicted end-of-century ocean warming at the four ecological spatial scales? Long term sea surface temperature records and small-scale high-resolution in situ seawater temperature measurements will be compared with growth chronologies for the reef building corals Siderastrea siderea and Orbicella faveolata, two keystone species ubiquitously distributed throughout the Caribbean Sea. Nutrients and irradiance will be quantified via satellite-derived observations, in situ measurements, and established colorimetric protocols. Field and laboratory experiments will be combined to examine seawater temperature-coral growth relationships under recent and predicted end-of-century ocean warming at four ecologically relevant spatial scales. The findings of this study will help us bridge the temperature-coral growth response gap across ecologically relevant spatial scales and thus improve our understanding of how corals have responded to recent warming. This will lead to more meaningful predictions about future coral growth response to climate change.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2018-02
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Western Caribbean
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Investigating the influence of thermal history on coral growth response to recent and predicted end-of-century ocean warming across a cascade of ecological scales
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 635863
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_website String http://www.unc.edu/~kdcastil/research.html (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2015-03
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double 24.495633
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String This dataset includes annual measurements of extension, density, and calcification for 39 Siderastrea siderea cores and 31 Pseudodiploria strigosa cores from inner and outer reef sites spanning ~200 km of the Florida Keys Reef Tract.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Annual growth chronologies of Siderastrea siderea and Pseudodiploria strigosa on the Florida Keys Reef Tract, 2015-2016
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double -81.64903
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable species   String  
attribute species bcodmo_name String taxon_code
attribute species description String Code for coral species sampled: ssid=Siderastrea siderea ; pstr=Pseudodiploria strigosa
attribute species long_name String Species
attribute species units String unitless
variable reefZone   String  
attribute reefZone bcodmo_name String site_descrip
attribute reefZone description String Inner vs outer reef
attribute reefZone long_name String Reef Zone
attribute reefZone units String unitless
variable transect   String  
attribute transect bcodmo_name String transect
attribute transect description String Inner-outer reef site pair: ir or or
attribute transect long_name String Transect
attribute transect units String unitless
variable site   String  
attribute site bcodmo_name String site
attribute site description String Sampling site identifier
attribute site long_name String Site
attribute site units String unitless
variable coreID   String  
attribute coreID bcodmo_name String sample
attribute coreID description String Unique identifier for each coral core
attribute coreID long_name String Core ID
attribute coreID nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/ACYC/ (external link)
attribute coreID units String unitless
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double 24.495633, 25.5919
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude bcodmo_name String latitude
attribute latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute latitude description String Latitude; north is positive
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double -81.64903, -80.09561
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude bcodmo_name String longitude
attribute longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute longitude description String Longitude; east is positive
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable year   short  
attribute year _FillValue short 32767
attribute year actual_range short 1878, 2014
attribute year bcodmo_name String year
attribute year description String Year corresponding to each density band
attribute year long_name String Year
attribute year nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/YEARXXXX/ (external link)
attribute year units String unitless
variable linext   float  
attribute linext _FillValue float NaN
attribute linext actual_range float 0.1452, 1.0488
attribute linext bcodmo_name String growth
attribute linext description String Annual measurement of linear extension
attribute linext long_name String Linext
attribute linext units String centimeters/year (cm/yr)
variable density   float  
attribute density _FillValue float NaN
attribute density actual_range float 0.5112, 2.0577
attribute density bcodmo_name String density
attribute density description String Annual measurement of density
attribute density long_name String Density
attribute density units String grams/centimeter^3 (g/cm3)
variable calc   float  
attribute calc _FillValue float NaN
attribute calc actual_range float 0.1729, 1.1286
attribute calc bcodmo_name String calcification
attribute calc description String Annual measurement of calcification
attribute calc long_name String Calc
attribute calc units String grams/centimeter^2/year (g/cm2/yr)

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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