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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Light was measured as the radiant energy between 400 and 700 nm wavelength
(i.e., PAR, \u03bcmol quanta m-2 s-1) as Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density
(PPFD). In situ light was measured using two logging meters fitted with a
cosine-corrected PAR sensor and wiper (Compact LW, JFE Advantech Co., Ltd,
Japan), that were deployed at ~ 19.1-m depth (height of the sensor) in Great
Lameshur Bay (18\u00b0 18 \u0301 37.04N, 63\u00b0 43 \u0301 23.17W).

These instruments recorded downwelling PAR, and were deployed six times from
2014and 2017, from August to March and from March to August. The meters were
operated in burst mode, during which they would wake up, clean the sensor with
a wiper, and record a burst of multiple records before returning to sleep. The
Compact LW meter is designed for oceanographic applications to 200 m depths,
is fitted with a photodiode sensor, and has a stated accuracy of \u00b1 4%
(over 0\u20132000 \u03bcmol photons m2 s-1) and resolution of 0.1 \u03bcmol
photons m2 s-1. Both meters were purchased new for this study, and were
deployed individually and sequentially between field samplings with
comparisons between consecutive deployments used to screen for calibration
drift. One sensor was used for a combined duration of 16 months during, and
the other sensor was used for 4 months, returned to the manufacturer for
servicing (May 2016), and then used again for 3 months. In between
deployments, sensors were inspected for abrasions that would affect
calibration, and were carefully cleaned with vinegar.

Different configurations of the meter were employed to prolong battery life.
In the first and second deployments (starting 21 August 2014 and 19 March
2015, respectively), a burst of 10 measurements was recorded at 0.033 Hz
(i.e., every 30 s) every 1.5 h; the instrument failed during the third
deployment (starting August 2015); in the fourth and fifth deployments
(starting 16 March 2016 and 29 July 2016, respectively) a burst of 10
measurements was recorded at 0.033 Hz every 1.0 h; and in the sixth
deployment(starting 23 February 2017) a burst of 30 measurements was recorded
at 0.100 Hz (i.e.,every 10 s) every 2.0 h. The timing of bursts was not
standardized to local time and, therefore, the number and timing of bursts
bracketing noon (which were used to calculate transmission, described below)
differed among deployments. The sampling frequency within each burst was
sufficient to alleviate the bias resulting from wave-induced light flecking
(Zheng et al. 2002). As a result of varying power demands of each sampling
configuration, the meter did not always record for the full duration of each

Surface light was recorded with two cosine-corrected PAR sensor (S-LIA-M003,
OnsetComputer Corporation) attached to loggers (Micro Station Data Logger
H21-002, OnsetComputer Corporation) recording at 0.0033 Hz (i.e., every 5
minutes). The sensors were calibrated by the manufacturers, and were mounted ~
4-m above sea level adjacent to Great Lameshur Bay (18\u00b0 19 \u0301 6.61N,
64\u00b0 43 \u0301 27.73W), and ~ 0.875 km from the sensor recording in situ
light. The paired surface sensors were used to ensure data integrity should
one sensor fail, and the paired deployments provided a means to detect
erroneous records due to sensor drift or failure. The surface sensors were
downloaded, reprogrammed, and cleaned in July of each year, and have been
deployed for 11 y(from 2007). Here, surface light data for 2014-2017 are
presented to provide temporal concordance with the submerged sensor.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 562085
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1332915
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1332915 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_award_nid String 562593
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_award_number String DEB-1350146
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1350146 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funder_name String NSF Division of Environmental Biology
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funding_acronym String NSF DEB
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funding_source_nid String 550432
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_program_manager String Betsy Von Holle
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_program_manager_nid String 701685
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Kd PAR Values
P. Edmunds, PI
Data associated with Fig. 2 of:
Edmunds, Coral Reefs (2018) Long-term variation in light intensity on a coral reef.
Version 13 July 2018
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2018-07-13T18:05:50Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2018-08-22T18:23:32Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.744503
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/739882 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_acronym String LI-COR Biospherical PAR
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description String Used to determine PAR
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 742233
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String The LI-COR Biospherical PAR Sensor is used to measure Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PAR) in the water column. This instrument designation is used when specific make and model are not known.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L22/current/TOOL0074/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String LI-COR Biospherical PAR Sensor
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 480
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_supplied_name String PAR Sensor
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, data, dataset, dmo, erddap, Kd_Mean, Kd_SE, management, mean, month, note, number, oceanography, office, preliminary, study, Study_Number, year
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/739882/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/739882 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'739882': {}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/739882/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String California State University Northridge
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String CSU-Northridge
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Peter J. Edmunds
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 51536
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Hannah Ake
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 650173
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String VI Octocorals,RUI-LTREB
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String VI Octocorals
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String The recent past has not been good for coral reefs, and journals have been filled with examples of declining coral cover, crashing fish populations, rising cover of macroalgae, and a future potentially filled with slime. However, reefs are more than the corals and fishes for which they are known best, and their biodiversity is affected strongly by other groups of organisms. The non-coral fauna of reefs is being neglected in the rush to evaluate the loss of corals and fishes, and this project will add on to an on-going long term ecological study by studying soft corals. This project will be focused on the ecology of soft corals on reefs in St. John, USVI to understand the Past, Present and the Future community structure of soft corals in a changing world. For the Past, the principal investigators will complete a retrospective analysis of octocoral abundance in St. John between 1992 and the present, as well as Caribbean-wide since the 1960's. For the Present, they will: (i) evaluate spatio-temporal changes between soft corals and corals, (ii) test for the role of competition with macroalgae and between soft corals and corals as processes driving the rising abundance of soft corals, and (iii) explore the role of soft corals as "animal forests" in modifying physical conditions beneath their canopy, thereby modulating recruitment dynamics. For the Future the project will conduct demographic analyses on key soft corals to evaluate annual variation in population processes and project populations into a future impacted by global climate change.
This project was funded to provide and independent "overlay" to the ongoing LTREB award (DEB-1350146, co-funded by OCE, PI Edmunds) focused on the long-term dynamics of coral reefs in St. John.
Note: This project is closely associated with the project "RAPID: Resilience of Caribbean octocorals following Hurricanes Irma and Maria". See: https://www.bco-dmo.org/project/749653.
The following publications and data resulted from this project:
2017 Tsounis, G., and P. J. Edmunds. Three decades of coral reef community dynamics in St. John, USVI: a contrast of scleractinians and octocorals. Ecosphere 8(1):e01646. DOI: 10.1002/ecs2.1646Rainfall and temperature dataCoral and macroalgae abundance and distributionDescriptions of hurricanes affecting St. John
2016 Gambrel, B. and Lasker, H.R. Marine Ecology Progress Series 546: 85–95, DOI: 10.3354/meps11670Colony to colony interactionsEunicea flexuosa interactionsGorgonia ventalina asymmetryNearest neighbor surveys
2015 Lenz EA, Bramanti L, Lasker HR, Edmunds PJ. Long-term variation of octocoral populations in St. John, US Virgin Islands. Coral Reefs DOI 10.1007/s00338-015-1315-xoctocoral survey - densitiesoctocoral counts - photoquadrats vs. insitu surveyoctocoral literature reviewDownload complete data for this publication (Excel file)
2015 Privitera-Johnson, K., et al., Density-associated recruitment in octocoral communities in St. John, US Virgin Islands, J.Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2015.08.006octocoral density dependenceDownload complete data for this publication (Excel file)
Other datasets related to this project:octocoral transects - adult colony height
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2016-08
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String St. John, US Virgin Islands: 18.3185, 64.7242
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Ecology and functional biology of octocoral communities
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 562086
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_website String http://coralreefs.csun.edu/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2013-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_acronym String RUI-LTREB
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_description String Describing how ecosystems like coral reefs are changing is at the forefront of efforts to evaluate the biological consequences of global climate change and ocean acidification. Coral reefs have become the poster child of these efforts. Amid concern that they could become ecologically extinct within a century, describing what has been lost, what is left, and what is at risk, is of paramount importance. This project exploits an unrivalled legacy of information beginning in 1987 to evaluate the form in which reefs will persist, and the extent to which they will be able to resist further onslaughts of environmental challenges. This long-term project continues a 27-year study of Caribbean coral reefs. The diverse data collected will allow the investigators to determine the roles of local and global disturbances in reef degradation. The data will also reveal the structure and function of reefs in a future with more human disturbances, when corals may no longer dominate tropical reefs.
The broad societal impacts of this project include advancing understanding of an ecosystem that has long been held emblematic of the beauty, diversity, and delicacy of the biological world. Proposed research will expose new generations of undergraduate and graduate students to natural history and the quantitative assessment of the ways in which our planet is changing. This training will lead to a more profound understanding of contemporary ecology at the same time that it promotes excellence in STEM careers and supports technology infrastructure in the United States. Partnerships will be established between universities and high schools to bring university faculty and students in contact with k-12 educators and their students, allow teachers to carry out research in inspiring coral reef locations, and motivate children to pursue STEM careers. Open access to decades of legacy data will stimulate further research and teaching.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_end_date String 2019-04
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_geolocation String USVI
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_name String RUI-LTREB Renewal: Three decades of coral reef community dynamics in St. John, USVI: 2014-2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_project_nid String 734983
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_project_website String http://coralreefs.csun.edu/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_start_date String 2014-05
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) for light in reef water of Great Lameshur Bay. These data describe how light is attenuated with depth in seawater in Lameshur Bay, with the coefficient calculated using standard procedures constrain (as described in the ms) by using surface light instead of immediately sub surface
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Kd averages calculated by month from studies conducted in St. John, US Virgin Islands from 2014-2017.
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable Year   short  
attribute Year _FillValue short 32767
attribute Year actual_range short 2014, 2017
attribute Year bcodmo_name String year
attribute Year description String Year of sampling
attribute Year long_name String Year
attribute Year nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/YEARXXXX/ (external link)
attribute Year units String unitless
variable Month   String  
attribute Month bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute Month description String Month of sampling
attribute Month long_name String Month
attribute Month units String unitless
variable Study_Number   byte  
attribute Study_Number _FillValue byte 127
attribute Study_Number actual_range byte 1, 15
attribute Study_Number bcodmo_name String sample
attribute Study_Number colorBarMaximum double 100.0
attribute Study_Number colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute Study_Number description String Study citation as in legend in paper; DOI: 10.1007/s00338-018-1721-y
attribute Study_Number long_name String Study Number
attribute Study_Number nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/ACYC/ (external link)
attribute Study_Number units String unitless
variable Kd   float  
attribute Kd _FillValue float NaN
attribute Kd actual_range float 0.06, 1.8
attribute Kd bcodmo_name String PAR_photons
attribute Kd description String Kd values published in studies
attribute Kd long_name String KD
attribute Kd units String umol photons per square meter per second
variable Kd_Mean   float  
attribute Kd_Mean _FillValue float NaN
attribute Kd_Mean actual_range float 0.097, 0.164
attribute Kd_Mean bcodmo_name String PAR_photons
attribute Kd_Mean description String Kd mean from values published in studies
attribute Kd_Mean long_name String Kd Mean
attribute Kd_Mean units String umol photons per square meter per second
variable Kd_SE   float  
attribute Kd_SE _FillValue float NaN
attribute Kd_SE actual_range float 0.001, 0.005
attribute Kd_SE bcodmo_name String PAR_photons
attribute Kd_SE description String Kd standard error from values published in studies
attribute Kd_SE long_name String Kd SE
attribute Kd_SE units String umol photons per square meter per second
variable Note   String  
attribute Note bcodmo_name String comment
attribute Note description String Two values tied by vertical bar to show high and low
attribute Note long_name String Note
attribute Note units String unitless

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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