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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Summed coral cover along the four accessory transects in St. John from 1989 to 2017    ?     I   M   background (external link) RSS Subscribe BCO-DMO bcodmo_dataset_750265

The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Photoquadrats at Yawzi Point and Tektite were recorded using cameras attached
to a framer that held them perpendicular to the reef. A Nikonos V (35-mm
format) was used from 1987-1999, and digital cameras thereafter, with 3.3 MP
resolution from 2000\u20132006, 6.1 MP from 2006\u20132010, 12.1 MP in 2011,
16.2 from 2012\u20132015, and 36.3 MP from 2016\u2013present. Cameras were
fitted with a strobe (Nikonos SB 105) and the images resolved objects \u2265
1-cm diameter.

The analyses at Yawzi Point and Tektite were augmented in 1992 with six
additional sites that were selected using random coordinates constrained to
hard substrata. This sampling focused on a habitat where boulders and cliffs
of igneous rock are common, mean coral cover has remained < 5%,
and\u00a0Orbicella annularis\u00a0has not been common since at least 1992.
Five sites are at 9-m depth, with one at 7-m depth (RS9), and they have been
recorded annually. These sites serve as replicates of reefs between Cabritte
Horn and White Point, and are analyzed as the pooled random sites (PRS).
Results from 1995 (May) and 1996 (May) are used to evaluate the effects of
Hurricanes Luis and Marilyn, and from 2017 (July and November) to evaluate the
effects of Hurricanes Irma and Maria. Each site consists of a permanently
marked transect at a constant depth that was 20-m long from 1992\u20131999 (n
~ 18 photoquadrats site-1), but was extended to 40 m in 2000 when digital
photography was implemented (n ~ 40 photoquadrats site-1). Photoquadrats (0.5
\u00d7 0.5 m) were recorded at random positions along each transect (and re-
randomized annually) using cameras (as described above) attached to a framer
that held them perpendicular to the reef. Cameras were attached to two strobes
(Nikonos SB 105), and resolved objects to at least 5-mm diameter.

Photoquadrats were analyzed by overlaying them with a grid of 200 randomly-
located dots and identifying the substratum beneath each dot. Images were
analyzed manually prior to 2005, from 2005\u20132011 using CPCe software, and
from 2012 to present, using CoralNet software with manual annotations. With
this approach, the abundance of each substratum type is defined by the total
number of dots that occur on top of it in each image, and when expressed as a
percentage of the dot population on each image, provides a measure of
percentage cover (hereafter \u201ccover\u201d) (Menge 1976). Two resolutions
were applied to the analyses, first to resolve three functional groups (FG),
coral (combined cover of scleractinians), macroalgae (algae \u2265 1-cm high,
mostly\u00a0Halimeda, Lobophora, Padina, and\u00a0Dictyota), and a combined
category of crustose coralline algae, algal turf, and bare space (CTB).
Second, scleractinians were resolved to the lowest taxonomic level possible,
which was genera at Yawzi Point and Tektite, and a combination of species and
genera at the PRS.

In addition to the hurricanes described herein, St. John also was impacted by
Hurricane Lenny on 17 November 1999 (Table S1). However, underwater damage
attributed to this storm was minor, probably due to the modest local wind
speeds (150 km h-1), and propagation of damaging waves east and south that
reduced their impacts on the southern shore of St. John. The effects of
Hurricane Lenny are not considered in the present analysis. Given the vagaries
of fieldwork extending over 31 Years, it was not possible to standardize the
timing of sampling that took place before and after each storm episode.
Sampling took place 6 weeks after Hurricane Hugo, 8 months after Hurricane
Luis, and 9 weeks after Hurricane Maria. Sampling after the two most recent
storms was comparable to sampling after Hurricane Hugo with regards to the
delay following the storms and, therefore, probably quantified mostly coral
mortality directly attributable to physical damage, and blooms of macroalgae
commensurate with the growth that is possible in two autumn months. The longer
delay in sampling after Hurricanes Marilyn and Luis probably resulted in
measurements of coral mortality that was caused both by direct physical damage
and delayed-onset disease, as well as blooms of macroalgae that can grow over
8 months extending from autumn to spring.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 55191
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String DEB-0841441
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=0841441&HistoricalAwards=false (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String National Science Foundation
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 350
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String Saran Twombly
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 51702
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_award_nid String 55194
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_award_number String DEB-0343570
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=0343570&HistoricalAwards=false (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funder_name String National Science Foundation
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funding_acronym String NSF
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funding_source_nid String 350
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_program_manager String Saran Twombly
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_program_manager_nid String 51702
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_award_nid String 562593
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_award_number String DEB-1350146
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1350146 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_funder_name String NSF Division of Environmental Biology
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_funding_acronym String NSF DEB
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_funding_source_nid String 550432
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_program_manager String Betsy Von Holle
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_program_manager_nid String 701685
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_award_nid String 722162
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_award_number String OCE-1801335
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1801335 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_program_manager String Daniel Thornhill
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_program_manager_nid String 722161
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Summed coral cover along the four accessory transects in St. John from 1989 to 2017
PI: Peter J. Edmunds
Version: 2018-11-26
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2018-11-27T18:33:26Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2018-11-28T16:21:32Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &amp;time&lt;now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.750265.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/750265 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_acronym String camera
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description String Photoquadrats at Yawzi Point and Tektite were recorded using cameras attached to a framer that held them perpendicular to the reef.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 750272
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String All types of photographic equipment including stills, video, film and digital systems.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/311/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String Camera
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 520
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_supplied_name String cameras
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, coral, Coral_1989, Coral_1995, Coral_1996, Coral_Jul_17, Coral_Nov_17, data, dataset, dmo, erddap, management, num, oceanography, office, preliminary, quadrat, Quadrat_num, transect, Transect_num
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/750265/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/750265 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'750265': {}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/750265/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String California State University Northridge
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String CSU-Northridge
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Peter J. Edmunds
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 51536
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Mathew Biddle
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 708682
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String RUI-LTREB
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String RUI-LTREB
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String Describing how ecosystems like coral reefs are changing is at the forefront of efforts to evaluate the biological consequences of global climate change and ocean acidification. Coral reefs have become the poster child of these efforts. Amid concern that they could become ecologically extinct within a century, describing what has been lost, what is left, and what is at risk, is of paramount importance. This project exploits an unrivalled legacy of information beginning in 1987 to evaluate the form in which reefs will persist, and the extent to which they will be able to resist further onslaughts of environmental challenges. This long-term project continues a 27-year study of Caribbean coral reefs. The diverse data collected will allow the investigators to determine the roles of local and global disturbances in reef degradation. The data will also reveal the structure and function of reefs in a future with more human disturbances, when corals may no longer dominate tropical reefs.
The broad societal impacts of this project include advancing understanding of an ecosystem that has long been held emblematic of the beauty, diversity, and delicacy of the biological world. Proposed research will expose new generations of undergraduate and graduate students to natural history and the quantitative assessment of the ways in which our planet is changing. This training will lead to a more profound understanding of contemporary ecology at the same time that it promotes excellence in STEM careers and supports technology infrastructure in the United States. Partnerships will be established between universities and high schools to bring university faculty and students in contact with k-12 educators and their students, allow teachers to carry out research in inspiring coral reef locations, and motivate children to pursue STEM careers. Open access to decades of legacy data will stimulate further research and teaching.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2019-04
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String USVI
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String RUI-LTREB Renewal: Three decades of coral reef community dynamics in St. John, USVI: 2014-2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 734983
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_website String http://coralreefs.csun.edu/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2014-05
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String These files contain data that support an analysis of the effects of two major hurricanes on coral reefs that have been extensively studied for more than three decades. Major tropical storms are destructive phenomena with large effects on the community dynamics of multiple biomes. On coral reefs, their impacts have been described for decades, leading to the expectation that future storms should have effects similar to those recorded in the past. This expectation relies on the assumption that storm intensities will remain unchanged, and the impacted coral reef communities are similar to those of the recent past; neither assumption is correct. These data support a study quantifying the effects of two category five hurricanes on the reefs of St. John, US Virgin Islands, where 31 y of time-series analyses reveal chronic coral mortality, increasing macroalgal abundance, and five major hurricanes that caused acute coral mortality. Contextualized by these trends, the effects of the most recent storms, Hurricanes Irma and Maria (September 2017), on coral cover were modest. While mean absolute coral cover declined 1\u20134% depending on site, these effects were not statistically discernable. Following decades of increasing abundance of macroalgae, this functional group responded to the recent hurricanes with large increases in abundance on both absolute and relative scales. Decades of chronic mortality have changed the coral assemblages of St. John to create degraded communities that are resistant to severe storms.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Summed coral cover along the four accessory transects in St. John from 1989 to 2017
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable Transect_num   byte  
attribute Transect_num _FillValue byte 127
attribute Transect_num actual_range byte 1, 4
attribute Transect_num bcodmo_name String transect
attribute Transect_num description String transect number
attribute Transect_num long_name String Transect Num
attribute Transect_num units String unitless
variable Quadrat_num   byte  
attribute Quadrat_num _FillValue byte 127
attribute Quadrat_num actual_range byte 1, 20
attribute Quadrat_num bcodmo_name String sample
attribute Quadrat_num description String quadrat number. The study was designed to have 20 quadrats along each of 4 lines; each quadrat is ~ 1 x 1 m in size and nd = missing data
attribute Quadrat_num long_name String Quadrat Num
attribute Quadrat_num nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/ACYC/ (external link)
attribute Quadrat_num units String unitless
variable Coral_1989   float  
attribute Coral_1989 _FillValue float NaN
attribute Coral_1989 actual_range float 0.0, 85.3
attribute Coral_1989 bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Coral_1989 description String combined coral cover during 1989
attribute Coral_1989 long_name String Coral 1989
attribute Coral_1989 units String percent
variable Coral_1995   float  
attribute Coral_1995 _FillValue float NaN
attribute Coral_1995 actual_range float 0.0, 68.1
attribute Coral_1995 bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Coral_1995 description String combined coral cover during 1995
attribute Coral_1995 long_name String Coral 1995
attribute Coral_1995 units String percent
variable Coral_1996   float  
attribute Coral_1996 _FillValue float NaN
attribute Coral_1996 actual_range float 0.0, 44.3
attribute Coral_1996 bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Coral_1996 description String combined coral cover during 1996
attribute Coral_1996 long_name String Coral 1996
attribute Coral_1996 units String percent
variable Coral_Jul_17   float  
attribute Coral_Jul_17 _FillValue float NaN
attribute Coral_Jul_17 actual_range float 0.0, 30.6
attribute Coral_Jul_17 bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Coral_Jul_17 description String combined coral cover during Jul 2017
attribute Coral_Jul_17 long_name String Coral Jul 17
attribute Coral_Jul_17 units String percent
variable Coral_Nov_17   float  
attribute Coral_Nov_17 _FillValue float NaN
attribute Coral_Nov_17 actual_range float 0.0, 44.4
attribute Coral_Nov_17 bcodmo_name String cover_pcent
attribute Coral_Nov_17 description String combined coral cover during Nov 2017
attribute Coral_Nov_17 long_name String Coral Nov 17
attribute Coral_Nov_17 units String percent

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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