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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
   set  data   graph     files  public Configuration and Operation of Marine Aerosol Generator Deployed on R/V Endeavor EN589 during
Sept.- Oct. 2016
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String The marine aerosol generator was operated by William Keene
([wck@virginia.edu](\\"mailto:wck@virginia.edu\\")) and John Maben. Please
direct any related questions to William Keene.

Description and Operation of the Marine Aerosol Generator:\u00a0Model primary
marine aerosol (mPMA) was produced in a high-capacity generator fabricated
from Pyrex and Teflon.\u00a0 See Keene et al. [2007] for a description and
schematic of the original configuration of the device and Long et al. [2014]
for an explanation of modifications implemented for deployment on ships at sea
during the 2010 California Nexis (CalNex) campaign in the eastern North
Pacific Ocean and the 2012 Western Atlantic Climate Study (WACS) in the
western North Atlantic Ocean.\u00a0 During all previous deployments, bubble
plumes were produced using sintered-glass frits and/or plunging seawater
jets.\u00a0 During the Endeavor cruise, frits were replaced with force-air
Venturis as described below.\u00a0

Briefly, the 20-cm-diameter generator consisted of a 122-cm-deep seawater
reservoir underlying a 97-cm-deep atmosphere. During most periods, fresh
seawater drawn from approximately 5-m depth through the ship\u2019s clean
seawater line flowed into the base of the seawater reservoir (typically at 4 L
min-1) and drained evenly to exhaust over the top annular rim thereby
continuously replacing the seawater surface and minimizing formation of
standing bubble rafts.\u00a0 During two periods, feed seawater flowing through
the generator was transferred from carboys containing seawater that had been
collected at a depth of 2500 m, stored in 20 L Teflon lined carboys, and
warmed to room temperature.\u00a0 Bubble plumes were generated by two
mechanisms. (1) Ultra-pure air and seawater (drawn from the base of the
generator\u2019s seawater reservoir) were pumped at adjustable rates of 1 to 5
L min-1 each through one of two force-air Venturi nozzles that were fabricated
from Teflon and positioned at depths of 42 (shallow) and 72 cm (deep),
respectively, below the air-seawater interface.\u00a0 (2) Bubble plumes were
also produced by a seawater jet at flow rates of 1 to 3 L min-1 that impinged
on the air-seawater interface.\u00a0 The jet nozzle was 0.32-cm ID and
positioned at 50 cm above the interface.

mPMA was emitted to the headspace when bubbles rose to and burst at the air-
seawater interface. Ultra-pure sweep air flowed through the headspace above
the seawater reservoir at 70 L min-1. During most sampling periods, sweep air
was hydrated to a relative humidity (RH) of ~80%. mPMA was sampled for
chemical and physical characterization through isokinetic ports at the top of
the generator.

The generator was blank tested by measuring mPMA number concentrations in the
headspace at typical flow rates of bubble and sweep air but with no seawater
in the reservoir. All blank tests yielded undetectable particle number
concentrations (less than 2 cm-3) indicating that all particles measured
during routine operation originated from seawater.

Bubble-plume void fractions were quantified over ranges of conditions by
filling the generator, turning off the flow of feed seawater, incrementally
increasing the flow of air through the Venturi, and measuring the volume of
displaced water.

Refer to the elated papers below for additional details regarding the design
and operation of the marine aerosol generator and associated analytical
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 708309
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1536608
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1536608 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String Henrietta N Edmonds
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 51517
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_award_nid String 708317
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_award_number String OCE-1536605
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_data_url String https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1536605 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_program_manager String Henrietta N Edmonds
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_program_manager_nid String 51517
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_award_nid String 708320
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_award_number String OCE-1536674
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_data_url String https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1536674 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_program_manager String Henrietta N Edmonds
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_program_manager_nid String 51517
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_award_nid String 708323
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_award_number String OCE-1536597
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_data_url String https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1536597 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_program_manager String Henrietta N Edmonds
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_3_program_manager_nid String 51517
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String EN589: Marine Aerosol Generator Operating Conditions
PI: W. Keene (UVA)
version: 2018-12-03
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2018-12-05T15:37:57Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-03-18T13:46:27Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.750862.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/750862 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_acronym String Flow Meter
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description String Airflow rates were regulated with needle valves and quantified with Teledyne Hastings mass flowmeters. Seawater flow rates were measured at the exhaust. RH and temperature were measured continuously at the outlet with a Vasala model HMP 233 probe and meter.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 750916
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String General term for a sensor that quantifies the rate at which fluids (e.g. water or air) pass through sensor packages, instruments, or sampling devices. A flow meter may be mechanical, optical, electromagnetic, etc.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/388/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String Flow Meter
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 650
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_supplied_name String Teledyne Hastings mass flowmeters and Vasala model HMP 233 probe and meter.
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String air, bco, bco-dmo, biological, bubble, chemical, data, dataset, date, depth, dmo, end, End_Date_local, End_time_local, erddap, flowrate, generator, Generator_Seawater_flowrate, humidity, ID_Number, jet, Jet_Flowrate, local, management, number, oceanography, office, plumes, plumes_Venturi, preliminary, rate, rel, Rel_Humidity, sample, Sample_Type, sea, seawater, start, Start_Time_local, sweep, Sweep_Bubble_Air_rate, time, type, venturi, Venturi_Air_flowrate, Venturi_Seawater_flowrate, water, water_depth_type
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/750862/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/750862 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'750862': {}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/750862/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String University of Virginia
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String UVA
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String William C. Keene
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 708330
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Nancy Copley
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 50396
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Refractory DOC Recycling
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Refractory DOC Recycling
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String The oceans hold a massive quantity of organic carbon that is greater than all terrestrial organic carbon biomass combined. Nearly all marine organic carbon is dissolved and more than 95% is refractory, and cycled through the oceans several times before complete removal. Refractory dissolved organic carbon (RDOC) concentrations are uniform with depth in the water column and represent the "background" carbon present throughout the oceans. However, very little is known regarding RDOC production and removal processes. One potential removal pathway is through adsorption of RDOC onto surfaces of rising bubbles produced by breaking waves and ejection via bubble bursting into the atmosphere. Building on prior research, the investigators will evaluate the importance of ocean- atmosphere processing in recycling marine RDOC during a research cruise in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. Results of the research will provide important insights regarding the coupled ocean-atmosphere loss of RDOC, thereby improving understanding of and ability to predict the role of RDOC in oceanic and atmospheric biogeochemistry, the global carbon cycle, and Earth's climate. The research will involve three early career faculty, and will provide training for undergraduate and graduate researchers.
Recent results based on a limited set of observations indicate that the organic matter (OM) associated with primary marine aerosol (PMA) produced by bursting bubbles from breaking waves at the sea surface is comprised partly to wholly of RDOC rather than OM of recent biological origin as has been widely assumed. The injection of RDOC into the atmosphere in association with PMA and its subsequent photochemical oxidation is a potentially important and hitherto unrecognized sink for RDOC in the oceans of sufficient magnitude to close the marine carbon budget and help resolve a long-standing conundrum regarding removal mechanisms for marine RDOC. This project will involve a shipboard investigation and modeling study to (1) quantify the relative contributions of marine refractory dissolved organic carbon (RDOC) to primary marine aerosol organic matter (PMA OM) produced from near-surface seawater in biologically productive and oligotrophic regions and from North Atlantic Deep Water, and to (2) determine the importance of atmospheric photochemical processing as a recycling pathway for RDOC. To test these hypotheses, a high-capacity aerosol generator will be deployed at four hydrographic stations in the NW Atlantic Ocean to characterize (1) the natural abundance of 14C in PMA and in surface and deep seawater; (2) the surface tension and physical properties of bubble plumes; (3) size-resolved production fluxes, chemical composition, organic carbon enrichments, spectral absorbance, and photochemical evolution of PMA; and (4) the carbon content, optical properties, and physical properties of seawater. The importance of RDOC recycling via PMA production and photochemical evolution will be interpreted with model calculations.
EN589 Cruise Track
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2018-12
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Northwest Atlantic Ocean
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Collaborative Research: Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Recycling of Refractory Dissolved Organic Carbon in Seawater
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 708310
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2015-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL subsetVariables String Sweep_Bubble_Air_rate
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String This dataset describes the operating conditions for the high-capacity generator that produced primary marine aerosol from western North Atlantic seawater during cruise EN589 on RV/Endeavor during September and October 2016.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Configuration and Operation of Marine Aerosol Generator Deployed on R/V Endeavor EN589 during Sept.- Oct. 2016
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable ID_Number   short  
attribute ID_Number _FillValue short 32767
attribute ID_Number actual_range short 2, 323
attribute ID_Number bcodmo_name String sample
attribute ID_Number colorBarMaximum double 100.0
attribute ID_Number colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute ID_Number description String Sequential ID number indicting an individual period during which performance and/or mPMA properties were characterized with the generator operated in the same configuration.
attribute ID_Number long_name String ID Number
attribute ID_Number nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/ACYC/ (external link)
attribute ID_Number units String unitless
variable Sample_Type   String  
attribute Sample_Type bcodmo_name String sample_type
attribute Sample_Type description String Type of measurement and/or sample: T (Performance test) = Physical characterization only; S = Physical characterization + seawater grab sample for chemical characterization; CI = Physical characterization + cascade impactor sample or blank for analysis of major ions and organic carbon (OC); B = Physical characterization + bulk sample or blank for analysis of major ions and OC or for photochemical manipulation experiments
attribute Sample_Type long_name String Sample Type
attribute Sample_Type units String unitless
variable Start_Date_local   String  
attribute Start_Date_local bcodmo_name String date_start
attribute Start_Date_local description String For T period: start date for the first 5-minute measurement interval for the sizing instruments (scanning mobility particle sizer and aerodynamic particle sizer) or measurement date for water displacement characterization. Other periods (S, CI, B): Start date for mPMA sample or date for mPMA blank or seawater grab sample. Formatted as yyyy-mm-dd.
attribute Start_Date_local long_name String Start Date Local
attribute Start_Date_local source_name String Start_Date_local
attribute Start_Date_local time_precision String 1970-01-01
attribute Start_Date_local units String unitless
variable Start_Time_local   String  
attribute Start_Time_local bcodmo_name String time_start
attribute Start_Time_local description String For T period: start time (Atlantic Daylight Time - ADT) for the first 5-minute measurement interval for the sizing instruments (scanning mobility particle sizer and aerodynamic particle sizer) or measurement time for water displacement characterization. Other periods (S, CI, B): Start time for mPMA sample or time for mPMA blank or seawater grab sample. Note: Times for many void fraction measurements were not recorded.
attribute Start_Time_local long_name String Start Time Local
attribute Start_Time_local units String unitless
variable End_Date_local   String  
attribute End_Date_local bcodmo_name String date_end
attribute End_Date_local description String For T period: stop datefor the last 5-minute measurement interval for the sizing instruments. Other periods: Stop date for mPMA sample. Formatted as yyyy-mm-dd.
attribute End_Date_local long_name String End Date Local
attribute End_Date_local units String unitless
variable End_time_local   String  
attribute End_time_local bcodmo_name String time_end
attribute End_time_local description String For T period: stop time (Atlantic Daylight Time - ADT) for the last 5-minute measurement interval for the sizing instruments. Other periods: Stop time for mPMA sample.
attribute End_time_local long_name String End Time Local
attribute End_time_local units String unitless
variable water_depth_type   String  
attribute water_depth_type bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute water_depth_type description String Depth from which feed seawater was drawn: NS = near-surface (~5 m); NADW = North Atlantic deep water (~2500 m). The 2500 m seawater was transferred from a CTD to 20 L HDPE Teflon-lined carboys, warmed to room temperature, and pneumatically transferred from the carboys to the generator.
attribute water_depth_type long_name String Water Depth Type
attribute water_depth_type units String unitless
variable Generator_Seawater_flowrate   float  
attribute Generator_Seawater_flowrate _FillValue float NaN
attribute Generator_Seawater_flowrate actual_range float 0.0, 4.0
attribute Generator_Seawater_flowrate bcodmo_name String flow_rate
attribute Generator_Seawater_flowrate description String Flow rate of feed seawater into base of generator
attribute Generator_Seawater_flowrate long_name String Generator Seawater Flowrate
attribute Generator_Seawater_flowrate units String liters/minute
variable Jet_Flowrate   float  
attribute Jet_Flowrate _FillValue float NaN
attribute Jet_Flowrate actual_range float 0.0, 2.9
attribute Jet_Flowrate bcodmo_name String flow_rate
attribute Jet_Flowrate description String Flow rate of seawater though jet
attribute Jet_Flowrate long_name String Jet Flowrate
attribute Jet_Flowrate units String liters/minute
variable Sweep_Bubble_Air_rate   byte  
attribute Sweep_Bubble_Air_rate _FillValue byte 127
attribute Sweep_Bubble_Air_rate actual_range byte 70, 70
attribute Sweep_Bubble_Air_rate bcodmo_name String flow_rate
attribute Sweep_Bubble_Air_rate description String Total flow rate of air through generator (sweep + bubble air)
attribute Sweep_Bubble_Air_rate long_name String Sweep Bubble Air Rate
attribute Sweep_Bubble_Air_rate units String liters/minute
variable plumes_Venturi   String  
attribute plumes_Venturi bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute plumes_Venturi description String Plumes produced by shallow (S) or deep (D) Venturi. Note: Immediately preceding the final two observation periods, seawater flow into the generator was turned off and the seawater level in the reservoir was lowered to approximately 4 cm above the top of the shallow Venturi (designated as S*).
attribute plumes_Venturi long_name String Plumes Venturi
attribute plumes_Venturi units String unitless
variable Venturi_Air_flowrate   float  
attribute Venturi_Air_flowrate _FillValue float NaN
attribute Venturi_Air_flowrate actual_range float 0.0, 5.0
attribute Venturi_Air_flowrate bcodmo_name String flow_rate
attribute Venturi_Air_flowrate description String Flow rate of bubble air through Venturi
attribute Venturi_Air_flowrate long_name String Venturi Air Flowrate
attribute Venturi_Air_flowrate units String liters/minute
variable Venturi_Seawater_flowrate   float  
attribute Venturi_Seawater_flowrate _FillValue float NaN
attribute Venturi_Seawater_flowrate actual_range float 0.0, 5.0
attribute Venturi_Seawater_flowrate bcodmo_name String flow_rate
attribute Venturi_Seawater_flowrate description String Flow rate of seawater through Venturi
attribute Venturi_Seawater_flowrate long_name String Venturi Seawater Flowrate
attribute Venturi_Seawater_flowrate units String liters/minute
variable Rel_Humidity   float  
attribute Rel_Humidity _FillValue float NaN
attribute Rel_Humidity actual_range float 63.6, 86.0
attribute Rel_Humidity bcodmo_name String humidity
attribute Rel_Humidity description String Average RH of air in generator’s head space (%)
attribute Rel_Humidity long_name String Rel Humidity
attribute Rel_Humidity units String unitless

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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