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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Experimental grazing rates of sand dollar larvae (Dendraster excentricus) on
algae (Dunaliella tertiolecta) under different ocean acidification conditions, July 2017
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Spawning and fertilization

We collected adult sand dollars (D. excentricus) from Semiahmoo Bay, WA, on
July 7, 2017 and maintained them in 14\u00b0C continuous flowing seawater at
the Shannon Point Marine Center. On July 12, 2017 we induced twelve
individuals to spawn by injecting 1-mL of 0.5-M KCl into the coelom following
methods outlined by Strathmann (1987).\u00a0 We then collected and mixed
concentrated gametes of four males and four females for fertilization. We
added five drops of sperm to 500-mL of filtered seawater and 5-mL of eggs. We
placed the fertilized eggs in 12\u00b0C incubator and bubbled them with
ambient pCO2 condition for 12-hrs before dividing the embryos into pCO2
treatment conditions before gastrulation. We then counted and transferred the
larvae into jars with 1.5 L of nanopore filtered seawater at densities of 1-2
individuals mL-1.

Grazing experiment

To assess the interactive effects of temperature and pCO2 on Dunaliella
excentricus feeding behavior, our experimental design had six treatments with
four experimental jars (replicates) in each. The treatments combined three
levels of CO2: 400 ppmv (ambient atmospheric level), 800 ppmv (moderate
atmoshpheric level) and 1,500 ppmv (high atmospheric level), and two
temperatures: 12\u00b0C (ambient temperature) and 17\u00b0C (high
temperature). We fed Dunaliella tertiolecta at approximately 6,000 cells ml-1
to six-arm stage larvae to evaluate feeding rates at each treatment condition.

For each replicate, a corresponding 150-mL control bottle containing only D.
tertiolecta was also prepared. Feeding rate was estimated as ingestion rate by
measuring the algal concentration (cells ml-1) at the beginning (T0) and after
24 hours (Tf) in control bottles and experimental jars using a Sedgewick
Rafter Chamber (Stumpp et al., 2011). Ingestion rate (cells ind-1 hr-1) was
calculated as I = (Clearance rate) x (time-average algae concentration).

This dataset includes unprocessed data and simple data calculations
accomplished with Excel.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 684166
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1538626
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1538626 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String Michael E. Sieracki
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50446
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Dendraster Grazing Rates - OA Expt 2017
S. Arellano, B. Olson, S. Yang (WWU)
version: 2019-01-14
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2019-01-16T21:21:35Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-09-25T20:00:41Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.753017.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/753017 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description String Used to count cells.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 753035
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String Instruments that generate enlarged images of samples using the phenomena of reflection and absorption of visible light. Includes conventional and inverted instruments. Also called a "light microscope".
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB05/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String Microscope-Optical
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 708
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String bco, bco-dmo, biological, cell, cell_concentration, cells, chemical, concentration, count, data, dataset, dmo, erddap, jar, jar_type, management, oceanography, office, preliminary, replicate, squares, temp_c, temperature, type
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/753017/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/753017 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'753017': {}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/753017/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String Western Washington University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String WWU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Shawn M Arellano
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 684169
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Western Washington University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String WWU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Dr Brady M. Olson
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 51528
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Western Washington University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String WWU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Dr Sylvia Yang
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 684172
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_name String Nancy Copley
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_nid String 50396
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Climate stressors on larvae
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Climate stressors on larvae
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String In the face of climate change, future distribution of animals will depend not only on whether they adjust to new conditions in their current habitat, but also on whether a species can spread to suitable locations in a changing habitat landscape. In the ocean, where most species have tiny drifting larval stages, dispersal between habitats is impacted by more than just ocean currents alone; the swimming behavior of larvae, the flow environment the larvae encounter, and the length of time the larvae spend in the water column all interact to impact the distance and direction of larval dispersal. The effects of climate change, especially ocean acidification, are already evident in shellfish species along the Pacific coast, where hatchery managers have noticed shellfish cultures with 'lazy larvae syndrome.' Under conditions of increased acidification, these 'lazy larvae' simply stop swimming; yet, larval swimming behavior is rarely incorporated into studies of ocean acidification. Furthermore, how ocean warming interacts with the effects of acidification on larvae and their swimming behaviors remains unexplored; indeed, warming could reverse 'lazy larvae syndrome.' This project uses a combination of manipulative laboratory experiments, computer modeling, and a real case study to examine whether the impacts of ocean warming and acidification on individual larvae may affect the distribution and restoration of populations of native oysters in the Salish Sea. The project will tightly couple research with undergraduate education at Western Washington University, a primarily undergraduate university, by employing student researchers, incorporating materials into undergraduate courses, and pairing marine science student interns with art student interns to develop art projects aimed at communicating the effects of climate change to public audiences
As studies of the effects of climate stress in the marine environment progress, impacts on individual-level performance must be placed in a larger ecological context. While future climate-induced circulation changes certainly will affect larval dispersal, the effects of climate-change stressors on individual larval traits alone may have equally important impacts, significantly altering larval transport and, ultimately, species distribution. This study will experimentally examine the relationship between combined climate stressors (warming and acidification) on planktonic larval duration, morphology, and swimming behavior; create models to generate testable hypotheses about the effects of these factors on larval dispersal that can be applied across systems; and, finally, use a bio-physically coupled larval transport model to examine whether climate-impacted larvae may affect the distribution and restoration of populations of native oysters in the Salish Sea.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2018-08
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Coastal Pacific, USA
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String RUI: Will climate change cause 'lazy larvae'? Effects of climate stressors on larval behavior and dispersal
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 684167
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2015-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Experimental grazing rates of sand dollar larvae (Dendraster excentricus) on algae (Dunaliella tertiolecta) under different ocean acidification conditions, July 2017.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Experimental grazing rates of sand dollar larvae (Dendraster excentricus) on algae (Dunaliella tertiolecta) under different ocean acidification conditions, July 2017
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable temp_c   byte  
attribute temp_c _FillValue byte 127
attribute temp_c actual_range byte 12, 17
attribute temp_c bcodmo_name String temperature
attribute temp_c description String Temperature treatment
attribute temp_c long_name String Temp C
attribute temp_c nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/TEMPP901/ (external link)
attribute temp_c units String degrees Celcius
variable pH   String  
attribute pH bcodmo_name String pH
attribute pH description String pCO2 treatment: low = 400ppm; medium = 800ppm; high = 1500ppm
attribute pH long_name String pH
attribute pH nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/PHXXZZXX/ (external link)
attribute pH units String unitless
variable jar_type   String  
attribute jar_type bcodmo_name String treatment
attribute jar_type description String Type of treatment jar; a jar containing larval and algae or a control jar containing just algae
attribute jar_type long_name String Jar Type
attribute jar_type units String unitless
variable replicate   byte  
attribute replicate _FillValue byte 127
attribute replicate actual_range byte 1, 4
attribute replicate bcodmo_name String replicate
attribute replicate description String Replicate number of each treatment combination including temperature; pH; and jar type
attribute replicate long_name String Replicate
attribute replicate units String unitless
variable count   String  
attribute count bcodmo_name String count
attribute count description String The initial or final algae count to calculate algal cell concentration for the experiment
attribute count long_name String Count
attribute count units String unitless
variable cells   short  
attribute cells _FillValue short 32767
attribute cells actual_range short 149, 876
attribute cells bcodmo_name String count
attribute cells description String Algae cell count using a Sedgewick-Rafter counting chamber
attribute cells long_name String Cells
attribute cells units String algae cells
variable squares   byte  
attribute squares _FillValue byte 127
attribute squares actual_range byte 60, 100
attribute squares bcodmo_name String num_reps
attribute squares description String Number of squares counted within the Sedgewick-Rafter
attribute squares long_name String Squares
attribute squares units String squares
variable cell_concentration   float  
attribute cell_concentration _FillValue float NaN
attribute cell_concentration actual_range float 2483.33, 10566.67
attribute cell_concentration bcodmo_name String cell_concentration
attribute cell_concentration description String Calculated concentration of algae cells within treatment jar from Sedgewick-Rafter counts. Cell concentration = (cells/squares)*1000
attribute cell_concentration long_name String Cell Concentration
attribute cell_concentration units String algae cells per milliliter (#/mL)

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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