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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Attributes of communities-at-sea, including the size of servicesheds and climate change risk
exposure scores, determined from Vessel Trip Report (VTR) data for commercial fishing trips
from 1996 to 2014
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String The following methods are excerpted from Rogers et al. (in press):
A trip was classified as belonging to a community if it shared the
community's gear type and landing port, and the vessel either declared that
port as its principal port or landed in that port at least 50% of its trips
that year.

Once aggregated into communities, trips were then weighted by a variable
(\u201cfisherdays\u201d) indicating labor time expended on each trip: trip
length (in days) multiplied by the number of crew on board. Fisherdays
indicate how important an area at sea is to a community in terms of how much
time they invest in that location.

Given reported trip locations and fisherdays, we then created raster maps
using a kernel density method. The resultant maps distribute fisherdays using
different size kernels depending upon the fishery/gear-type/length. Nearshore
fishing was processed using a smaller kernel (7.5 - 10 km) than offshore
fishing (10 - 15 km). We used the area defined by a 90% volume contour (i.e.,
an area which encompasses 90% of fisherdays) to define the customary fishing
grounds or servicesheds for a community.

To compare the relative historical importance of particular species to a
community-at-sea, landings data were compiled from vessel trip reports and
summed over the available years of data for each community. Price information
was extracted from NOAA Fisheries, Fisheries Statistics Division
We used the average price per lb by species, adjusted for inflation (real 2014
prices in US$), over the period for which we had community-level data. State-
level prices were used when available, and otherwise regional prices were

We assessed a community's exposure to risk based on their historical
dependence on species and spatial fishing patterns. A community was more
exposed to risk if the species from which it historically earned the most
revenue were projected to lose habitat in the locations where the community
has traditionally fished. Specifically, risk exposure scores for communities
were calculated as:


where S\u209b,\ua700 is the mean projected change in habitat suitability for
species s across the serviceshed of community c, and pRev\u209b,\ua700 is the
proportion of historical revenues from fishing that the community has derived
from species s. Positive risk exposure scores indicated expanding
opportunities for communities based on their historical fishing revenue
portfolios and projected changes to species habitat at sea, while negative
values indicated shrinking opportunities and increased exposure to negative
impacts of climate change.

The R file, \"Servicesheds.rData\" (see\u00a0\"Supplemental Documents\" below)
is\u00a0a spatial polygon dataframe (SPDF) giving 90% volume contours of
fisher-days at sea for 98 communities-at-sea. The polygons outline the at-sea
\"servicesheds\" or customary fishing grounds of communities. We use
\"serviceshed\"\u00a0to describe the area from which a community has
historically received ecosystem services, specifically fish in this case. The
file is intended to be read by the program \"R\",\u00a0with data stored in the
SPDF object \"Servicesheds\".
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 559955
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1426891
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1426891 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String Michael E. Sieracki
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50446
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Attributes of communities-at-sea,
including the size of servicesheds and climate change risk exposure scores
PIs: Lauren Rogers & Malin Pinsky
Version date: 22-April-2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2019-04-22T19:43:43Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-05-21T20:06:35Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.765477.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double -69.253
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double 43.927
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double 34.718
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double -69.253
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double -76.693
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/765477 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String area, bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, community, data, dataset, dmo, erddap, exposure, fleetsize, gear, management, oceanography, office, port, PortLat, PortLon, preliminary, risk, RiskExposure, shed, ShedArea, state, trips, years
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/765477/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/765477 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double 43.927
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'765477': {'PortLon': 'flag - longitude', 'PortLat': 'flag - latitude'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/765477/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String Rutgers University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Malin Pinsky
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 554708
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Stanford University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Lauren Rogers
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 765425
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Stanford University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Robert Griffin
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 768380
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation String Rutgers University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_name String Kevin St. Martin
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_nid String 559961
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_affiliation String Princeton University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_person_name String Emma Fuller
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_person_nid String 748888
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_role String Scientist
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_5_affiliation String Rutgers University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_5_person_name String Talia Young
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_5_person_nid String 752628
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_5_role String Scientist
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_5_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_6_affiliation String National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Alaska Fisheries Science Center
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_6_affiliation_acronym String NOAA-AFSC
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_6_person_name String Lauren Rogers
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_6_person_nid String 765425
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_6_role String Contact
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_6_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_7_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_7_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_7_person_name String Shannon Rauch
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_7_person_nid String 51498
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_7_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_7_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String CC Fishery Adaptations
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String CC Fishery Adaptations
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String Description from NSF award abstract:
Climate change presents a profound challenge to the sustainability of coastal systems. Most research has overlooked the important coupling between human responses to climate effects and the cumulative impacts of these responses on ecosystems. Fisheries are a prime example of this feedback: climate changes cause shifts in species distributions and abundances, and fisheries adapt to these shifts. However, changes in the location and intensity of fishing also have major ecosystem impacts. This project's goal is to understand how climate and fishing interact to affect the long-term sustainability of marine populations and the ecosystem services they support. In addition, the project will explore how to design fisheries management and other institutions that are robust to climate-driven shifts in species distributions. The project focuses on fisheries for summer flounder and hake on the northeast U.S. continental shelf, which target some of the most rapidly shifting species in North America. By focusing on factors affecting the adaptation of fish, fisheries, fishing communities, and management institutions to the impacts of climate change, this project will have direct application to coastal sustainability. The project involves close collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and researchers will conduct regular presentations for and maintain frequent dialogue with the Mid-Atlantic and New England Fisheries Management Councils in charge of the summer flounder and hake fisheries. To enhance undergraduate education, project participants will design a new online laboratory investigation to explore the impacts of climate change on fisheries, complete with visualization tools that allow students to explore inquiry-driven problems and that highlight the benefits of teaching with authentic data. This project is supported as part of the National Science Foundation's Coastal Science, Engineering, and Education for Sustainability program - Coastal SEES.
The project will address three questions:
1) How do the interacting impacts of fishing and climate change affect the persistence, abundance, and distribution of marine fishes?
2) How do fishers and fishing communities adapt to species range shifts and related changes in abundance? and
3) Which institutions create incentives that sustain or maximize the value of natural capital and comprehensive social wealth in the face of rapid climate change?
An interdisciplinary team of scientists will use dynamic range and statistical models with four decades of geo-referenced data on fisheries catch and fish biogeography to determine how fish populations are affected by the cumulative impacts of fishing, climate, and changing species interactions. The group will then use comprehensive information on changes in fisher behavior to understand how fishers respond to changes in species distribution and abundance. Interviews will explore the social, regulatory, and economic factors that shape these strategies. Finally, a bioeconomic model for summer flounder and hake fisheries will examine how spatial distribution of regulatory authority, social feedbacks within human communities, and uncertainty affect society's ability to maintain natural and social capital.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2018-08
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Northeast US Continental Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Adaptations of fish and fishing communities to rapid climate change
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 559948
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2014-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double 34.718
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Communities-at-sea are peer-groups of vessels which share a gear type and are associated with a particular port (e.g., vessels from New Bedford, MA that use gillnets). For vessels using trawl gear, small and large trawlers are considered separate communities according to vessel length (<> 65 feet). We used Vessel Trip Report (VTR) data for commercial fishing trips from 1996 to 2014, as reported by vessel captains, to determine the at-sea \servicesheds\ or customary fishing grounds of communities.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Attributes of communities-at-sea, including the size of servicesheds and climate change risk exposure scores, determined from Vessel Trip Report (VTR) data for commercial fishing trips from 1996 to 2014
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double -76.693
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable Community   String  
attribute Community bcodmo_name String site
attribute Community description String Community-at-sea name, indicating port city and gear/vessel type
attribute Community long_name String Community
attribute Community units String unitless
variable Port   String  
attribute Port bcodmo_name String site
attribute Port description String Port city
attribute Port long_name String Port
attribute Port units String unitless
variable State   String  
attribute State bcodmo_name String site
attribute State description String State
attribute State long_name String State
attribute State units String unitless
variable Gear   String  
attribute Gear bcodmo_name String instrument
attribute Gear description String Type of fishing gear/vessel. Large Trawl indicates vessels longer than 65 feet using trawl gear. Small Trawl are vessels less than 65 feet using trawl gear.
attribute Gear long_name String Gear
attribute Gear units String unitless
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double -76.693, -69.253
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude bcodmo_name String longitude
attribute longitude description String Longitude of port city.
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Port Lon
attribute longitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double 34.718, 43.927
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude bcodmo_name String latitude
attribute latitude description String Latitude of port city.
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Port Lat
attribute latitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable Fleetsize   byte  
attribute Fleetsize _FillValue byte 127
attribute Fleetsize actual_range byte 3, 82
attribute Fleetsize bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute Fleetsize description String Average number of vessels in the community.
attribute Fleetsize long_name String Fleetsize
attribute Fleetsize units String number of vessels
variable Trips   int  
attribute Trips _FillValue int 2147483647
attribute Trips actual_range int 198, 50794
attribute Trips bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute Trips description String Total number of trips taken over the duration of the study.
attribute Trips long_name String Trips
attribute Trips units String number of trips
variable Years   byte  
attribute Years _FillValue byte 127
attribute Years actual_range byte 8, 18
attribute Years bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute Years description String Number of years the community was extant.
attribute Years long_name String Years
attribute Years units String number of years
variable ShedArea   int  
attribute ShedArea _FillValue int 2147483647
attribute ShedArea actual_range int 973, 62952
attribute ShedArea bcodmo_name String site_descrip
attribute ShedArea description String Area of the serviceshed, defined as the 90% volume contour of fisher days at sea.
attribute ShedArea long_name String Shed Area
attribute ShedArea units String square kilometers (sq km)
variable RiskExposure   float  
attribute RiskExposure _FillValue float NaN
attribute RiskExposure actual_range float -0.241, 0.112
attribute RiskExposure bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute RiskExposure description String Calculated risk exposure score based on projected changes in habitat suitability for harvested species. Negative values indicate increased exposure to risk.
attribute RiskExposure long_name String Risk Exposure
attribute RiskExposure units String unitless

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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