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   set  data   graph     files  public Biological, chemical, and physical water quality indicators of the Neuse River, North
Carolina from 2008 through 2013
   ?     I   M   background (external link) RSS BCO-DMO bcodmo_dataset_767391

The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Bi-weekly water sampling and in situ measurements were performed at fixed
sampling stations.\u00a0 Water samples and in situ measurements were collected
at the surface (approximately 0.2 meters) and at the bottom of the water
column (approximately 0.5 meters from the sediment layer).\u00a0 These data
are included in the worksheet titled \"NRE Dataset.\"\u00a0 In situ
measurements were also performed throughout the water column in 0.5 meter
depth increments.\u00a0 These data are included in the worksheet titled \"NRE
YSI Profiles.\"\u00a0 Parameters measured include: temperature, salinity,
specific conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, chlorophyll fluorescence,
photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), turbidity, barometric pressure,
secchi depth, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), particulate organic
carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PN), dissolved organic and inorganic carbon,
dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations (nitrate/nitrite, ammonium, total
dissolved nitrogen, phosphate and silicic acid), chlorophyll a, primary
productivity and diagnostic phytoplankton pigment concentrations (chlorophylls
and carotenoids).\u00a0 Calculated parameters include:\u00a0 diffuse light
attenuation coefficient (Kd), carbon to nitrogen molar ratio (C:N), dissolved
inorganic nitrogen (DIN; nitrate/nitrite plus ammonium), dissolved organic
nitrogen (DON; total dissolved nitrogen minus dissolved inroganic nitrogen)
and the nitrogen to phosporus molar ratio (N:P).\u00a0\u00a0

Methods
Water sampling was conducted bi-weekly. When collection was split over two
days, a single date was used based on the upstream or majority stations.

Stations were selected to cover the entire length of the Neuse River Estuary
from Streets Ferry Bridge (Station 0) to the mouth of the estuary where it
flows into Pamlico Sound.\u00a0 When possible, efforts were made to select
locations with key stationary features (channel markers, buoys and land
markers) to allow easy station identification in the field.

Surface water samples were collected by submerging 10 liter high-density
polyethylene containers just below the water surface or by filling the
containers with surface water collected from bucket casts.\u00a0 Bottom water
samples were collected with a horizontal plastic Van Dorn sampler. Starting
December 2007, all samples collected with diaphragm pump and a weighted,
marked hose. All containers were kept in dark coolers at ambient temperature
during transport to the laboratory.\u00a0 All filtration was done within a few
hours of collection and when conditions permitted, on board the research
vessel.

Prior to the 09/13/2000 sampling date, in situ measurements were performed at
discrete depths using a Hydrolab Data Sonde 3 equipped with a multiprobe and
SVR3 display logger.\u00a0 Beginning on the 09/13/2000 sampling date, in situ
measurements were performed at discrete depths on the sunlit side of the
research vessel using a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI Incoporated, Ohio)
multiparameter sonde (Model 6600 or 6600 EDS-S Extended Deployment System)
equipped with a YSI conductivity/temperature probe (Model 6560), a YSI
chlorophyll probe (Model 6025), a YSI pH probe (Model 6561 or 6566), a YSI
pulsed dissolved oxygen probe (Model 6562), a self cleaning YSI turbidity
probe (Model 6026 or 6136), and beginning on the 07/30/2003 sampling date, a
flat Li-Cor sensor (UWQ-PAR 6067).\u00a0 The YSI sonde was coupled to a either
a YSI 610 DM datalogger or a YSI 650 MDS Multi-parameter Display System
datalogger.\u00a0 In situ measurements were performed at the surface
(approximately 0.2 meters) and at the bottom of the water column
(approximately 0.5 meters from the sediment layer).\u00a0 These data are
included in the worksheet titled \"NRE Dataset.\"\u00a0 In situ measurements
were also performed throughout the water column in 0.5 meter depth
increments.\u00a0 These data are included in the worksheet titled \"NRE YSI
Profiles.\"\u00a0 The data were stored on the datalogger and downloaded to
Ecowin software upon return to the laboratory.

The secchi disk was deployed off of the sunlit side of the research
vessel.\u00a0 The depth (in meters) at which the secchi disk was no longer
visible by the naked eye was recorded as the secchi depth.

The diffuse light attenuation coefficient, Kd, was calculated from depth
profiles of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm).\u00a0 Prior
to the 07/30/2003 sampling date, PAR measurements were performed with a
spherical underwater quantum sensor (LI-COR LI-193SA) coupled to a LI-COR
LI-1000 datalogger.\u00a0 Beginning on the 07/30/2003 sampling date, a flat
underwater quantum sensor (LI-COR LI-193SA) attached to a Yellow Springs
Instruments YSI 6600 or YSI 6600 EDS-S sonde was used to measure PAR.\u00a0
Measurements of PAR were performed on the sunlit side of the research vessel
in 0.5 meter depth increments, beginning just below the water surface.\u00a0
The diffuse attenuation coefficient is the slope of the linear regression
between natural log transformed PAR data and depth.\u00a0

Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was measured using a Turner Designs
TD-700 fluorometer configured with a near-UV mercury vapour lamp, a 350 nm
excitation filter, and a 410\u2013600 nm emission filter. The fluorometer was
calibrated to quinine sulfate (QS) solutions made up in 2 N sulfuric acid.
Water samples were vacuum filtered (less than 25 kilopascal) using pre-
combusted Whatman glass microfibre filters (GF/F) and the filtrate was stored
in scintillation vials in the dark at 4 degrees Celsius until fluorometric
analysis.\u00a0 The official decision (3/2/2017) is that cdom results from
12/1/2003 through 4/25/2011 would be multiplied by a corrective factor of
2.0.\u00a0 Results for sample date of 5/9/2011 and after do not need
correcting.\u00a0 It is believed the stock solution was made wrong, making a
1L recipe for 600 ug/L in a 500 ml flask equals 1200 ug/L stock
solution.\u00a0 Standards were still calibrated according to recipe, but were
actually 2x as strong.\u00a0

\u00a0The official decision (3/2/2017) is that cdom results from 12/1/2003
through 4/25/2011 would be multiplied by a corrective factor of 2.0.\u00a0
Results for sample date of 5/9/2011 and after do not need correcting.\u00a0 It
is believed the stock solution was made wrong, making a 1L recipe for 600 ug/L
in a 500 ml flask equals 1200 ug/L stock solution.\u00a0 Standards were still
calibrated according to recipe, but were actually 2x as strong.\u00a0

Particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations were determined by elemental
analysis of material collected on pre-combusted Whatman GF/F glass fiber
filters.\u00a0 Carbonates were removed from the filters by vapor phase
acidification using concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl).\u00a0 After drying
at 60 0C, the filters were rolled in tin disks and injected into a PE 2400
Series II CHNS/O Analyzer calibrated with acetanilide ending in June
2014.\u00a0 Starting on the Neuse River sample date of June 2, 2014, a Costech
Analytical Technologies, Inc. Elemental Combustion System CHNS-O ECS 4010 was
used for elemental analysis by \"flash combustion/chromatographic separation
and multi-detector techniques\".\u00a0 The Costech Instrument utilizes EAS
Clarity Software.\u00a0 Atropine standards are used to develop a calibration
curve (C 70.56%, N 4.84%, and carbon response ratio of 0.025 +/-0.003).\u00a0
NIST Buffalo River Sediment Reference Material 8704 (C 3.351% +/-0.017, N
0.20% +/-0.04) and/or Acetanilide Bypass (C 71.09%, N 10.36%, carbon response
ratio of 0.055 +/- 0.003) may used for calibration or a check standard.

The molar ratio of particulate organic carbon (POC) to particulate nitrogen
(PN), or C:N, was calculated by dividing POC by PN.\u00a0 (Carbon ug/L
/12.011)/(Nitrogen ug/L/14.007).

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration was measured using a Shimadzu
TOC-5000A Analyzer:\u00a0 Water samples were vacuum filtered (less than 25
kilopascal) using pre-combusted Whatman glass microfibre filters (GF/F).\u00a0
The filtrate was stored in pre-combusted glass scintillation vials with Teflon
closures and frozen at -20 degrees Celsius until analysis.\u00a0 The Shimadzu
TOC-5000A Analyzer uses high temperature catalytic oxidation followed by non-
dispersive infrared analysis of the CO2 produced.\u00a0 Samples were acidified
to a pH less than 2 and sparged with air before they were analyzed for non-
volatile organic carbon.\u00a0 DOC values in 1996 were run from previously run
nutrient samples. Starting February 2018, all stations were collected.\u00a0
Prior to Feb. 2018 only NR 0, 30, 70, 100, 120, and 160 surface and bottom
stations were measured.

Nitrate/nitrite (NO3- / NO2-) concentration was determined using a
Lachat/Zellweger Analytics QuikChem 8000 flow injection autoanalyzer
(Milwaukee, WI, USA) using method FIA 31-107-04-1-C:\u00a0 Water samples were
vacuum filtered (less than 25 kiloPascals) using pre-combusted Whatman glass
microfibre filters (GF/F).\u00a0 The filtrate was stored in high-density
polyethylene bottles and frozen at -20 degrees Celsius until analysis.\u00a0
Two replicates were run from the same bottle.\u00a0 Method detection limits
(MDL, \u00b5g L-1) were: before 4Nov02 = 1.06; beginning 4Nov02 = 3.68;
beginning 11Jul06 = 0.6; beginning 1Dec09 = 0.27; beginning 13Feb12 = 0.36;
beginning 18Feb15 = 0.71.\u00a0 MDL was changed to 0.88 on a sample date of
8/21/2017.

Ammonium (NH4+) concentration was determined using a Lachat/Zellweger
Analytics QuikChem 8000 flow injection autoanalyzer (Milwaukee, WI) using
method FIA 31-107-06-1-A/B:\u00a0 Water samples were vacuum filtered (less
than 25 kiloPascals) using pre-combusted Whatman glass microfibre filters
(GF/F).\u00a0 The filtrate was stored in high-density polyethylene bottles and
frozen (-20 degrees Celsius) until analysis.\u00a0 Two replicates were run
from the same bottle.\u00a0 \u00a0Method detection limits (MDL, \u00b5g L-1)
were: before 4Nov02 = 4.69; beginning 4Nov02 = 4.31; beginning 11Jul06 = 2.55;
beginning 1Dec09 = 3.98; beginning 13Feb12 = 2.87; beginning 18Feb15 =
3.34.\u00a0 MDL was changed to 1.05 on sample date 8/21/2017.

Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentration was calculated by summing
nitrate/nitrite (NO3- / NO2-) and ammonium (NH4+).\u00a0 If either NO3- / NO2-
or NH4+ were below the detection limit (-9999), they were taken to be zero for
this calculation.

Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) was measured by in-line digestion using the
Lachat/Zellweger Analytics QuikChem 8000 flow injection autoanalyzer
(Milwaukee, WI, USA) using method FIA 31-107-04-3-B for low total nitrogen for
brackish/fresh waters (detection level: 0.1 - 5.0 milligrams nitrogen per
liter):\u00a0 Water samples were vacuum filtered (less than 25 kiloPascals)
using pre-combusted Whatman glass microfibre filters (GF/F).\u00a0 The
filtrate was stored in high-density polyethylene bottles and frozen at -20
degrees Celsius until analysis.\u00a0 Two replicates were run from the same
bottle.\u00a0 Total dissolved nitrogen by in-line digestion works by oxidizing
all the nitrogen compounds to nitrate by heating to 100 degrees Celsius and
adding energy via UV light.\u00a0 The pH is dropped from 9.1 to 3 during the
decomposition.\u00a0 The entire digestion occurs prior to the injection
valve.\u00a0 The nitrate/nitrite concentration is then determined using
standard colorimetric techniques similar to the strict nitrate/nitrite
manifold. Method detection limits (MDL, \u00b5g L-1) were: beginning 1Nov04 =
78; beginning 11Jul06 = 35.4 beginning 1Dec09 = 25.6; beginning 13Feb12 =
36.9; beginning 14Jan13 = 19.6; beginning 18Feb15 = 10.5.\u00a0 MDL changed to
7.30 on sample date of 8/21/2017\u00a0

Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated by subtracting dissolved
inorganic nitrogen (DIN) from total dissolved nitrogen (TDN).\u00a0 If the DIN
value used in the calculation was below the detection limit, it was taken to
be zero for this calculation.\u00a0 At one point DON was determined by high
temperature oxidation using the Antek 7000N or Antek 7000V analyzer.

Orthophosphate (PO43-) was determined using a Lachat/Zellweger Analytics
QuikChem 8000 flow injection autoanalyzer (Milwaukee, WI) using method FIA
31-115-01-1-F/G:\u00a0 Water samples were vacuum filtered (less than 25
kiloPascals) using pre-combusted Whatman glass microfibre filters
(GF/F).\u00a0 The filtrate was stored in high-density polyethylene bottles and
frozen at -20 degrees Celsius until analysis.\u00a0 Two replicates were run
from the same bottle.\u00a0 Method detection limits (MDL, \u00b5g L-1) were:
before 4Nov02 = 0.35; beginning 4Nov02 = 0.74; beginning 1Nov04 = 1.68;
beginning 11Jul06 = 1.84; beginning 1Dec09 = 0.62; beginning 13Feb12 = 0.69;
beginning 18Feb15 = 0.61.\u00a0 MDL was changed to 1.80 on the sample date of
8/21/2017.

The molar ratio of nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P), or N:P, was calculated by
dividing dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) by orthophosphate (PO43-)
concentrations.

Silicic acid (SiO2) was measured after vacuum filtration (< 25 kPA) of the
collected water samples through pre-combusted (3-4 hours at 450 0C) Whatman
GF/F glass fiber filters.\u00a0 The filtrate was stored in high-density
polyethylene bottles and frozen (-20 0C) until analysis.\u00a0 Two replicates
were run from the same sample bottle.\u00a0 Nitrate plus nitrite
concentrations were determined using a Lachat QuikChem 8000 flow injection
autoanalyzer (Milwaukee, WI, USA).\u00a0 Method detection limits (MDL,
\u00b5M) were: before 4Nov02 = 0.18; beginning 4Nov02 =1.24; beginning 1Nov04
= 1.86; beginning 11Jul06 = 0.75; beginning 1Dec09 = 0.75; beginning 13Feb12 =
0.09; beginning 18Feb15 = 0.08.\u00a0 MDL was changed to 0.03 on sample date
of 8/21/2017.

Chlorophyll a (Chl a) measurements prior to the 08/17/1999 sampling date were
measured on a Shimadzu UV-160U spectrophotometer using the trichromatic
equation following sonication (45-60 s) and overnight extraction of glass
fiber filters in 90 % acetone.\u00a0 Beginning on the 08/17/1999 sampling
date, Chl a concentration was measured using the modified in vitro
fluorescence technique in EPA Method 445.0 (Welshmeyer 1994, Arar et al.\u00a0
1997): Fifty milliliters of each water sample was vacuum filtered (less than
25 kilopascals) in duplicate at low ambient light conditions using 25 mm
Whatman glass microfibre filters (GF/F).\u00a0 The filters were blotted dry,
wrapped in foil and frozen immediately at -20 degrees Celsius until
analysis.\u00a0 Chlorophyll a was extracted from the filter using a tissue
grinder and 10 mL of 90 percent reagent grade aqueous acetone (v/v with
deionized water, Fisher Scientific NF/FCC Grade). The samples remained in the
acetone overnight at -20 degrees Celsius.\u00a0 The extracts were filter-
clarified using a centrifuge and analyzed on a Turner Designs TD-700
fluorometer that was configured for the non-acidification method of
Welschmeyer (1994).\u00a0 The value reported is the average chlorophyll a
concentration measured from the two filters.\u00a0 The fluorometer was
calibrated with a known concentration of pure Chl a that was determined using
a Shimadzu UV-160U spectrophotometer and the extinction coefficients of
Jeffrey and Humphrey (1975).\u00a0 The calibration was checked daily against a
solid secondary standard (Turner Designs, proprietary formula).\u00a0 As of
August 2010, fluorescence was also measured on a TurnerDesigns Trilogy
fluorometer.\u00a0 References: 1.\u00a0 Welschmeyer, N.A. 1994. Fluorometric
analysis of chlorophyll a in the presence of chlorophyll b and pheopigments.
Limnol. Oceanogr. 39:1985-1992.\u00a0 2.\u00a0 Arar, E.J., W.L. Budde, and
T.D. Behymer.\u00a0 1997.\u00a0 Methods for the determination of chemical
substances in marine and environmental matrices.\u00a0 EPA/600/R-97/072.\u00a0
National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Cincinnati, Ohio.\u00a0 3. Jeffrey, S.W., R.F.C. Mantoura, and S.W.
Wright.\u00a0 1997.\u00a0 Phytoplankton pigments in oceanography:\u00a0
Guidelines to modern methods.\u00a0 UNESCO Publishing, Paris, France.

Spec was used to determine chla up until AUGUST 1999.\u00a0 The spec results
before Aug 1999 are corrected to correspond to the change in analysis with the
Turner Designs fluorometer.\u00a0 Figure 1 presents raw and log transformed
regressions between the HPLC and SPEC determinations of chl a in the Neuse
during calendar year 1998.\u00a0 It appears that the SPEC method produces chl
a values that are roughly 15 per cent higher than the HPLC method.\u00a0
Figure 2 presents similar regressions between HPLC and FLUO determinations of
chl a in the Neuse from August \u2013 December of 1999.\u00a0 It appears that
the FLUO method produces chl a values that are roughly 67 per cent higher than
the HPLC method.\u00a0 These figures suggest two important problems for
utilizing existing chl a data in water quality modeling in the Neuse; (i) a
decision must be made which analysis technique will be accepted as the
standard for determining chl a, and (ii) a correction must be applied to
equilibrate IMS chl a values determined by the SPEC and FLUO methods.

Primary Productivity rate was measured using an adaptation of Steeman
Nielsen's (1952) 14C bicarbonate method (Paerl et al. 1998).\u00a0 This method
of measuring primary productivity allows direct measurement of carbon uptake
and measures only net photosynthesis:\u00a0 Water samples were stored in 10
Liter high density polyethylene containers overnight in the research pond, a
flow through system that receives water from the adjacent Bogue Sound, thereby
simulating ambient water temperatures.\u00a0 The following morning the water
samples were removed from the pond and transported to the laboratory for
analysis.\u00a0 Water samples (76 milliliters) were added to three clear
plastic square bottles to determine light uptake of carbon in triplicate and
to 1 dark bottle to determine dark uptake of carbon.\u00a0 A solution of
radioactive carbonate (300 microliters) was added to each bottle.\u00a0 The
bottles were incubated for 4 hours in the pond.\u00a0 The light bottles were
incubated underneath a field light simulator, while the dark bottles were
incubated in a covered perforated bucket that was submerged in the pond.\u00a0
The FLS was used to simulate the ambient light conditions that phytoplankton
are exposed to in the estuary (mixing conditions).\u00a0 The FLS is comprised
of a rotating wheel with varying levels of screening.\u00a0 During the
incubation period, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) measurements were
performed using a 2 pi Li-Cor LI-192SA spherical quantum sensor attached to a
Li-Cor data logger.\u00a0 After the incubation period, the samples were
returned to the laboratory, shaken and the entire contents were gently vacuum
filtered (less than 25 kilopascals) using 25 mm Whatman glass microfibre
filters (GF/F).\u00a0 The filters were placed in wooden drying trays and
treated with concentrated hydrochloric acid fumes for 40 minutes to an hour to
remove inorganic 14C.\u00a0 The filters were folded in half and placed in 7
milliliter plastic scintillation vials.\u00a0 Five milliliters of liquid
scintillation cocktail (ecolume or cytoscint) was added to the vials.\u00a0
The vials were capped, shaken, stored in the dark for 3-24 hours and then
assayed for radioactivity using a Beckman liquid scintillation counter.\u00a0
In addition to the samples, triplicate voucher samples were used to quantify
the radioactivity of the 14C added.\u00a0 Voucher samples consisted of 100
microliter of 14C and 100 microliters of phenylethylamine.\u00a0 These vials
also received 5 milliliters of liquid scintillation cocktail.\u00a0 A
background vial and two 14C background standards were used.\u00a0 \u00a0The
quantity of carbon fixed is proportional to the fraction of radioactive carbon
assimilated.\u00a0 (Paerl, H.W., J.L. Pinckney, J.M. Fear, and B.L. Peierls
1998. Ecosystem responses to internal and watershed organic matter loading:
consequences for hypoxia in the eutrophying Neuse River Estuary, North
Carolina, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series 166: 17-25; Steemann Nielsen, E.
1952. The use of radio-active carbon (C14) for measuring organic production in
the sea. Journal du Conseil permanent international pour L'Exploration de la
Mer 18: 117-140)

Diagnostic phytoplankton photopigments were identified, separated and
quantified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an in-line
photodiode array spectrophotometer (Jeffrey et al.\u00a0 1997):\u00a0 Known
volumes of water sample (500-1000 milliliters, enough to obtain color on the
filter) were vacuum filtered (less than 25 kiloPascals) through 25 or 47
millimeter Whatman glass microfibre filters (GF/F) under reduced light
conditions.\u00a0 The filters were blotted dry, folded in half, wrapped in
foil and then immediately frozen at -20 degrees Celsius until analysis.\u00a0
The filters were placed in 15 milliliter centrifuge tubes containing 1.5-3.0
milliliters of 100% acetone (HPLC Grade), sonicated for 30-60 seconds using a
Fisher Sonic Dismembrator 300 with microtip and extracted at -20 degrees
Celsius for 12-24 hours.\u00a0 After extraction the samples were centrifuged
at 4500 rpm and the supernatant (i.e.- the combined extracted pigments)
collected & filtered into amber glass autosampler vials using Millipex
Millipore 0.45 micometer PTFE.\u00a0 Two hundred microliters of extractant
from each vial was injected into the HPLC system using a Spectra Physics (now
Thermo Separations Products) AS3000 autosampler and SP8800 pump, running a
non-linear, 55 minute, 2-solvent gradient adapted from Van Heukelem et.al.
1994 or 1995?.\u00a0 The nonlinear, variable flow, binary gradient consisted
of solvent A [80% methanol : 20% ammonium acetate (0.5 M adjusted to pH 7.2)]
and B (80% methanol : 20% acetone).\u00a0 The extractant was separated into
individual pigments using a series of C18 reverse-phase columns to optimize
photopigment separations:\u00a0 The column order was a Rainin Microsorb guard
column (0.46 x 1.5 centimeters, 3 micrometer packing) followed by a single
monomeric reverse-phase C18 column (Rainin Microsorb-MV, 0.46 x 10 cm, 3
\u00b5m packing) followed by two polymeric reverse-phase C18 columns (Vydac
201TP5, 0.46 x 25 cm, 5 \u00b5m packing).\u00a0 The columns were kept at a
constant 52 degrees Celsius in an Alltech 330 column heater.\u00a0 The
separated pigments were then passed through an in line Shimadzu SPD-M10AV
photodiode array detector which measured the absorbance of the
sample/extractant, scanning the range of 350-800 nanometers every 2
seconds.\u00a0 The data was collected and analyzed using Shimadzu's EZChrom
software.\u00a0 Individual pigments are identified using a combination of peak
retention time and absorbance spectrum shape.\u00a0 Retention times and
absorbance spectra are identified for each pigment by analyzing known pigments
(either as pure standards or pigments or isolated from algal cultures).\u00a0
Pigments are quantified from their peak areas, calculated at 440nm. A
calibration curve is generated by injecting various volumes of a mixed
standard composed of known quantities of seven pure pigment standards
(fucoxanthin, zeaxanthin, bacteriochlorophyll a, canthaxathin, chlorophyll b,
chlorophyll a, echinenone and \u00df-carotene) and calculating the peak areas
of those pigments\u00a0 \u00a0The peak areas are regressed against the known
quantities of each pigment to calculate the slope (Response Factor) for that
pigment.\u00a0 Response factors for pigments we do not have reference
standards for are calculated using the ratio of absorbance coefficients of
each pigment to its closest structurally related reference pigment,
multiplying the known pigment's response factor by that ratio. Pigments
extracted from the samples are then quantified by multiplying the peak areas
of a chromatogram at 440nm by the response factors. Pigment values listed as
below detection were below the software threshold for peak detection or had
spectra below a similarity of 0.9 compared to library spectra. Technician
expert judgement was used in difficult cases.

The HPLC derived diagnostic photopigment concentrations were analyzed using
the ChemTax matrix factorization program (Mackey 1996).\u00a0 This program
uses the steepest decent algorithm to determine the best fit based on an
initial estimate of pigment ratios for algal classes.\u00a0 The initial
pigment ratio matrix used in the Chemtax analysis was derived from:\u00a0
Mackey M.D., Mackey D.J., Higgins H.W., & Wright S.W.\u00a0 1996.\u00a0
CHEMTAX- a program for estimating class abundances from chemical markers:
application to HPLC measurements of phytoplankton.\u00a0 Marine Ecology
Progress Series 144: 265-283, and consisted of nine photopigments
(alloxanthin, antheraxanthin, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll a (chlorophyll
a + chlorophyllide a), fucoxanthin, lutein, peridinin, violaxanthin, and
zeaxanthin) for five algal groups that constitute the bulk of the
phytoplankton community in the Neuse River and Estuary (chlorophytes,
cryptophytes, cyanobacteria, diatoms, and dinoflagellates).\u00a0 In order to
reduce the variation of pigment ratios due to large changes in phytoplankton
species composition with depth, season, and salinity regime, homogenous data
groupings of the HPLC pigment data were performed prior to running on
Chemtax:\u00a0 HPLC pigment data was grouped by Depth Level (surface or
bottom) then by Season (winter, spring, summer and fall) then by Salinity
regime (oligohaline: <5.0 ppt, mesohaline: 5.01 - 18.0 ppt, polyhaline: >18.01
ppt).\u00a0 When there were less than 10 samples in a given homogenous
grouping (Chemtax requires at least 10 samples per run), the data was grouped
by oligohaline + mesohaline or mesohaline + polyhaline (This is indicated in
the comments section).

Distance (in river kilometers) was calculated using ESRI ArcGIS
software.\u00a0 Distances were calculated using projected station locations
(North Carolina State Plane 1983 meters projection).\u00a0 Distances from
station 0 through 30 (upper river stations) were measured along the main
channel of the river. Distances from stations 30 to 180 were measured as
straight lines between stations
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 762165
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-0825466
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=0825466 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String Dr David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Biological, chemical, and physical water quality indicators of the Neuse River.
PI: Hans Paerl
Version: 2019-05-13
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.2d 13 Jun 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2019-05-13T13:27:33Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-05-15T16:27:40Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.767391.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double -76.526
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double 35.2106
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double 34.9489
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double -76.526
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double -77.1222
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_max double 7.501
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_min double 0.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_positive String down
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_units String m
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/767391 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_acronym String LI-COR LI-193 PAR
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description String Prior to the 07/30/2003 sampling date, PAR measurements were performed with a spherical underwater quantum sensor (LI-COR LI-193SA) coupled to a LI-COR LI-1000 datalogger.� Beginning on the 07/30/2003 sampling date, a flat underwater quantum sensor (LI-COR LI-193SA) attached to a Yellow Springs Instruments YSI 6600 or YSI 6600 EDS-S sonde was used to measure PAR.�
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 767456
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String The LI-193 Underwater Spherical Quantum Sensor uses a Silicon Photodiode and glass filters encased in a waterproof housing to measure PAR (in the 400 to 700 nm waveband) in aquatic environments. Typical output is in micromol s-1 m-2. The LI-193 Sensor gives an added dimension to underwater PAR measurements as it measures photon flux from all directions. This measurement is referred to as Photosynthetic Photon Flux Fluence Rate (PPFFR) or Quantum Scalar Irradiance. This is important, for example, when studying phytoplankton, which utilize radiation from all directions for photosynthesis. LI-COR began producing Spherical Quantum Sensors in 1979; serial numbers for the LI-193 begin with SPQA-XXXXX (licor.com).
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L22/current/TOOL0458/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String LI-COR LI-193 PAR Sensor
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 432
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_supplied_name String spherical underwater quantum sensor (LI-COR LI-193SA)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_10_dataset_instrument_description String Bottom water samples were collected with a horizontal plastic Van Dorn sampler.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_10_dataset_instrument_nid String 767452
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_10_description String A free-flushing water sample bottle comprising a cylinder (polycarbonate, acrylic or PVC) with a stopper at each end. The bottle is closed by means of a messenger from the surface releasing the tension on a latex band and thus pulling the two stoppers firmly into place. A thermometer can be mounted inside the bottle. One or more bottles can be lowered on a line to allow sampling at a single or multiple depth levels. Van Dorn samplers are suitable for for physical (temperature), chemical and biological sampling in shallow to very deep water. Bottles are typically lowered vertically through the water column although a horizontal version is available for sampling near the seabed or at thermoclines or chemoclines. Because of the lack of metal parts the bottles are suitable for trace metal sampling, although the blue polyurethane seal used in the Alpha version may leach mercury. The Beta version uses white ASA plastic seals that do not leach mercury but are less durable.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_10_instrument_name String Van Dorn water sampler
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_10_instrument_nid String 755357
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_10_supplied_name String plastic Van Dorn sampler
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_acronym String HPLC
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_description String Two hundred microliters of extractant from each vial was injected into the HPLC system using a Spectra Physics (now Thermo Separations Products) AS3000 autosampler and SP8800 pump, running a non-linear, 55 minute, 2-solvent gradient adapted from Van Heukelem et.al. 1994 or 1995?.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_nid String 767462
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_description String A High-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) is a type of liquid chromatography used to separate compounds that are dissolved in solution. HPLC instruments consist of a reservoir of the mobile phase, a pump, an injector, a separation column, and a detector. Compounds are separated by high pressure pumping of the sample mixture onto a column packed with microspheres coated with the stationary phase. The different components in the mixture pass through the column at different rates due to differences in their partitioning behavior between the mobile liquid phase and the stationary phase. (http://www.files.chem.vt.edu/chem-ed/sep/lc/hplc.html)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB11/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_name String High Performance Liquid Chromatograph
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_nid String 506
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_supplied_name String HPLC system
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_acronym String Nutrient Autoanalyzer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_dataset_instrument_description String Nitrate/nitrite (NO3- / NO2-) concentration was determined using a Lachat/Zellweger Analytics QuikChem 8000 flow injection autoanalyzer (Milwaukee, WI, USA) using method FIA 31-107-04-1-C.
Ammonium (NH4+) concentration was determined using a Lachat/Zellweger Analytics QuikChem 8000 flow injection autoanalyzer (Milwaukee, WI) using method FIA 31-107-06-1-A/B.
Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) was measured by in-line digestion using the Lachat/Zellweger Analytics QuikChem 8000 flow injection autoanalyzer (Milwaukee, WI, USA) using method FIA 31-107-04-3-B for low total nitrogen for brackish/fresh waters (detection level: 0.1 - 5.0 milligrams nitrogen per liter).
Orthophosphate (PO43-) was determined using a Lachat/Zellweger Analytics QuikChem 8000 flow injection autoanalyzer (Milwaukee, WI) using method FIA 31-115-01-1-F/G.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_dataset_instrument_nid String 767460
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_description String Nutrient Autoanalyzer is a generic term used when specific type, make and model were not specified. In general, a Nutrient Autoanalyzer is an automated flow-thru system for doing nutrient analysis (nitrate, ammonium, orthophosphate, and silicate) on seawater samples.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB04/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_instrument_name String Nutrient Autoanalyzer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_instrument_nid String 558
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_supplied_name String Lachat/Zellweger Analytics QuikChem 8000 flow injection autoanalyzer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_acronym String UV Spectrophotometer-Shimadzu
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_dataset_instrument_description String Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration was measured using a Shimadzu TOC-5000A Analyzer:� Water samples were vacuum filtered (less than 25 kilopascal) using pre-combusted Whatman glass microfibre filters (GF/F).� The filtrate was stored in pre-combusted glass scintillation vials with Teflon closures and frozen at -20 degrees Celsius until analysis.� The Shimadzu TOC-5000A Analyzer uses high temperature catalytic oxidation followed by non-dispersive infrared analysis of the CO2 produced.� Samples were acidified to a pH less than 2 and sparged with air before they were analyzed for non-volatile organic carbon.� DOC values in 1996 were run from previously run nutrient samples. Starting February 2018, all stations were collected.� Prior to Feb. 2018 only NR 0, 30, 70, 100, 120, and 160 surface and bottom stations were measured.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_dataset_instrument_nid String 767459
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_description String The Shimadzu UV Spectrophotometer is manufactured by Shimadzu Scientific Instruments (ssi.shimadzu.com). Shimadzu manufacturers several models of spectrophotometer; refer to dataset for make/model information.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB20/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_instrument_name String UV Spectrophotometer-Shimadzu
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_instrument_nid String 595
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_supplied_name String Shimadzu TOC-5000A Analyzer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_acronym String Secchi Disc
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_dataset_instrument_description String The secchi disk was deployed off of the sunlit side of the research vessel.� The depth (in meters) at which the secchi disk was no longer visible by the naked eye was recorded as the secchi depth.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_dataset_instrument_nid String 767455
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_description String Typically, a 16 inch diameter white/black quadrant disc used to measure water optical clarity
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L22/current/TOOL0430/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_instrument_name String Secchi Disc
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_instrument_nid String 609
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_supplied_name String secchi disk
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_5_acronym String CHN_EA
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_5_dataset_instrument_description String �After drying at 60 0C, the filters were rolled in tin disks and injected into a PE 2400 Series II CHNS/O Analyzer calibrated with acetanilide ending in June 2014.� Starting on the Neuse River sample date of June 2, 2014, a Costech Analytical Technologies, Inc. Elemental Combustion System CHNS-O ECS 4010 was used for elemental analysis by "flash combustion/chromatographic separation and multi-detector techniques".� The Costech Instrument utilizes EAS Clarity Software.� Atropine standards are used to develop a calibration curve (C 70.56%, N 4.84%, and carbon response ratio of 0.025 +/-0.003).� NIST Buffalo River Sediment Reference Material 8704 (C 3.351% +/-0.017, N 0.20% +/-0.04) and/or Acetanilide Bypass (C 71.09%, N 10.36%, carbon response ratio of 0.055 +/- 0.003) may used for calibration or a check standard.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_5_dataset_instrument_nid String 767458
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_5_description String A CHN Elemental Analyzer is used for the determination of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen content in organic and other types of materials, including solids, liquids, volatile, and viscous samples.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_5_instrument_name String CHN Elemental Analyzer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_5_instrument_nid String 625
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_5_supplied_name String PE 2400 Series II CHNS/O Analyzer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_6_acronym String HydroLab DS4
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_6_dataset_instrument_description String Prior to the 09/13/2000 sampling date, in situ measurements were performed at discrete depths using a Hydrolab Data Sonde 3 equipped with a multiprobe and SVR3 display logger.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_6_dataset_instrument_nid String 767453
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_6_description String Sensors for temperature, conductivity, salinity, specific conductance, TDS, pH, ORP, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, chlorophyll a, blue-green algae, Rhodamine WT, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, ambient light (PAR), and total dissolved gas.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_6_instrument_name String HydroLab Datasonde 4 Multiprobe
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_6_instrument_nid String 642
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_6_supplied_name String Hydrolab Data Sonde 3
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_7_acronym String YSI Sonde 6-Series
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_7_dataset_instrument_description String Beginning on the 09/13/2000 sampling date, in situ measurements were performed at discrete depths on the sunlit side of the research vessel using a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI Incoporated, Ohio) multiparameter sonde (Model 6600 or 6600 EDS-S Extended Deployment System) equipped with a YSI conductivity/temperature probe (Model 6560), a YSI chlorophyll probe (Model 6025), a YSI pH probe (Model 6561 or 6566), a YSI pulsed dissolved oxygen probe (Model 6562), a self cleaning YSI turbidity probe (Model 6026 or 6136), and beginning on the 07/30/2003 sampling date, a flat Li-Cor sensor (UWQ-PAR 6067).
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_7_dataset_instrument_nid String 767454
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_7_description String YSI 6-Series water quality sondes and sensors are instruments for environmental monitoring and long-term deployments. YSI datasondes accept multiple water quality sensors (i.e., they are multiparameter sondes). Sondes can measure temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, depth, turbidity, and other water quality parameters. The 6-Series includes several models. More from YSI.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_7_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L22/current/TOOL0737/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_7_instrument_name String YSI Sonde 6-Series
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_7_instrument_nid String 663
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_7_supplied_name String Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI Incoporated, Ohio) multiparameter sonde (Model 6600 or 6600 EDS-S Extended Deployment System)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_8_acronym String TD-700
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_8_dataset_instrument_description String Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was measured using a Turner Designs TD-700 fluorometer configured with a near-UV mercury vapour lamp, a 350 nm excitation filter, and a 410–600 nm emission filter.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_8_dataset_instrument_nid String 767457
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_8_description String The TD-700 Laboratory Fluorometer is a benchtop fluorometer designed to detect fluorescence over the UV to red range. The instrument can measure concentrations of a variety of compounds, including chlorophyll-a and fluorescent dyes, and is thus suitable for a range of applications, including chlorophyll, water quality monitoring and fluorescent tracer studies. Data can be output as concentrations or raw fluorescence measurements.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_8_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L22/current/TOOL0510/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_8_instrument_name String Turner Designs 700 Laboratory Fluorometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_8_instrument_nid String 694
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_8_supplied_name String Turner Designs TD-700 fluorometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_9_acronym String Spectrophotometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_9_dataset_instrument_description String Diagnostic phytoplankton photopigments were identified, separated and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an in-line photodiode array spectrophotometer (Jeffrey et al.� 1997)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_9_dataset_instrument_nid String 767461
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_9_description String An instrument used to measure the relative absorption of electromagnetic radiation of different wavelengths in the near infra-red, visible and ultraviolet wavebands by samples.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_9_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB20/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_9_instrument_name String Spectrophotometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_9_instrument_nid String 707
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_9_supplied_name String in-line photodiode array spectrophotometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String allo, Allo_corr, ammonia, ammonium, anth, B_car, bco, bco-dmo, biological, but, But_fuco, c1c2, cantha, car, carbon, cdom, Cdom_Corrected, chemical, chemistry, chl, Chl_a_corr, Chl_b_corr, Chl_c1c2, chla, Chla_IWS, chlide, Chlide_a, chlorophyll, chlorophyll-a, chlraw, color, colored, commerce, concentration, concentration_of_chlorophyll_in_sea_water, cond, corr, Correct_Chla_IV, corrected, cto, CtoN, data, dataset, date, density, department, depth, depth2, description, diadino, diato, dic, din, dissolved, dissolved nutrients, dmo, doc, don, dosat, DV_chl_a, earth, Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Chemistry > Ammonia, Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Chemistry > Chlorophyll, Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Chemistry > Nitrate, Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Chemistry > Phosphate, Earth Science > Oceans > Salinity/Density > Salinity, echin, erddap, fuco, Fuco_corr, gyro, hex, Hex_fuco, identifier, iso, km0, latitude, longitude, lut, management, mass, mass_concentration_of_phosphate_in_sea_water, matter, mole, mole_concentration_of_ammonium_in_sea_water, mole_concentration_of_nitrate_in_sea_water, monado, myxo, n02, neo, nh4, nitrate, no3, NO3_NO2, nto, NtoP, nutrients, O2, ocean, ocean color, oceanography, oceans, office, organic, oxygen, particulate, perid, Perid_corr, phide, Phide_a, phosphate, phytin, Phytin_a, po4, POC, ppr, practical, pras, preliminary, salinity, science, sea, sea_water_practical_salinity, season, seawater, secchi, SiO2, source, spec, station, Station_Description, statistics, tdn, temperature, time, total, TotalChla, turbidity, viola, water, year, ysi, YSI_BP, YSI_Chl, YSI_Chlraw, YSI_Depth, YSI_DO, YSI_DOsat, YSI_pH, YSI_Salinity, YSI_SpecCond, YSI_Temp, YSI_Time, YSI_Turbidity, zea, Zea_corr
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords_vocabulary String GCMD Science Keywords
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String The data may be used and redistributed for free but is not intended
for legal use, since it may contain inaccuracies. Neither the data
Contributor, ERD, NOAA, nor the United States Government, nor any
of their employees or contractors, makes any warranty, express or
implied, including warranties of merchantability and fitness for a
particular purpose, or assumes any legal liability for the accuracy,
completeness, or usefulness, of this information.
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/767391 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double 35.2106
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'767391': {'Lat': 'flag - latitude', 'YSI_Depth': 'flag - depth', 'Lon': 'flag - longitude'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/767391/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String UNC-Chapel Hill
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Dr Hans Paerl
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 734605
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Mathew Biddle
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 708682
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Collaborative Research: Regulation of Phytoplankton Dynamics in Mid-Atlantic Estuaries Subject to Climatic Perturbations
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String climate_phyto_estuaries
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String NSF Award Abstract:
Climatic perturbations by drought-flood cycles, tropical storms, and hurricanes are increasingly important in Mid-Atlantic estuaries, leading to ecosystem-scale responses of the plankton system with significant trophic implications. Recent observations support an emerging paradigm that climate dominates nutrient enrichment in these ecosystems, explaining seasonal and interannual variability of phytoplankton floral composition, biomass (chl-a), and primary production (PP). This project will evaluate this paradigm in the two largest estuaries in the United States, Chesapeake Bay (CB) and Albemarle-Pamlico Sound-Neuse River Estuary (APS-NRE) by quantifying responses to climatic perturbations. This project will: (1) resolve long-term trends of plankton biomass/production from high variability driven by climatic forcing, such as drought-flood cycles that generate significant departures from the norm; (2) quantify the role of episodic wind and precipitation events, such as those associated with frontal passages, tropical storms, and hurricanes, that evoke consequential spikes of biomass/production outside the resolution of traditional methods. The field program will focus on event-scale forcing of phytoplankton dynamics by collecting shipboard, aircraft remote sensing, and satellite (SeaWiFS, MODIS-A) data, analyzing extensive monitoring data for CB and APS-NRE to develop context, and quantifying effects of climatic perturbations on phytoplankton dynamics as departures from long-term averages. The rapid-response sampling will be paired with numerical simulations using coupled hydrodynamic biogeochemical models based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). This combination of observations and modeling will be used to explore mechanistic links and test empirical relationships obtained from field data.
Intellectual Merit. Drought-flood cycles, tropical storms, and hurricanes are occurring at increasing severity and frequency, exerting significant pressures on land margin ecosystems. Research and monitoring in these ecosystems has focused singularly on eutrophication for nearly five decades. Recognition of climatic perturbations as the underlying cause of phytoplankton variability represents a significant departure from this singular focus. This project will combine observations and modeling to significantly extend our knowledge of how climate regulates phytoplankton dynamics in estuaries. Progress in calibrating and validating hydrodynamic biogeochemical models with data collected in CB and APS-NRE by this project will lead to predictive capabilities thus far unattained, allowing us to evaluate the paradigm that climatic perturbations regulate phytoplankton dynamics in estuaries.
Broader Impacts: Addressing the effects of climatic perturbations on phytoplankton dynamics in estuaries with a combination of data collection, analysis, and mechanistic modeling has societal benefits for scientists and resource managers. Applications in addition to ?basic? science include the consideration of climatic forcing in designing effective nutrient management strategies. Specific impacts include: (1) quantifying the effects of climatic perturbations on planktonic processes for important estuarine-coastal ecosystems; (2) extending empirically-based water quality criteria forward by enabling predictions of floral composition, chl-a, and PP in changing climate conditions; (3) combining observations and mechanistic models to support scenario analysis, allowing us to distinguish long-term trends from variability imposed by climate. This project will offer a graduate course in physical transport processes and plankton productivity that will benefit from this research, support two Ph.D. students, and train undergraduates in NSF REU and minority outreach programs at HPL-UMCES and IMS-UNC. The main products will be peer-reviewed publications and presentations at scientific meetings. The three PIs maintain active web sites that will be used to distribute results and data.
NOTE:
Dr. Harding was the original Lead PI. Dr. Michael R. Roman was named as substitute PI when Dr. Harding served as a Program Director in the NSF Biological Oceanography Program for two years, and through his move to UCLA thereafter. Dr. Harding is responsible for the data holdings on this project and for coordinating their submittal to BCO-DMO.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2013-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String The two largest estuaries in the United States, Chesapeake Bay (CB) and Albemarle-Pamlico Sound- Neuse River Estuary (APS-NRE).
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Collaborative Research: Regulation of Phytoplankton Dynamics in Mid-Atlantic Estuaries Subject to Climatic Perturbations
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 491333
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_website String http://paerllab.web.unc.edu/projects/modmon/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2008-10
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Mathew Biddle
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager(s)
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double 34.9489
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v29
attribute NC_GLOBAL subsetVariables String Source, Pras, DV_chl_a
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String The Neuse River Estuary Water Quality Dataset is a compilation of the biological, chemical and physical water quality data that was collected along the length of the Neuse River Estuary, NC from March 14, 1985 to February 15, 1989 and from January 24, 1994 to the present. The primary purpose of this dataset was to provide long-term environmental information to supplement experimental, process-based research, including the Atlantic Coast Environmental Indicators Consortium (ACE-INC) project as well as other laboratory studies.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Biological, chemical, and physical water quality indicators of the Neuse River, North Carolina from 2008 through 2013
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double -77.1222
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.5-beta
variable Date   String  
attribute Date description String Date of water sample collection ; filtration ; and in situ measurements.
attribute Date ioos_category String Time
attribute Date long_name String Date
attribute Date units String unitless
variable Year   short  
attribute Year _FillValue short 32767
attribute Year actual_range short 2008, 2013
attribute Year description String Year of sampling
attribute Year ioos_category String Time
attribute Year long_name String Year
attribute Year units String unitless
variable Season   String  
attribute Season description String The season when the water sample was collected and filtered and when the in situ measurements were performed in the field.
attribute Season ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Season long_name String Season
attribute Season units String unitless
variable Station   short  
attribute Station _FillValue short 32767
attribute Station actual_range short 0, 180
attribute Station description String The name of the fixed sampling station.
attribute Station ioos_category String Identifier
attribute Station long_name String Station
attribute Station units String unitless
variable Source   String  
attribute Source description String The organization that conducted the sampling.
attribute Source ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Source long_name String Source
attribute Source units String unitless
variable depth2   String  
attribute depth2 colorBarMaximum double 8000.0
attribute depth2 colorBarMinimum double -8000.0
attribute depth2 colorBarPalette String TopographyDepth
attribute depth2 description String Depth level from which the water sample was collected and where the in situ measurements were made (S=surface ; B=bottom Surface (S) refers to a surface water sample or in situ measurement taken at a depth of approximately 0.2 meters. Bottom (B) refers to a bottom water sample or in situ measurement taken at a depth of approximately 0.5 meters above the sediment layer. Surface water samples were collected by submerging 10 liter high-density polyethylene containers just below the water surface or by filling the containers with surface water collected from bucket casts. Bottom water samples were collected with a horizontal plastic Van Dorn sampler. Starting December 2007 ; all samples collected with diaphragm pump and a weighted ; marked hose. All containers were kept in dark coolers at ambient temperature during transport to the laboratory. All filtration was done within a few hours of collection and when conditions permitted ; on board the research vessel.
attribute depth2 ioos_category String Location
attribute depth2 long_name String Depth
attribute depth2 standard_name String depth
attribute depth2 units String meters (m)
variable YSI_Time   String  
attribute YSI_Time description String Exact time (hours:minutes:seconds) when the in situ measurements were made. This time is an approximate water sampling time.
attribute YSI_Time ioos_category String Time
attribute YSI_Time long_name String YSI Time
attribute YSI_Time units String unitless
variable depth   double  
attribute depth _CoordinateAxisType String Height
attribute depth _CoordinateZisPositive String down
attribute depth _FillValue double NaN
attribute depth actual_range double 0.1, 7.501
attribute depth axis String Z
attribute depth description String Exact depth (meters) where the in situ measurements were made.
attribute depth ioos_category String Location
attribute depth long_name String YSI Depth
attribute depth positive String down
attribute depth standard_name String depth
attribute depth units String m
variable YSI_Temp   float  
attribute YSI_Temp _FillValue float NaN
attribute YSI_Temp actual_range float 2.04, 33.69
attribute YSI_Temp description String In situ water temperature
attribute YSI_Temp ioos_category String Unknown
attribute YSI_Temp long_name String YSI Temp
attribute YSI_Temp units String degrees Celsius
variable YSI_SpecCond   float  
attribute YSI_SpecCond _FillValue float NaN
attribute YSI_SpecCond actual_range float 0.081, 48.08
attribute YSI_SpecCond description String In situ specific conductivity
attribute YSI_SpecCond ioos_category String Unknown
attribute YSI_SpecCond long_name String YSI Spec Cond
attribute YSI_SpecCond units String milli Siemens per centimeter
variable YSI_Salinity   float  
attribute YSI_Salinity _FillValue float NaN
attribute YSI_Salinity actual_range float 0.04, 31.23
attribute YSI_Salinity colorBarMaximum double 37.0
attribute YSI_Salinity colorBarMinimum double 32.0
attribute YSI_Salinity description String In situ salinity
attribute YSI_Salinity ioos_category String Salinity
attribute YSI_Salinity long_name String Sea Water Practical Salinity
attribute YSI_Salinity units String parts per thousand
variable YSI_DOsat   float  
attribute YSI_DOsat _FillValue float NaN
attribute YSI_DOsat actual_range float 0.2, 165.2
attribute YSI_DOsat description String In situ dissolved oxygen saturation
attribute YSI_DOsat ioos_category String Unknown
attribute YSI_DOsat long_name String YSI DOsat
attribute YSI_DOsat units String unitless (percent)
variable YSI_DO   float  
attribute YSI_DO _FillValue float NaN
attribute YSI_DO actual_range float 0.02, 16.11
attribute YSI_DO description String In situ dissolved oxygen concentration
attribute YSI_DO ioos_category String Unknown
attribute YSI_DO long_name String YSI DO
attribute YSI_DO units String milligrams per liter
variable YSI_pH   float  
attribute YSI_pH _FillValue float NaN
attribute YSI_pH actual_range float 5.83, 9.23
attribute YSI_pH description String In situ pH.
attribute YSI_pH ioos_category String Salinity
attribute YSI_pH long_name String YSI P H
attribute YSI_pH units String unitless
variable YSI_Turbidity   float  
attribute YSI_Turbidity _FillValue float NaN
attribute YSI_Turbidity actual_range float 0.1, 96.2
attribute YSI_Turbidity description String In situ turbidity
attribute YSI_Turbidity ioos_category String Unknown
attribute YSI_Turbidity long_name String YSI Turbidity
attribute YSI_Turbidity units String NTU
variable YSI_Chlraw   float  
attribute YSI_Chlraw _FillValue float NaN
attribute YSI_Chlraw actual_range float 0.1, 35.8
attribute YSI_Chlraw description String In situ chlorophyll fluorescence
attribute YSI_Chlraw ioos_category String Unknown
attribute YSI_Chlraw long_name String YSI Chlraw
attribute YSI_Chlraw units String relative fluorescence units
variable YSI_Chl   float  
attribute YSI_Chl _FillValue float NaN
attribute YSI_Chl actual_range float 0.3, 127.3
attribute YSI_Chl description String In situ chlorophyll concentration from fluorescence
attribute YSI_Chl ioos_category String Unknown
attribute YSI_Chl long_name String YSI Chl
attribute YSI_Chl units String micrograms per liter
variable YSI_BP   short  
attribute YSI_BP _FillValue short 32767
attribute YSI_BP actual_range short 753, 780
attribute YSI_BP description String Surface barometric pressure
attribute YSI_BP ioos_category String Unknown
attribute YSI_BP long_name String YSI BP
attribute YSI_BP units String millimeters of mercury
variable Secchi   float  
attribute Secchi _FillValue float NaN
attribute Secchi actual_range float 0.25, 16.16
attribute Secchi description String Depth at which the secchi disk is no longer visible
attribute Secchi ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Secchi long_name String Secchi
attribute Secchi units String meters
variable Kd   float  
attribute Kd _FillValue float NaN
attribute Kd actual_range float 0.476995, 5.647
attribute Kd description String Diffuse light attenuation coefficient
attribute Kd ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Kd long_name String KD
attribute Kd units String per meter
variable Cdom_Corrected   float  
attribute Cdom_Corrected _FillValue float NaN
attribute Cdom_Corrected actual_range float 21.8067, 207.515
attribute Cdom_Corrected description String Colored or chromophoric dissolved organic (matter humic substances) concentration as microgram per liter of quinine sulfate.
attribute Cdom_Corrected ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Cdom_Corrected long_name String Cdom Corrected
attribute Cdom_Corrected units String microgram per liter of quinine sulfate.
variable POC   float  
attribute POC _FillValue float NaN
attribute POC actual_range float 18.15, 13653.3
attribute POC description String Particulate organic carbon concentration
attribute POC ioos_category String Ocean Color
attribute POC long_name String Particulate Organic Carbon
attribute POC units String micrograms of carbon per liter
variable PN   float  
attribute PN _FillValue float NaN
attribute PN actual_range float 12.0, 2450.65
attribute PN description String Particulate nitrogen concentration
attribute PN ioos_category String Unknown
attribute PN long_name String PN
attribute PN units String micrograms of nitrogen per liter
variable CtoN   float  
attribute CtoN _FillValue float NaN
attribute CtoN actual_range float 0.412105, 112.576
attribute CtoN description String Calculated molar ratio of particulate organic carbon
attribute CtoN ioos_category String Statistics
attribute CtoN long_name String Cto N
attribute CtoN units String unitless
variable DOC   float  
attribute DOC _FillValue float NaN
attribute DOC actual_range float 232.6, 1841.95
attribute DOC description String Dissolved organic carbon concentration
attribute DOC ioos_category String Unknown
attribute DOC long_name String DOC
attribute DOC units String micromolar
variable DIC   float  
attribute DIC _FillValue float NaN
attribute DIC actual_range float 1.976, 21.37
attribute DIC description String Dissolved inorganic carbon concentration
attribute DIC ioos_category String Unknown
attribute DIC long_name String DIC
attribute DIC units String milligrams of carbon per liter
variable NO3_NO2   float  
attribute NO3_NO2 _FillValue float NaN
attribute NO3_NO2 actual_range float 0.267, 941.0
attribute NO3_NO2 colorBarMaximum double 50.0
attribute NO3_NO2 colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute NO3_NO2 description String Nitrate plus nitrite concentration
attribute NO3_NO2 ioos_category String Dissolved Nutrients
attribute NO3_NO2 long_name String Mole Concentration Of Nitrate In Sea Water
attribute NO3_NO2 units String micrograms of nitrogen per liter
variable NH4   float  
attribute NH4 _FillValue float NaN
attribute NH4 actual_range float 3.69, 1020.0
attribute NH4 colorBarMaximum double 5.0
attribute NH4 colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute NH4 description String Ammonium concentration
attribute NH4 ioos_category String Dissolved Nutrients
attribute NH4 long_name String Mole Concentration Of Ammonium In Sea Water
attribute NH4 units String micrograms of nitrogen per liter
variable DIN   float  
attribute DIN _FillValue float NaN
attribute DIN actual_range float 3.69, 1021.06
attribute DIN description String Calculated dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentration
attribute DIN ioos_category String Unknown
attribute DIN long_name String DIN
attribute DIN units String micrograms of nitrogen per liter
variable TDN   float  
attribute TDN _FillValue float NaN
attribute TDN actual_range float 37.6, 1650.0
attribute TDN description String Total dissolved nitrogen concentration organic plus inorganic species
attribute TDN ioos_category String Unknown
attribute TDN long_name String TDN
attribute TDN units String micrograms of nitrogen per liter
variable DON   float  
attribute DON _FillValue float NaN
attribute DON actual_range float -2222.0, 933.26
attribute DON description String Calculated dissolved organic nitrogen concentration
attribute DON ioos_category String Unknown
attribute DON long_name String DON
attribute DON units String micrograms of nitrogen per liter
variable PO4   float  
attribute PO4 _FillValue float NaN
attribute PO4 actual_range float 1.4, 766.0
attribute PO4 description String Orthophosphate concentration
attribute PO4 ioos_category String Dissolved Nutrients
attribute PO4 long_name String Mass Concentration Of Phosphate In Sea Water
attribute PO4 units String micrograms of phosphorus per liter
variable NtoP   float  
attribute NtoP _FillValue float NaN
attribute NtoP actual_range float 0.0311301, 294.014
attribute NtoP description String The calculated molar ratio of nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P)
attribute NtoP ioos_category String Unknown
attribute NtoP long_name String Nto P
attribute NtoP units String miligrams nitrogen per liter (mg N/L)
variable SiO2   float  
attribute SiO2 _FillValue float NaN
attribute SiO2 actual_range float 1.2, 155.0
attribute SiO2 description String Silica concentration
attribute SiO2 ioos_category String Dissolved Nutrients
attribute SiO2 long_name String Si O2
attribute SiO2 units String micromolar
variable Chla_IWS   float  
attribute Chla_IWS _FillValue float NaN
attribute Chla_IWS actual_range float 0.4861, 232.71
attribute Chla_IWS colorBarMaximum double 30.0
attribute Chla_IWS colorBarMinimum double 0.03
attribute Chla_IWS colorBarScale String Log
attribute Chla_IWS description String Chlorophyll a concentration measured by in vitro fluorometry (micrograms per liter) integrated throughout the water column to 2x the secchi depth. Water samples for this measurement were collected using the integrated water sampler IWS) which collects vertically integrated water samples.
attribute Chla_IWS ioos_category String Ocean Color
attribute Chla_IWS long_name String Concentration Of Chlorophyll In Sea Water
attribute Chla_IWS units String micrograms per liter
variable Correct_Chla_IV   float  
attribute Correct_Chla_IV _FillValue float NaN
attribute Correct_Chla_IV actual_range float 0.255, 304.36
attribute Correct_Chla_IV colorBarMaximum double 30.0
attribute Correct_Chla_IV colorBarMinimum double 0.03
attribute Correct_Chla_IV colorBarScale String Log
attribute Correct_Chla_IV description String Chlorophyll a concentration measured by in vitro fluorometry
attribute Correct_Chla_IV ioos_category String Ocean Color
attribute Correct_Chla_IV long_name String Concentration Of Chlorophyll In Sea Water
attribute Correct_Chla_IV units String micrograms per liter
variable PPR   float  
attribute PPR _FillValue float NaN
attribute PPR actual_range float 0.922585, 329.767
attribute PPR description String Primary productivity by light/dark 14C bicarbonate incorporation
attribute PPR ioos_category String Unknown
attribute PPR long_name String PPR
attribute PPR units String milligrams of C per meter cubed per hour
variable Chlide_a   float  
attribute Chlide_a _FillValue float NaN
attribute Chlide_a actual_range float 0.0195137, 16.9075
attribute Chlide_a description String Chlorophyllide a concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute Chlide_a ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Chlide_a long_name String Chlide A
attribute Chlide_a units String micrograms per liter
variable Chl_c1c2   float  
attribute Chl_c1c2 _FillValue float NaN
attribute Chl_c1c2 actual_range float 0.00175097, 17.2613
attribute Chl_c1c2 description String Chlorophyll c1 and c2 concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute Chl_c1c2 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Chl_c1c2 long_name String CHL C1C2
attribute Chl_c1c2 units String micrograms per liter
variable Perid_corr   float  
attribute Perid_corr _FillValue float NaN
attribute Perid_corr actual_range float 0.00607597, 45.0129
attribute Perid_corr description String Peridinin concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute Perid_corr ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Perid_corr long_name String Perid Corr
attribute Perid_corr units String micrograms per liter
variable But_fuco   float  
attribute But_fuco _FillValue float NaN
attribute But_fuco actual_range float 0.00419799, 0.998646
attribute But_fuco description String 19'-Butanoyloxyfucoxanthin concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute But_fuco ioos_category String Unknown
attribute But_fuco long_name String But Fuco
attribute But_fuco units String micrograms per liter
variable Phide_a   float  
attribute Phide_a _FillValue float NaN
attribute Phide_a actual_range float 0.0401498, 2.52855
attribute Phide_a description String Pheophorbide-a concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute Phide_a ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Phide_a long_name String Phide A
attribute Phide_a units String micrograms per liter
variable Fuco_corr   float  
attribute Fuco_corr _FillValue float NaN
attribute Fuco_corr actual_range float 0.0127858, 46.5159
attribute Fuco_corr description String Fucoxanthin concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute Fuco_corr ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Fuco_corr long_name String Fuco Corr
attribute Fuco_corr units String micrograms per liter
variable Hex_fuco   float  
attribute Hex_fuco _FillValue float NaN
attribute Hex_fuco actual_range float 0.00155939, 2.40154
attribute Hex_fuco description String 19'-Hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute Hex_fuco ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Hex_fuco long_name String Hex Fuco
attribute Hex_fuco units String micrograms per liter
variable Neo   float  
attribute Neo _FillValue float NaN
attribute Neo actual_range float 0.00487421, 0.832047
attribute Neo description String 9'-cis Neoxanthin concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute Neo ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Neo long_name String Neo
attribute Neo units String micrograms per liter
variable Pras   double  
attribute Pras _FillValue double NaN
attribute Pras description String Prasinoxanthin concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute Pras ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Pras long_name String Pras
attribute Pras units String micrograms per liter
variable Viola   float  
attribute Viola _FillValue float NaN
attribute Viola actual_range float 0.00171185, 27.0399
attribute Viola description String Violaxanthin concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute Viola ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Viola long_name String Viola
attribute Viola units String micrograms per liter
variable Diadino   float  
attribute Diadino _FillValue float NaN
attribute Diadino actual_range float 0.00466996, 20.9497
attribute Diadino description String Diadinoxanthin concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute Diadino ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Diadino long_name String Diadino
attribute Diadino units String micrograms per liter
variable Anth   float  
attribute Anth _FillValue float NaN
attribute Anth actual_range float 0.00627465, 1.08513
attribute Anth description String Antheraxanthin concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute Anth ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Anth long_name String Anth
attribute Anth units String micrograms per liter
variable Myxo   float  
attribute Myxo _FillValue float NaN
attribute Myxo actual_range float 0.0357131, 0.623307
attribute Myxo description String Myxoxanthophyll concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute Myxo ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Myxo long_name String Myxo
attribute Myxo units String micrograms per liter
variable Allo_corr   float  
attribute Allo_corr _FillValue float NaN
attribute Allo_corr actual_range float 0.00763655, 4.34151
attribute Allo_corr description String Alloxanthin concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute Allo_corr ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Allo_corr long_name String Allo Corr
attribute Allo_corr units String micrograms per liter
variable Diato   float  
attribute Diato _FillValue float NaN
attribute Diato actual_range float 0.00156188, 3.22123
attribute Diato description String Diatoxanthin concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute Diato ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Diato long_name String Diato
attribute Diato units String micrograms per liter
variable Monado   float  
attribute Monado _FillValue float NaN
attribute Monado actual_range float 0.0190179, 0.0959401
attribute Monado description String Monadoxanthin concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute Monado ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Monado long_name String Monado
attribute Monado units String micrograms per liter
variable Lut   float  
attribute Lut _FillValue float NaN
attribute Lut actual_range float 0.00680866, 1.77405
attribute Lut description String Lutein concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute Lut ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Lut long_name String Lut
attribute Lut units String micrograms per liter
variable Zea_corr   float  
attribute Zea_corr _FillValue float NaN
attribute Zea_corr actual_range float 0.00927789, 5.3182
attribute Zea_corr description String Zeaxanthin concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute Zea_corr ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Zea_corr long_name String Zea Corr
attribute Zea_corr units String micrograms per liter
variable Gyro   float  
attribute Gyro _FillValue float NaN
attribute Gyro actual_range float 0.00295617, 0.665704
attribute Gyro description String Gyroxanthin concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute Gyro ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Gyro long_name String Gyro
attribute Gyro units String micrograms per liter
variable Cantha   float  
attribute Cantha _FillValue float NaN
attribute Cantha actual_range float 0.00265245, 0.257283
attribute Cantha description String Canthaxanthin concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute Cantha ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Cantha long_name String Cantha
attribute Cantha units String micrograms per liter
variable Chl_b_corr   float  
attribute Chl_b_corr _FillValue float NaN
attribute Chl_b_corr actual_range float 0.0102913, 11.5354
attribute Chl_b_corr description String Chlorophyll b concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute Chl_b_corr ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Chl_b_corr long_name String Chl B Corr
attribute Chl_b_corr units String micrograms per liter
variable DV_chl_a   double  
attribute DV_chl_a _FillValue double NaN
attribute DV_chl_a colorBarMaximum double 30.0
attribute DV_chl_a colorBarMinimum double 0.03
attribute DV_chl_a colorBarScale String Log
attribute DV_chl_a description String Divinyl chlorophyll a concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute DV_chl_a ioos_category String Ocean Color
attribute DV_chl_a long_name String Concentration Of Chlorophyll In Sea Water
attribute DV_chl_a units String micrograms per liter
variable Chl_a_corr   float  
attribute Chl_a_corr _FillValue float NaN
attribute Chl_a_corr actual_range float 0.0555769, 126.454
attribute Chl_a_corr colorBarMaximum double 30.0
attribute Chl_a_corr colorBarMinimum double 0.03
attribute Chl_a_corr colorBarScale String Log
attribute Chl_a_corr description String Chlorophyll a concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute Chl_a_corr ioos_category String Ocean Color
attribute Chl_a_corr long_name String Concentration Of Chlorophyll In Sea Water
attribute Chl_a_corr units String micrograms per liter
variable Echin   float  
attribute Echin _FillValue float NaN
attribute Echin actual_range float 0.00127076, 0.176636
attribute Echin description String Echinenone concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute Echin ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Echin long_name String Echin
attribute Echin units String micrograms per liter
variable Phytin_a   float  
attribute Phytin_a _FillValue float NaN
attribute Phytin_a actual_range float 0.0837401, 21.4408
attribute Phytin_a description String Pheophytin a concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute Phytin_a ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Phytin_a long_name String Phytin A
attribute Phytin_a units String micrograms per liter
variable B_car   float  
attribute B_car _FillValue float NaN
attribute B_car actual_range float 0.00572564, 3.47185
attribute B_car description String ?-Carotene concentration by HPLC analysis
attribute B_car ioos_category String Unknown
attribute B_car long_name String B Car
attribute B_car units String micrograms per liter
variable TotalChla   float  
attribute TotalChla _FillValue float NaN
attribute TotalChla actual_range float 0.158196, 130.861
attribute TotalChla description String Sum of chlorophyll a and chlorophyllide a concentrations by HPLC analysis . Concentrations below detection assumed to by zero for this calculation.
attribute TotalChla ioos_category String Ocean Color
attribute TotalChla long_name String Total Chla
attribute TotalChla units String micrograms per liter
variable ISO_DateTime   String  
attribute ISO_DateTime description String Date and YSI_Time columns combined into ISO 8601 date format
attribute ISO_DateTime ioos_category String Time
attribute ISO_DateTime long_name String ISO Date Time
attribute ISO_DateTime source_name String ISO_DateTime
attribute ISO_DateTime units String unitless
variable Station_Description   String  
attribute Station_Description description String The physical location of the sampling station ; such as at or near a particular river marker ; buoy ; road or bridge. Lists other names that may also be used to refer to this station.
attribute Station_Description ioos_category String Unknown
attribute Station_Description long_name String Station Description
attribute Station_Description units String unitless
variable km0   float  
attribute km0 _FillValue float NaN
attribute km0 actual_range float 0.0, 72.9281
attribute km0 description String The distance of the sampling station from station 0.
attribute km0 ioos_category String Unknown
attribute km0 long_name String KM0
attribute km0 units String kilometers (km)
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double 34.9489, 35.2106
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute latitude description String North latitude of station in decimal degrees
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double -77.1222, -76.526
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute longitude description String West longitude of station in decimal degrees
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.


 
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