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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
   set  data   graph     files  public Velocity observations from a mooring at Station AT55 in Lake Michigan from 2018-04-05 to 2018-
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson,.odvTxt
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String All velocity data was averaged over 10 minutes of sampling before being
interpolated onto a common time vector. Individual instrument accuracies,
ranges, and resolutions are included.

ADCPs were used to sample current velocities at 2 Hz, with the Nortek
Signature 500 (287cm \u2013 5087cm above bed, 2m bin size) measuring
continuously and the Nortek Aquadopp HR Profiler (13.1cm \u2013 133.1cm above
bed, 3cm cell size) burst sampling for ~8.5minutes every 10 minutes. All data
were quality controlled according to manufacturer recommendations and
measurements with poor amplitudes and correlations were removed before
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 670677
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1658390
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Lake Michigan Velocity Mooring Data, Station AT55, April 2018 (Milwaukee)
PI: Cary Troy
Version: 2019-05-14
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2019-05-14T18:18:46Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-05-20T16:56:10Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.767737.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double -87.7532
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double 43.0699
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double 43.0699
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double -87.7532
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double -87.7532
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/767737 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_acronym String ADCP
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description String ADCPs were used to sample current velocities at 2 Hz, with the Nortek Signature 500 (287cm – 5087cm above bed, 2m bin size) measuring continuously and the Nortek Aquadopp HR Profiler (13.1cm – 133.1cm above bed, 3cm cell size) burst sampling for ~8.5minutes every 10 minutes.
Nortek Aquadopp HR Profiler (2 MHz)
Measurement Locations: 13.1 cm - 133.1 cm
Burst interval: 600s
Sample rate: 2 Hz
Samples/burst: 1024
Cell size: 3cm
All data is quality controlled according to manufacturer recommendations, removing all measurements with amplitudes below 60 dB and correlations below 70%. Data is then averaged over a single burst (1024 samples)
Nortek Signature 500 (500kHz) 
Measurement Locations: 287 cm - 5087 cm
Burst interval: continuous sampling
Sample rate: 2 Hz
Samples/burst: continuous
Cell size: 2m
Nominal Velocity Range: 1m/s
All data is quality controlled according to manufacturer recommendations, removing all measurements with amplitudes below 30 dB and correlations below 50%. Data is then averaged over 600s (1200samples).
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 767808
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String The ADCP measures water currents with sound, using a principle of sound waves called the Doppler effect. A sound wave has a higher frequency, or pitch, when it moves to you than when it moves away. You hear the Doppler effect in action when a car speeds past with a characteristic building of sound that fades when the car passes.
The ADCP works by transmitting "pings" of sound at a constant frequency into the water. (The pings are so highly pitched that humans and even dolphins can't hear them.) As the sound waves travel, they ricochet off particles suspended in the moving water, and reflect back to the instrument. Due to the Doppler effect, sound waves bounced back from a particle moving away from the profiler have a slightly lowered frequency when they return. Particles moving toward the instrument send back higher frequency waves. The difference in frequency between the waves the profiler sends out and the waves it receives is called the Doppler shift. The instrument uses this shift to calculate how fast the particle and the water around it are moving.
Sound waves that hit particles far from the profiler take longer to come back than waves that strike close by. By measuring the time it takes for the waves to bounce back and the Doppler shift, the profiler can measure current speed at many different depths with each series of pings. (More from WHOI instruments listing).
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/115/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 405
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_supplied_name String ADCP Nortek (Aquadopp HR Profiler, Signature 500)
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String algal, bco, bco-dmo, biological, bloom, chemical, component, data, dataset, date, dmo, erddap, filename, hab, HAB_cm, HAB_m, harmful, iso, latitude, longitude, management, oceanography, office, preliminary, time, vel
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/767737/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/767737 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double 43.0699
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'767737': {'lat': 'flag - latitude', 'lon': 'flag - longitude', 'ISO_DateTime_UTC': 'master - time'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/767737/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String Purdue University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Cary Troy
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 670685
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String University of Wisconsin
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String UW-Milwaukee
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Harvey Bootsma
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 670682
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Purdue University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String David Cannon
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 767967
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation String University of Wisconsin
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation_acronym String UW-Milwaukee
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_name String Qian Liao
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_nid String 670687
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_person_name String Mathew Biddle
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_person_nid String 708682
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Filter Feeders Physics and Phosphorus
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Filter Feeders Physics and Phosphorus
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String Overview:
While benthic filter feeders are known to influence plankton and nutrient dynamics in shallow marine and freshwater systems, their role is generally considered to be minor in large, deep systems. However, recent evidence indicates that profundal quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) have dramatically altered energy flow and nutrient cycling in the Laurentian Great Lakes and other larges aquatic systems, so that conventional nutrient-plankton paradigms no longer apply. Observed rates of phosphorus grazing by profundal quagga mussels in Lake Michigan exceed the passive settling rates by nearly an order of magnitude, even under stably stratified conditions. We hypothesize that the apparently enhanced particle deliver rate to the lake bottom results from high filtration capacity combined with vertical mixing processes that advect phytoplankton from the euphotic zone to the near-bottom layer. However, the role of hydrodynamics is unclear, because these processes are poorly characterized both within the hypolimnion as a whole and within the near-bottom layer. In addition, the implications for phytoplankton and nutrient dynamics are unclear, as mussels are also important nutrient recyclers. In the proposed interdisciplinary research project, state-of-the-art instruments and analytical tools will be deployed in Lake Michigan to quantify these critical dynamic processes, including boundary layer turbulence, mussel grazing, excretion and egestion, and benthic fluxes of carbon and phosphorus. Empirical data will be used to calibrate a 3D hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model to test our hypotheses.
Intellectual Merit:
This collaborative biophysical project is structured around two primary questions: 1) What role do profundal dreissenid mussels play in large lake carbon and nutrient cycles? 2) How are mussel grazing and the fate of nutrients recycled by mussels modulated by hydrodynamics at scales ranging from mm (benthic boundary layer) to meters (entire water column)? The project will improve the ability to model nutrient and carbon dynamics in coastal and lacustrine waters where benthic filter-feeders are a significant portion of the biota. By so doing, it will address the overarching question of how plankton and nutrient dynamics in large, deep lakes with abundant profundal filter feeders differ from the conventional paradigm described by previous models. Additionally, the project will quantify and characterize boundary layer turbulence for benthic boundary layers in large, deep lakes, including near-bed turbulence produced by benthic filter feeders.
Broader Impacts:
The project will provide new insight into the impacts of invasive dreissenid mussels, which are now threatening many large lakes and reservoirs across the United States. Dreissenid mussels appear to be responsible for a number of major changes that have occurred in the Great Lakes, including declines of pelagic plankton populations, declines in fish populations, and, ironically, nuisance algal blooms in the nearshore zone. As a result, conventional management models no longer apply, and managers are uncertain about appropriate nutrient loading targets and fish stocking levels. The data and models resulting from this project will help to guide those decisions. Additionally, the project will provide insight to bottom boundary layer physics, with applicability to other large lakes, atidal coastal seas, and the deep ocean. The project will leverage the collaboration and promote interdisciplinary education for undergraduate and graduate students from two universities (UW-Milwaukee and Purdue). The project will support 3 Ph.D. students and provide structured research experiences to undergraduates through a summer research program. The project will also promote education of future aquatic scientists by hosting a Biophysical Coupling Workshop for graduate students who participate in the annual IAGLR conferences, and the workshop lectures will be published for general access through ASLO e-Lectures and on an open-access project website.
Background publications are available at:https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014JC010506/fullhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00348-012-1265-9http://aslo.net/lomethods/free/2009/0169.pdfhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0380133015001458
Note: This is an NSF Collaborative Research Project.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Lake Michigan
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Collaborative Research: Regulation of plankton and nutrient dynamics by hydrodynamics and profundal filter feeders
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 670679
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double 43.0699
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL subsetVariables String latitude,longitude
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String A fixed mooring was established to measure water column velocities in Lake Michigan near Milwaukee, WI, during 2018 from April 5 \u2013 April 20, 2018 at a 55m depth site. The mooring involved a large tripod, upon which two ADCPs (Nortek Aquadopp HR profiler and Nortek Signature 500) were mounted to measure water column velocities between 13cm and 5087cm above the bed.
attribute NC_GLOBAL time_coverage_end String 2018-04-20T19:14:00Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL time_coverage_start String 2018-04-05T16:24:00Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Velocity observations from a mooring at Station AT55 in Lake Michigan from 2018-04-05 to 2018-04-20
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double -87.7532
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable HAB_cm   float  
attribute HAB_cm _FillValue float NaN
attribute HAB_cm actual_range float 13.0, 5087.0
attribute HAB_cm bcodmo_name String altitude
attribute HAB_cm description String Height above bottom
attribute HAB_cm long_name String HAB Cm
attribute HAB_cm units String centimeters (cm)
variable HAB_m   float  
attribute HAB_m _FillValue float NaN
attribute HAB_m actual_range float 0.13, 50.87
attribute HAB_m bcodmo_name String altitude
attribute HAB_m description String Height above bottom
attribute HAB_m long_name String HAB M
attribute HAB_m units String meters (m)
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double 43.0699, 43.0699
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude bcodmo_name String latitude
attribute latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute latitude description String latitude with positive values indicating northward
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double -87.7532, -87.7532
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude bcodmo_name String longitude
attribute longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute longitude description String longitude with positive values indicating eastward
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable component   String  
attribute component bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute component description String directional component of the average water column velocity (EAST; NORTH; UP)
attribute component long_name String Component
attribute component units String unitless
variable filename   String  
attribute filename bcodmo_name String file_name
attribute filename description String name of the file from which the data was extracted (minus the .txt extension)
attribute filename long_name String Filename
attribute filename units String unitless
variable time   double  
attribute time _CoordinateAxisType String Time
attribute time actual_range double 1.52294544E9, 1.52425164E9
attribute time axis String T
attribute time bcodmo_name String ISO_DateTime_UTC
attribute time description String The columns YEAR MONTH DAY HOUR MINUTE SECOND combined into the ISO 8601 time representation
attribute time ioos_category String Time
attribute time long_name String ISO Date Time UTC
attribute time nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/DTUT8601/ (external link)
attribute time source_name String ISO_DateTime_UTC
attribute time standard_name String time
attribute time time_origin String 01-JAN-1970 00:00:00
attribute time time_precision String 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z
attribute time units String seconds since 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z
variable vel   double  
attribute vel _FillValue double NaN
attribute vel actual_range double -1.62370233139501, 1.4918961779052902
attribute vel bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute vel description String Average water column velocity
attribute vel long_name String Vel
attribute vel units String meters per second (m/s)

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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