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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Environmental, sensory data (temperature, light intensity, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen,
depth) sampled in August 2019 in Carrie Bow Caye, Belize
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson,.odvTxt
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Hobos were deployed at depth specified by attaching a logger with a cable tie
to the line of a subsurface buoy. Water quality measurements were collected
0.5 m below the surface using a YSI except for pH, which was collected in a
small bucket at 0.5m and measurements were immediately collected within the
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 778093
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1929979
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1929979 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String Daniel Thornhill
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 722161
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Environmental data
PI: Nicole Fogarty
Data Version 1: 2019-11-18
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2019-11-18T08:50:39Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2020-01-21T17:47:49Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.781862.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double -88.07777
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double 16.80155
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double 16.75145
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double -88.07777
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double -88.0822
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_max double 1.5
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_min double 0.5
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_positive String down
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_units String m
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/781862 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_acronym String pH Sensor
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description String (Orion ROSS Ultra pH / ATC Triode double-junction combination electrode, 8157BNUMD, accuracy ±0.02 units)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 781873
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String General term for an instrument that measures the pH or how acidic or basic a solution is.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String pH Sensor
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 674
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_supplied_name String Orion ROSS Ultra pH / ATC Triode double-junction combination electrode
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_acronym String Dissolved Oxygen Sensor
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_description String YSI ProDSS Handheld Optical Dissolved Oxygen Sensor (626900) 0 to 20 mg/L: ±0.1 mg/L or 1% of reading, whichever is greater
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_nid String 781871
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_description String An electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the gas or liquid being analyzed
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_name String Dissolved Oxygen Sensor
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_nid String 705
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_supplied_name String YSI ProDSS Handheld Optical Dissolved Oxygen Sensor
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_acronym String Conductivity Meter
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_dataset_instrument_description String YSI ProDSS Handheld Conductivity sensor (626903) ±1.0% of reading or ±0.1 ppt, whichever is greater
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_dataset_instrument_nid String 781872
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_description String Conductivity Meter - An electrical conductivity meter (EC meter) measures the electrical conductivity in a solution. Commonly used in hydroponics, aquaculture and freshwater systems to monitor the amount of nutrients, salts or impurities in the water.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_instrument_name String Conductivity Meter
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_instrument_nid String 719
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_supplied_name String YSI ProDSS Conductivity sensor
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_dataset_instrument_description String Onset Hobo Pendant data loggers UA-002-64; accuracy  ± 0.53°C from 0° to 50°C (± 0.95°F from 32° to 122°F)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_dataset_instrument_nid String 781870
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_description String Electronic devices that record data over time or in relation to location either with a built-in instrument or sensor or via external instruments and sensors.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_instrument_name String Data Logger
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_instrument_nid String 731353
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_supplied_name String Onset Hobo Pendant data logger
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, chemistry, data, dataset, date, density, depth, Dissolved_Oxygen, dmo, earth, Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Chemistry > Oxygen, Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Chemistry > pH, Earth Science > Oceans > Salinity/Density > Salinity, erddap, fraction, instrument, intensity, iso, ISO_DateTime_UTC, latitude, light, Light_Intensity, local, longitude, management, O2, ocean, oceanography, oceans, office, oxygen, practical, preliminary, reported, salinity, scale, science, sea, sea_water_ph_reported_on_total_scale, sea_water_practical_salinity, seawater, site, temperature, time, total, volume, volume_fraction_of_oxygen_in_sea_water, water
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords_vocabulary String GCMD Science Keywords
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/781862/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/781862 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double 16.80155
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'781862': {'Latitude': 'flag - latitude', 'Depth': 'flag - depth', 'Longitude': 'flag - longitude', 'ISO_DateTime_Local': 'flag - time'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/781862/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String University of North Carolina - Wilmington
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String UNC-Wilmington
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Nicole Fogarty
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 663800
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Pennsylvania State University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String PSU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Iliana B. Baums
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 632664
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Karen Soenen
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 748773
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Coral Hybridization
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Coral Hybridization
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String NSF Award Abstract:
Reef-building acroporid corals form the foundation of shallow tropical coral communities throughout the Caribbean. Yet, the once dominant staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis) and the elkhorn coral (A. palmata) have decreased by more than 90% since the 1980s, primarily from disease. Their continuing decline jeopardizes the ability of coral reefs to provide numerous societal and ecological benefits, including economic revenue from seafood harvesting and tourism and shoreline protection from extreme wave events caused by storms and hurricanes. Despite their protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act since 2006, threats to the survival of reef-building acroporid corals remain pervasive and include disease and warming ocean temperatures that may lead to further large-scale mortality. However, hybridization among these closely related species is increasing and may provide an avenue for adaptation to a changing environment. While hybrids were rare in the past, they are now thriving in shallow habitats with extreme temperatures and irradiance and are expanding into the parental species habitats. Additional evidence suggests that the hybrid is more disease resistant than at least one of the parental species. Hybridization may therefore have the potential to rescue the threatened parental species from extinction through the transfer of adapted genes via hybrids mating with both parental species, but extensive gene flow may alter the evolutionary trajectory of the parental species and drive one or both to extinction. This collaborative project is to collect genetic and ecological data in order to understand the mechanisms underlying increasing hybrid abundance. The knowledge gained from this research will help facilitate more strategic management of coral populations under current and emerging threats to their survival. This project includes integrated research and educational opportunities for high school, undergraduate and graduate students, and a postdoctoral researcher. Students in the United States Virgin Islands will take part in coral spawning research and resource managers will receive training on acroporid reproduction to apply to coral restoration techniques.
Current models predict the demise of reefs in the next 200 years due to increasing sea surface temperatures and ocean acidification. It is thus essential to identify habitats, taxa and evolutionary mechanisms that will allow some coral species to maintain their role as foundation fauna. Hybridization can provide an avenue for adaptation to changing conditions. Corals hybridize with some frequency and results may range from the introduction of a few alleles into existing parent species via introgression, to the birth of a new, perhaps better adapted genetic lineage. The only widely accepted coral hybrid system consists of the once dominant but now threatened Caribbean species, Acropora cervicornis and A. palmata. In the past, hybrid colonies originating from natural crosses between elkhorn and staghorn corals were rare, and evidence of hybrid reproduction was limited to infrequent matings with the staghorn coral. Recent field observations suggest that the hybrid is increasing and its ecological role is changing throughout the Caribbean. These hybrids appear to be less affected by the disease that led to the mass mortality of their parental species in recent decades. Hybrids are also found thriving in shallow habitats with high temperatures and irradiance suggesting they may be less susceptible to future warming scenarios. At the same time, they are expanding into the deeper parental species habitats. Preliminary genetic data indicate that hybrids are now mating with each other, demonstrating the potential for the formation of a new species. Further, hybrids appear to be capable of mating with both staghorn and elkhorn coral, perhaps leading to gene flow between the parent species via the hybrid. Research is proposed to address how the increase in hybridization and perhaps subsequent introgression will affect the current ecological role and the future evolutionary trajectory of Caribbean acroporids. Specifically, this collaborative project aims to answer the following questions: 1) What is the historic rate, direction, and degree of introgression across species ranges and genomes? Linkage block analysis based on genome-wide SNP genotyping across three replicate hybrid zones will answer this question. 2) What is the current extent and future potential of later generation hybrid formation? Morphometric and genetic analyses combined with in vitro fertilization assays will be used. 3) What mechanisms allow hybrids to thrive in hot, shallow waters? A series of manipulative in situ and ex situ experiments will determine whether biotic or abiotic factors favor hybrid survival in shallow waters. 4) Are hybrids more disease resistant than the parentals species? Disease transmission assays in reciprocal transplant experiments and histological analysis to determine the extent of disease will be conducted. A multidisciplinary approach will be taken that combines traditional and cutting edge technology to provide a detailed analysis of the evolutionary ecology of Caribbean corals.
Note: PI Nicole Fogarty's original award OCE-1538469 was issued while at Nova Southeastern University. This was replaced by OCE-1929979 upon moving to the University of North Carolina Wilmington.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2020-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Caribbean and North-West Atlantic
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Collaborative research: Is hybridization among threatened Caribbean coral species the key to their survival or the harbinger of their extinction?
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 663794
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2015-10
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double 16.75145
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Environmental, sensory data (temperature, light intensity, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, depth) sampled in August 2019 in Carrie Bow Caye, Belize
attribute NC_GLOBAL time_coverage_end String 2019-08-26T14:59:00Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL time_coverage_start String 2019-08-19T19:00:00Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Environmental, sensory data (temperature, light intensity, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, depth) sampled in August 2019 in Carrie Bow Caye, Belize
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double -88.0822
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable Site   String  
attribute Site bcodmo_name String site
attribute Site description String Site - local name
attribute Site long_name String Site
attribute Site units String unitless
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double 16.75145, 16.80155
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude bcodmo_name String latitude
attribute latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute latitude description String Latitude - South is negative
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double -88.0822, -88.07777
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude bcodmo_name String longitude
attribute longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute longitude description String Longitude - West is negative
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable time   double  
attribute time _CoordinateAxisType String Time
attribute time actual_range double 1.5662412E9, 1.56683154E9
attribute time axis String T
attribute time bcodmo_name String ISO_DateTime_Local
attribute time description String Local Date/Time (GMT-04:00) in ISO format: YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS
attribute time ioos_category String Time
attribute time long_name String ISO Date Time Local
attribute time source_name String ISO_DateTime_Local
attribute time standard_name String time
attribute time time_origin String 01-JAN-1970 00:00:00
attribute time time_precision String 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z
attribute time units String seconds since 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z
variable ISO_DateTime_UTC   String  
attribute ISO_DateTime_UTC bcodmo_name String ISO_DateTime_UTC
attribute ISO_DateTime_UTC description String UTC Date/Time in ISO format: YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS
attribute ISO_DateTime_UTC long_name String ISO Date Time UTC
attribute ISO_DateTime_UTC nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/DTUT8601/ (external link)
attribute ISO_DateTime_UTC time_precision String 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z
attribute ISO_DateTime_UTC units String unitless
variable Temperature   float  
attribute Temperature _FillValue float NaN
attribute Temperature actual_range float 27.272, 33.953
attribute Temperature bcodmo_name String temperature
attribute Temperature description String Water temperature
attribute Temperature long_name String Temperature
attribute Temperature units String degrees Celcius (°C)
variable Light_Intensity   float  
attribute Light_Intensity _FillValue float NaN
attribute Light_Intensity actual_range float 0.0, 253512.8
attribute Light_Intensity bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute Light_Intensity description String Light Intensity
attribute Light_Intensity long_name String Light Intensity
attribute Light_Intensity units String lux (lx)
variable Instrument   String  
attribute Instrument bcodmo_name String instrument
attribute Instrument description String Collection equipment
attribute Instrument long_name String Instrument
attribute Instrument units String unitless
variable depth   double  
attribute depth _CoordinateAxisType String Height
attribute depth _CoordinateZisPositive String down
attribute depth _FillValue double NaN
attribute depth actual_range double 0.5, 1.5
attribute depth axis String Z
attribute depth bcodmo_name String depth
attribute depth colorBarMaximum double 8000.0
attribute depth colorBarMinimum double -8000.0
attribute depth colorBarPalette String TopographyDepth
attribute depth description String Depth below surface
attribute depth ioos_category String Location
attribute depth long_name String Depth
attribute depth nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/DEPH/ (external link)
attribute depth positive String down
attribute depth standard_name String depth
attribute depth units String m
variable Salinity   float  
attribute Salinity _FillValue float NaN
attribute Salinity actual_range float 36.18, 36.6
attribute Salinity bcodmo_name String sal
attribute Salinity colorBarMaximum double 37.0
attribute Salinity colorBarMinimum double 32.0
attribute Salinity description String Water salinity
attribute Salinity long_name String Sea Water Practical Salinity
attribute Salinity nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/PSALST01/ (external link)
attribute Salinity units String parts per thousand
variable Dissolved_Oxygen   float  
attribute Dissolved_Oxygen _FillValue float NaN
attribute Dissolved_Oxygen actual_range float 6.47, 6.84
attribute Dissolved_Oxygen bcodmo_name String dissolved Oxygen
attribute Dissolved_Oxygen colorBarMaximum double 1.0
attribute Dissolved_Oxygen colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute Dissolved_Oxygen description String Dissolved oxygen concentration
attribute Dissolved_Oxygen long_name String Volume Fraction Of Oxygen In Sea Water
attribute Dissolved_Oxygen units String milligram per liter (mg/l)
variable pH   float  
attribute pH _FillValue float NaN
attribute pH actual_range float 8.16, 8.18
attribute pH bcodmo_name String pH
attribute pH colorBarMaximum double 9.0
attribute pH colorBarMinimum double 7.0
attribute pH description String Water pH
attribute pH long_name String Sea Water Ph Reported On Total Scale
attribute pH nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/PHXXZZXX/ (external link)
attribute pH units String molar concentrations of H ions

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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