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Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Growth rates and equivalent spherical diameters of Heterosigma akashiwo after temperature
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Experimental setup

H. akashiwo (CCMP 3374) was isolated from Narragansett Bay June 10, 2010 when
in situ water temperature was 21.2\u00b0C. After isolation the culture was
maintained at 15\u00b0C. All experiments were conducted with cells that were
grown in autoclaved, 0.2 \u00b5m sterile-filtered seawater (30-31 ppt) amended
with F/2 media without silica (Guillard 1975). All cultures were maintained
under a light intensity of 150 \u00b5mol photons m-2 s-1 and a 12:12 h light:
dark cycle. Preliminary experiments to determine the characteristics of this
strains\u2019 growth patterns were used to maintain cultures in exponential
phase by transferring cultures as needed every 4 to 10 days (depending on
growth temperature), resulting in cell densities of 500-24,000 cell
mL-1.\u00a0 To avoid convolution of thermal response and effect of
unconditioned media just after transfer culture transfers were restricted from
1 day prior and 1 day post change in temperature (Grabski and Tukaj 2008 ).

Temperature treatments

Temperature was manipulated in the experiment through a series of sequential
temperature shifts. Beginning with a culture which had remained at 15 \u00b0C
since collection, every four days a triplicate set of the most extreme,
current temperature treatments were split with one fraction retained at its
current treatment and one fraction shifted a temperature step outward (i.e.
further towards the temperature extremes).\u00a0 Only the cultures growing at
the highest and lowest temperatures were split and transferred to new
temperatures, but all other cultures were continually maintained in
exponential growth phase. Cultures maintained at 15 \u00b0C throughout the
duration of the experiment served as an acclimated control, and as a reference
for the temporal consistency in acclimated rates. Including all temperature
steps and extrema, the nine treatments included: 6, 8, 10, 12, 18, 22, 25, 28,
31, and the control at 15\u00b0C. It took 20 days to complete the individual
temperature shifts at 4-day intervals to reach the most extreme temperature

Dedicated incubators were used for control (15\u00b0C, Model 2015 Low
Temperature Incubator, VWR Scientific); 4, 6 (I-41LLVL, Percival Scientific);
8, 18, 22 (I-36LLVL, Percival Scientific); and 10 \u00b0C (Environ Air, Holman
Engineering). Twenty-five, 28, and 31 \u00b0C treatments were accomplished
with clear 10 L baths controlled by a coupled aquarium heater and thermostat
(Fluval, Tru Temp), housed in an illuminated incubator. Light intensity was
consistently controlled across temperature treatments.

Population and growth rate measurements

To quantify changes in cell size, population growth rate, and volumetric
growth rate, the abundance and size (Equivalent Spherical Diameter, ESD)
distribution of each culture were measured with a 100 \u00b5m aperture on a
Beckman Coulter Multisizer 3 (Beckman Coulter, Brea California; Kim and
Menden-Deuer 2013). The default bin size was the instrument standard of 0.2
\u00b5m. Each treatment set was measured daily for 15 days following the
initial transfer to the target temperature. Experiments were terminated after
15 days because the objective of these experiments was to establish the
response to relatively short-term temperature fluctuations.

Statistical analysis

Mean and standard deviation of size distribution and cell counts as measured
by the Coulter Counter were estimated from the raw data by a gaussian
distribution, fit with maximum likelihood estimation to the frequency of
particles greater than 8 \u00b5m. Measurements that immediately followed
culture inoculation and those from the growth were omitted. Cell volumes were
estimated with equivalent spherical diameter (ESD) and spherical shape
approximation. Cell biomass was calculated using ESD measured with the coulter
counter and calculated cell volume with the relationship of pg C cell-1=0.288x
volume0.811 (Menden-Deuer and Lessard 2000). Total biomass was approximate
using a culture and time specific mean ESD and cell count.

Specific growth rate was calculated by linear regression of natural log
transformed abundance. Production rates were calculated by linear regression
of natural log transformed total estimated biomass for each culture. Specific
growth rates were used to fit a thermal reaction norm modified from Norberg
(2004), where a, b, and z are shape parameters, w the thermal niche width, T
\u00a0a given temperature, and k(T) the specific growth rate at that

k(T) = a * e^bT [1-(T-z)/w/2)^2]

To quantify the effect of time (acclimation) on growth rate the initial growth
rates, measured in the first three days (\u00b50; \u0394 time<3 days), as well
as final rates (\u00b5f, 7< \u0394 time<15 days) were calculated for each
temperature treatment.

These experiments were conducted at the University of Rhode Island, Graduate
School of Oceanography in the laboratory of Dr. Susanne Menden-Deuer
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 739231
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1736635
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1736635 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Growth rates and ESD
Growth rates and equivalent spherical diameters of Heterosigma akashiwo after temperature transition
PI: S. Menden-Deuer (URI)
version date: 2020-01-06
replaces version 2019-12-04
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2019-12-04T19:30:11Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2020-01-09T14:54:34Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &amp;time&lt;now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.783500.2
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/783500 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description String Used to count cells.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 783507
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String An apparatus for counting and sizing particles suspended in electrolytes. It is used for cells, bacteria, prokaryotic cells and virus particles. A typical Coulter counter has one or more microchannels that separate two chambers containing electrolyte solutions.

from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coulter_counter
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String Coulter Counter
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 668847
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_supplied_name String Beckman Coulter Multisizer III Counter
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String bco, bco-dmo, bio, biological, BioRate, chemical, culture, data, dataset, dmo, erddap, esd, growth, GrowthRate, management, mean, MeanESD_t, oceanography, office, preliminary, rate, temperature, time, time2
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/783500/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/783500 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'783500': {}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/783500/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String University of Rhode Island
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String URI-GSO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Susanne Menden-Deuer
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 739234
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Nancy Copley
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 50396
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Planktonic Herbivore Temp Dependence
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Planktonic Herbivore Temp Dependence
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String NSF Award Abstract:
Plankton, single-celled organisms that inhabit the world's oceans are responsible for the generation of oxygen, cycling energy and matter between the atmosphere and the deep ocean and are the basis for virtually all seafood harvested. These life-giving functions critically depend on the relative rates at which plankton grow and get eaten. How temperature influences those rates is essential to understand plankton responses to environmental changes and ocean dynamics. It is well established that plankton grow faster when temperatures are higher however, whether feeding has a similar temperature dependence is unknown. That means oceanographers are missing key data required to build global predictive models. This project will fill essential knowledge gaps and measure physiological rates of singled celled zooplankton across temperature gradients representing the global ocean, from polar to tropical regions and throughout the seasonal cycle. Researchers will combine laboratory experiments with specimens taken from the coastal ocean (Narragansett Bay), which is exemplary in its strong seasonal temperature variations. These data will provide a clear picture of the production capacity and activity of plankton in a global and dynamic ocean. The project supports an early career scientist, as well as graduate and undergraduate students. Scientists will continue communicating their research to the public through large-scale outreach events, education at the high-school level, and engagement through online and other media. Moreover, researchers will continue collaborating with the Metcalf Institute for Marine & Environmental Reporting to support their Annual Science Immersion Workshop for Journalists and their ongoing work to disseminate research findings through web-based seminars.
Grazing is the single largest loss factor of marine primary production and thus affects a key transfer rate between global organic and inorganic matter pools. Remarkably, data for herbivorous protist growth and grazing rates at temperatures representative of the vast polar regions and during winter and spring periods are extremely sparse. By combining laboratory experiments with ground truthing fieldwork, this project alleviates a central knowledge gap in oceanography and delivers the empirical measurements necessary to derive algorithms to incorporate temperature dependence of heterotrophic protist growth and grazing rates into biogeochemical models. The extraordinary seasonal temperature fluctuations in a temperate coastal estuary (Narragansett Bay) are exploited to measure rates of heterotrophic protists isolated from different temperatures and seasons and to quantify the temperature and acclimation responses of these ecotypes. This project delivers data urgently needed to solve the conundrum of whether herbivorous growth and predation is depressed at low temperatures, implying low trophic transfer rates and high carbon export, or if predation proceeds at rates comparable to temperate systems with primary production largely lost to predation. Large temperature gradients in the global ocean mean that cross-biome and biogeochemical models are particularly sensitive to assumptions about the temperature dependence in modeled rate processes. Establishment of the dependence of heterotrophic plankton physiological rates (growth and grazing) to gradients of temperature, mimicking realistic conditions experienced by plankton in a changing ocean, is a key step towards integrating much needed biological information in biogeochemical modeling efforts. This project makes a significant contribution to linking ecological research with ecosystem models by providing empirically rooted algorithms of the temperature dependence of protistan herbivory and growth rates, key processes in the transformation of organic matter in global biogeochemical cycles and tools critically missing in ecosystem models.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2020-08
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Narragansett Bay
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Quantifying Temperature Dependence In Growth & Grazing Rates of Planktonic Herbivores
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 739232
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2017-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Quantifying phytoplankton growth as a function of environmental conditions such as temperature is critical for understanding and predicting production in the ocean. Typically, thermal response is described as the steady state growth rates under static conditions. However, here, with a clonal culture of Heterosigma akashiwo, temperature was manipulated in the laboratory with the goal of describing how growth rates may change over time through the acclimation process. Growth rates and equivalent spherical diameter of Heterosigma akashiwo after temperature transition are reported.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Growth rates and equivalent spherical diameters of Heterosigma akashiwo after temperature transition
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 2
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable Culture   String  
attribute Culture bcodmo_name String sample
attribute Culture description String culture identifier
attribute Culture long_name String Culture
attribute Culture nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/ACYC/ (external link)
attribute Culture units String unitless
variable time2   String  
attribute time2 bcodmo_name String flag
attribute time2 description String either growth rate immediately after temperature change (t1) or growth rate after 1 week to acclimate (tf)
attribute time2 long_name String Time
attribute time2 units String unitless
variable Temperature   byte  
attribute Temperature _FillValue byte 127
attribute Temperature actual_range byte 6, 31
attribute Temperature bcodmo_name String temperature
attribute Temperature description String temperature treatment
attribute Temperature long_name String Temperature
attribute Temperature nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/TEMPP901/ (external link)
attribute Temperature units String degrees Celsius
variable GrowthRate   float  
attribute GrowthRate _FillValue float NaN
attribute GrowthRate actual_range float -0.16, 0.73
attribute GrowthRate bcodmo_name String growth
attribute GrowthRate description String divison-based growth rate
attribute GrowthRate long_name String Growth Rate
attribute GrowthRate units String per day
variable BioRate   float  
attribute BioRate _FillValue float NaN
attribute BioRate actual_range float -0.05, 0.93
attribute BioRate bcodmo_name String growth
attribute BioRate description String biovolume-based growth rate
attribute BioRate long_name String Bio Rate
attribute BioRate units String per day
variable MeanESD_t   float  
attribute MeanESD_t _FillValue float NaN
attribute MeanESD_t actual_range float 10.0, 18.0
attribute MeanESD_t bcodmo_name String diameter
attribute MeanESD_t description String Mean Equivalent Spherical Diameter for a culture during the period of growth rate calculation
attribute MeanESD_t long_name String Mean ESD T
attribute MeanESD_t units String micrometers

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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