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   set  data   graph     files  public Planktic foraminifer tissue and shell d15N from net tows on R/V S.A. Agulhas II cruises
VOY016 and VOY019 in the Southern Ocean south of Africa during 2015-2016
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson,.odvTxt
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Planktic foraminifera were collected by towing a 200-\u03bcm-mesh plankton net
for 90 min at a target depth within the upper mixed layer. Approximately 90%
of the tow material was preserved in a 5-10% pH-buffered formalin solution and
stored at 4\u00b0C until sorting for foraminifera (Ren et al., 2012). The
remaining 10% was size fractionated and frozen at \u221220\u00b0C for element
and isotope analysis of zooplankton. During each tow, bulk (>0.3 \u00b5m)
suspended PON and nitrate samples were collected from the underway intake (at
7 m depth) and frozen at \u221280\u00b0C and \u221220\u00b0C, respectively,
until isotope analysis. In situ (i.e., tow-depth) nitrate samples and
auxiliary hydrographic data come from CTD casts performed on station before
the start of each net tow.

Foraminifera were separated by species, rinsed briefly with Milli-Q and
crushed open to expose (non-shell-bound) tissue. Tissue N was converted to
nitrate using the persulfate oxidation method (Nydahl, 1978; Knapp et al.,
2005). Remnant shell material (having been oxidatively cleaned) was
transferred, rinsed six times with Milli-Q and oven dried at 50\u00b0C. Shell
samples were then dissolved with hydrochloric acid to release shell-bound
organics for persulfate oxidation (Nydahl, 1978; Knapp et al., 2005). For both
tissue- and shell-derived nitrate (from persulfate oxidation) as well as
seawater nitrate, samples were measured for concentration by chemiluminescence
(Braman & Hendrix, 1989) and N isotope composition using the denitrifier
method and gas chromatography\u2212isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS)
(Sigman et al., 2001; Casciotti et al., 2002; Weigand et al., 2016). The N
isotope composition of bulk PON and size-fractionated zooplankton were
measured by elemental analyser-IRMS.

The isotopic composition of N\u2082O was measured either at Princeton
University (USA) or the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry (MPIC; Germany) by
GC-IRMS using a Thermo MAT 253 mass spectrometer with a purpose-built on-line
N\u2082O extraction and purification system. Bulk PON and size-fractionated
zooplankton samples were measured at the University of Cape Town using a
Thermo Scientific FLASH 2000 elemental analyzer coupled to a Thermo Scientific
Delta V Plus mass spectrometer. Hydrographic data were acquired by a Sea-Bird
conductivity-temperature depth sensor during each cast.

See methods section of Smart et al. (2020) for more detail.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 557249
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String PLR-1401489
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1401489 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Polar Programs
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF PLR
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 490497
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String Dr Mark Kurz
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 557248
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_award_nid String 558188
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_award_number String OCE-1060947
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1060947 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_program_manager String Henrietta N Edmonds
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_program_manager_nid String 51517
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_award_nid String 788981
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_award_number String OCE-0922345
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=0922345 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_program_manager String Kandace S Binkley
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_program_manager_nid String 51512
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Southern Ocean foraminifer N isotopes
PI: Daniel M. Sigman (Princeton)
Contact: Sandi Smart (Stellenbosch University & The Max Planck Institute for Chemistry)
Version date: 10 March 2020
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2020-03-10T16:02:44Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2020-03-13T13:52:48Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.805653.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double 38.4761
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double -40.9588
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double -53.9942
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double 38.4761
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double 0.0483
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_max double 90.0
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_min double 25.0
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_positive String down
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_units String m
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/805653 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_acronym String CTD Sea-Bird
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 805731
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) sensor package from SeaBird Electronics, no specific unit identified. This instrument designation is used when specific make and model are not known. See also other SeaBird instruments listed under CTD. More information from Sea-Bird Electronics.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/130/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String CTD Sea-Bird
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 447
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_supplied_name String Sea-Bird conductivity-temperature depth sensor
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_acronym String IR Mass Spec
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_nid String 805728
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_description String The Isotope-ratio Mass Spectrometer is a particular type of mass spectrometer used to measure the relative abundance of isotopes in a given sample (e.g. VG Prism II Isotope Ratio Mass-Spectrometer).
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB16/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_name String Isotope-ratio Mass Spectrometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_nid String 469
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_supplied_name String Thermo MAT 253 mass spectrometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_acronym String IR Mass Spec
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_dataset_instrument_nid String 805729
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_description String The Isotope-ratio Mass Spectrometer is a particular type of mass spectrometer used to measure the relative abundance of isotopes in a given sample (e.g. VG Prism II Isotope Ratio Mass-Spectrometer).
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB16/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_instrument_name String Isotope-ratio Mass Spectrometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_instrument_nid String 469
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_supplied_name String Thermo Scientific Delta V Plus
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_acronym String Plankton Net
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_dataset_instrument_nid String 805727
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_description String A Plankton Net is a generic term for a sampling net that is used to collect plankton. It is used only when detailed instrument documentation is not available.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/22/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_instrument_name String Plankton Net
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_instrument_nid String 525
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_supplied_name String 200-um-mesh plankton net
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_dataset_instrument_nid String 805730
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_description String Instruments that quantify carbon, nitrogen and sometimes other elements by combusting the sample at very high temperature and assaying the resulting gaseous oxides. Usually used for samples including organic material.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB01/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_instrument_name String Elemental Analyzer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_instrument_nid String 546339
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_4_supplied_name String Thermo Scientific FLASH 2000
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String analysis, analysis_year, average, bco, bco-dmo, biological, calc, chemical, chemistry, conc, conc_avg_nitrate, conc_avg_nitrate_nitrite, conc_PON_avg, conc_PON_n, conc_PON_sd, concentration, conductivity, cruise, ctd, d15, d15N_avg_nitrate, d15N_avg_nitrate_nitrite, d15N_foram_avg, d15N_foram_n, d15N_foram_sd, d15N_PON_avg, d15N_PON_n, d15N_PON_sd, d15N_zoop_avg, d15N_zoop_n, d15N_zoop_se, data, dataset, date, density, depth, depth_tow, dmo, earth, Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Chemistry > Nitrate, Earth Science > Oceans > Salinity/Density > Salinity, endtow, erddap, fluorescence, fluorescence_ctd, foram, indiv, indiv_avg, indiv_n, indiv_sd, iso, ISO_DateTime_UTC_endtow, ISO_DateTime_UTC_starttow, latitude, longitude, management, mld, MLD_calc, mole, mole_concentration_of_nitrate_in_sea_water, n02, Ni_avg, Ni_n, Ni_sd, nitrate, no3, Nw_avg, Nw_n, Nw_sd, O2, ocean, oceanography, oceans, office, oxygen, oxygen_ctd, pon, potdens, potdens_calc, practical, preliminary, salinity, salinity_ctd, science, sea, sea_water_practical_salinity, seawater, ship, sonde, species, starttow, temperature, temperature_ctd, time, time_endtow, time_starttow, tow, type, water, year, zoop
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords_vocabulary String GCMD Science Keywords
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/805653/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/805653 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double -40.9588
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'805653': {'latitude': 'flag - latitude', 'ISO_DateTime_UTC_starttow': 'flag - time', 'depth_tow': 'flag - depth', 'longitude': 'flag - longitude'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/805653/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String Princeton University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Daniel M. Sigman
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 51417
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Stellenbosch University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Sandi M. Smart
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 557790
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Contact
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Shannon Rauch
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 51498
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Diatom-bound_N_Isotopes,N Isotopes Foraminifera,stable isotope instrumentation
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Diatom-bound_N_Isotopes
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String Description from NSF award abstract:
The high concentration of the major nutrients nitrate and phosphate is a fundamental characteristic of the Antarctic Zone in the Southern Ocean and is central to its role in global ocean fertility and the global carbon cycle. The isotopic composition of diatom-bound organic nitrogen is one of the best hopes for reconstructing the nutrient status of polar surface waters over glacial cycles, which in turn may hold the explanation for the decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide during ice ages. The PIs propose to generate detailed diatom-bound nitrogen isotope (δ15Ndb) records from high sedimentation rate cores from the Kerguelen Plateau. Because the cores were collected at relatively shallow seafloor depths, they have adequate planktonic and benthic foraminifera to develop accurate age models. The resulting data could be compared with climate records from Antarctic ice cores and other archives to investigate climate-related changes, including the major steps into and out of ice ages and the millennial-scale events that occur during ice ages and at their ends. The records generated in this project will provide a critical test of hypotheses for the cause of lower ice age CO2.
This study will contribute to the goal of understanding ice ages and past CO2 changes, which both have broad implications for future climate. Undergraduates will undertake summer internships, with the possibility of extending their work into junior year projects and senior theses. In addition, the PI will lead modules for two Princeton programs for middle school teachers and will host a teacher for a six-week summer research project.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2017-04
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Kerguelen Plateau
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String High-resolution, Assemblage-specific Records of Diatom-bound N Isotopes from the Indian Sector of the Antarctic Ocean
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 557250
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2014-05
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_acronym String N Isotopes Foraminifera
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_description String NSF Award Abstract:
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus are the two nutrients required in large quantity by phytoplankton in the ocean, and together they limit productivity throughout most of the tropical, subtropical, and temperate ocean. Both the cycling of N and its input/output budget have been argued to control the fertility of the ocean and the ocean's role in setting atmospheric CO2. The CaCO3 tests of foraminifera can represent a substantial fraction of marine sediments and have been used extensively in paleoceanography; they are an obvious target for isotopic analysis of microfossil-bound organic matter.
In recent years, researchers at Princeton have developed a protocol for the isotopic analysis of foraminiferal shell-bound N. The current protocol is at least 100 times more sensitive than typical on-line combustion, allowing for rapid progress with a N isotope archive that was previously not feasible to measure. Measurements on surface sediments and a downcore record from the Caribbean show the promise of foraminifera-bound del15N (fb-del15N) to provide both a robust N isotope archive for paleoceanography, and one with a unique potential of richness, given the existence of multiple foraminiferal species with different depth habitats and behaviors. Moreover, the finding from the Caribbean Sea record -- reduced N fixation in ice age Atlantic -- has changed the scientific conversation about the nature of the input/output budget of oceanic fixed N and its potential to change ocean fertility and atmospheric CO2. However, the controls on fb-del15N have not yet been adequately studied.
In this project, as a first major step in developing a foundation for the paleoceanographic application of fb-del15N, the same Princeton University team will study its genesis in the water column, transport to the seafloor, and early diagenesis. They will undertake this study in the Sargasso Sea south of Bermuda. This is one of the best studied regions of the ocean, in general and with respect to foraminifera, and a region that has been has been a focus of the N isotope research of the PI for the last decade and others previously. Moreover, its significant seasonality -- in physical oceanography, biogeochemistry, and foraminiferal species abundance -- will facilitate the effort to understand the controls on fb-del15N at a mechanistic level. The research team will participate in six Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) cruises over two years, collecting foraminifera and other N forms likely to provide insight into the controls on fb-del15N. From the nearby Oceanic Flux Program (OFP) moored sediment traps and from shallow sediments collected in the region, they will pick foraminifera shells and again make relevant ancillary measurements. This work will establish the relationship of foraminiferal biomass to shell-bound del15N for different species, and comparison of the foraminiferal isotope data with the upper ocean N pools will yield empirical isotopic relationships and work toward a mechanistic insight of fb-del15N (e.g., the importance of different N pools to the diets of different foraminifera; the role of algal symbionts). The sediment trap and surface sediment data will support the plankton tow data by integrating over longer time scales and will also address questions regarding late stage (e.g., gametogenic) calcification and the early diagenesis of fb-del15N and fb-N content.
Broader Impacts: This study will yield an improved understanding of the nutrient dynamics of foraminifera, a class of organisms whose shells are a central tool in micropaleontology and paleoclimatology. The project will also build on the principal investigator's involvement in the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences as an asset for integrating ocean-related education and research at both the undergraduate and graduate levels.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_end_date String 2016-03
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_geolocation String Sargasso Sea
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_name String Understanding the nitrogen isotopes of planktonic foraminifera: A modern Sargasso Sea study
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_project_nid String 743583
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_1_start_date String 2011-04
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_2_acronym String stable isotope instrumentation
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_2_description String NSF Award Abstract:
Intellectual Merit:
The PIs are requesting funds to acquire a suite of instruments for stable isotope (N) research, including a denitrifier-based, natural abundance isotope system, a tracer isotope system, and general purpose natural abundance peripherals for an existing mass spectrometer. Specific instruments requested include a Thermo Electron MAT 253 stable isotope mass spectrometer, a Thermo DeltaVAdvantage stable isotope mass spectrometer with peripherals, an EA peripheral for combustion-based isotope analysis, and a GasBench II carbon dioxide preparation and purification system. The proposed instrumentation would enable research efforts examining natural stable isotope abundances that include ocean biogeochemistry and paleoceanography, terrestrial biogeochemistry, carbon isotopes in Precambrian Earth history. Stable isotope tracer research would include nitrification, nitrogen fixation, and carbon partitioning during biostimulation.
Broader Impacts:
The PIs state that the proposed instrumentation would expand the research capabilities of the institution and specifically the Departments of Geosciences and Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. The improvements to the denitrifier method will also serve to expand the capabilities of the ocean research community at large. Additionally, the proposed instrumentation will enable method development and provide training for undergraduate students at the institution and those participating in a collaborative effort with the University of Cape Town.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_2_end_date String 2012-08
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_2_name String MRI: Acquisition of Stable Isotope Instrumentation for the Biogeosciences at Princeton University
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_2_project_nid String 788982
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_2_start_date String 2009-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double -53.9942
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL subsetVariables String ship
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String This dataset synthesizes net-tow data (foraminifera and zooplankton measurements) with tow-depth seawater measurements (physical and chemical properties) and surface measurements of bulk suspended particulate organic nitrogen (PON) collected from the underway intake (7 m depth).
attribute NC_GLOBAL time_coverage_start String 2015-07-27T12:00:00Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Planktic foraminifer tissue and shell d15N from net tows on R/V S.A. Agulhas II cruises VOY016 and VOY019 in the Southern Ocean south of Africa during 2015-2016
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double 0.0483
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable cruise   String  
attribute cruise bcodmo_name String cruise_id
attribute cruise description String Cruise identifier
attribute cruise long_name String Cruise
attribute cruise units String unitless
variable ship   String  
attribute ship bcodmo_name String ship
attribute ship description String Ship name
attribute ship long_name String Ship
attribute ship units String unitless
variable tow   String  
attribute tow bcodmo_name String tow
attribute tow description String Tow number
attribute tow long_name String Tow
attribute tow units String unitless
variable date   String  
attribute date bcodmo_name String date
attribute date description String Date; format: yyyy-mm-dd
attribute date long_name String Date
attribute date nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/ (external link)
attribute date units String unitless
variable time_starttow   String  
attribute time_starttow bcodmo_name String time
attribute time_starttow description String Time at start of tow (UTC); format: HH:MM
attribute time_starttow long_name String Time Starttow
attribute time_starttow nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/AHMSAA01/ (external link)
attribute time_starttow units String unitless
variable time_endtow   String  
attribute time_endtow bcodmo_name String time
attribute time_endtow description String Time at end of tow (UTC); format: HH:MM
attribute time_endtow long_name String Time Endtow
attribute time_endtow nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/AHMSAA01/ (external link)
attribute time_endtow units String unitless
variable species   String  
attribute species bcodmo_name String taxon_code
attribute species description String The planktic foraminifer species measured with the following abbreviations: bul = G. bulloides; glu = G. glutinata; hir = G. hirsuta; inc = N. incompta; inf = G. inflata; pac = N. pachyderma; qui = T. quinqueloba; tru = G. truncatulinoides; uni = O. universa
attribute species long_name String Species
attribute species units String unitless
variable type   String  
attribute type bcodmo_name String sample_descrip
attribute type description String The kind of foraminiferal organic matter (i.e., tissue or shell-bound) measured for N isotope composition
attribute type long_name String Type
attribute type units String unitless
variable analysis_year   short  
attribute analysis_year _FillValue short 32767
attribute analysis_year actual_range short 2016, 2018
attribute analysis_year bcodmo_name String year
attribute analysis_year description String The year in which foraminifer samples were measured for N isotope composition. The measurement protocol differed slightly between the three analysis sessions (see Methods Section and Supplemental Text S1 of Smart et al. (2020) for more detail).
attribute analysis_year long_name String Analysis Year
attribute analysis_year nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/YEARXXXX/ (external link)
attribute analysis_year units String unitless
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double -53.9942, -40.9588
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude bcodmo_name String latitude
attribute latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute latitude description String Latitude; positive values = North
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double 0.0483, 38.4761
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude bcodmo_name String longitude
attribute longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute longitude description String Longitude; positive values = East
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable depth   double  
attribute depth _CoordinateAxisType String Height
attribute depth _CoordinateZisPositive String down
attribute depth _FillValue double NaN
attribute depth actual_range double 25.0, 90.0
attribute depth axis String Z
attribute depth bcodmo_name String depth
attribute depth colorBarMaximum double 8000.0
attribute depth colorBarMinimum double -8000.0
attribute depth colorBarPalette String TopographyDepth
attribute depth description String Depth of the tow
attribute depth ioos_category String Location
attribute depth long_name String Depth
attribute depth nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/DEPH/ (external link)
attribute depth positive String down
attribute depth standard_name String depth
attribute depth units String m
variable d15N_foram_avg   float  
attribute d15N_foram_avg _FillValue float NaN
attribute d15N_foram_avg actual_range float -6.65, 14.01
attribute d15N_foram_avg bcodmo_name String d15N_bio
attribute d15N_foram_avg description String Average d15N. d15N is the nitrogen isotopic composition of a sample expressed in delta notation (d15N in units of per mil, ‰) relative to atmospheric N2, where d15N = {[(15N/14N)sample/(15N/14N)atmN2] – 1} × 1000
attribute d15N_foram_avg long_name String D15 N Foram Avg
attribute d15N_foram_avg nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/IRBO/ (external link)
attribute d15N_foram_avg units String per mil vs AIR
variable d15N_foram_sd   float  
attribute d15N_foram_sd _FillValue float NaN
attribute d15N_foram_sd actual_range float 0.0, 2.12
attribute d15N_foram_sd bcodmo_name String d15N_bio
attribute d15N_foram_sd colorBarMaximum double 50.0
attribute d15N_foram_sd colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute d15N_foram_sd description String Standard deviation of d15N_foram_avg
attribute d15N_foram_sd long_name String D15 N Foram Sd
attribute d15N_foram_sd nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/IRBO/ (external link)
attribute d15N_foram_sd units String per mil vs AIR
variable d15N_foram_n   byte  
attribute d15N_foram_n _FillValue byte 127
attribute d15N_foram_n actual_range byte 1, 4
attribute d15N_foram_n bcodmo_name String num_reps
attribute d15N_foram_n description String Number of replicate measurements of d15N_foram_avg
attribute d15N_foram_n long_name String D15 N Foram N
attribute d15N_foram_n units String unitless
variable indiv_avg   short  
attribute indiv_avg _FillValue short 32767
attribute indiv_avg actual_range short 1, 200
attribute indiv_avg bcodmo_name String num_reps
attribute indiv_avg description String Average number of individual foraminifer specimens combined to make a measurement
attribute indiv_avg long_name String Indiv Avg
attribute indiv_avg units String unitless
variable indiv_sd   byte  
attribute indiv_sd _FillValue byte 127
attribute indiv_sd actual_range byte 0, 0
attribute indiv_sd bcodmo_name String num_reps
attribute indiv_sd colorBarMaximum double 50.0
attribute indiv_sd colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute indiv_sd description String Standard deviation of indiv_avg
attribute indiv_sd long_name String Indiv Sd
attribute indiv_sd units String unitless
variable indiv_n   byte  
attribute indiv_n _FillValue byte 127
attribute indiv_n actual_range byte 1, 4
attribute indiv_n bcodmo_name String num_reps
attribute indiv_n description String Number of replicate measurements of indiv_avg
attribute indiv_n long_name String Indiv N
attribute indiv_n units String unitless
variable Ni_avg   float  
attribute Ni_avg _FillValue float NaN
attribute Ni_avg actual_range float 0.01, 29.7
attribute Ni_avg bcodmo_name String N
attribute Ni_avg description String Average nitrogen contents of foraminifera per individual
attribute Ni_avg long_name String Ni Avg
attribute Ni_avg units String nanomoles per individual (nmol/indiv)
variable Ni_sd   float  
attribute Ni_sd _FillValue float NaN
attribute Ni_sd actual_range float 0.0, 1.05
attribute Ni_sd bcodmo_name String N
attribute Ni_sd colorBarMaximum double 50.0
attribute Ni_sd colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute Ni_sd description String Standard deviation of Ni_avg
attribute Ni_sd long_name String Ni Sd
attribute Ni_sd units String nanomoles per individual (nmol/indiv)
variable Ni_n   byte  
attribute Ni_n _FillValue byte 127
attribute Ni_n actual_range byte 1, 4
attribute Ni_n bcodmo_name String num_reps
attribute Ni_n description String Number of replicate measurements of Ni_avg
attribute Ni_n long_name String Ni N
attribute Ni_n units String unitless
variable Nw_avg   short  
attribute Nw_avg _FillValue short 32767
attribute Nw_avg actual_range short 7, 905
attribute Nw_avg bcodmo_name String N
attribute Nw_avg description String Average nitrogen contents of foraminifera per milligram
attribute Nw_avg long_name String Nw Avg
attribute Nw_avg units String nanomoles per milligram (nmol/mg)
variable Nw_sd   byte  
attribute Nw_sd _FillValue byte 127
attribute Nw_sd actual_range byte 0, 85
attribute Nw_sd bcodmo_name String N
attribute Nw_sd colorBarMaximum double 50.0
attribute Nw_sd colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute Nw_sd description String Standard deviation of Nw_avg
attribute Nw_sd long_name String NW SD
attribute Nw_sd units String nanomoles per milligram (nmol/mg)
variable Nw_n   byte  
attribute Nw_n _FillValue byte 127
attribute Nw_n actual_range byte 1, 4
attribute Nw_n bcodmo_name String num_reps
attribute Nw_n description String Number of replicate measurements of Nw_avg
attribute Nw_n long_name String NW N
attribute Nw_n units String unitless
variable d15N_avg_nitrate   float  
attribute d15N_avg_nitrate _FillValue float NaN
attribute d15N_avg_nitrate actual_range float 5.61, 11.37
attribute d15N_avg_nitrate bcodmo_name String dN15_NO3
attribute d15N_avg_nitrate colorBarMaximum double 50.0
attribute d15N_avg_nitrate colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute d15N_avg_nitrate description String Average d15N. d15N is the nitrogen isotopic composition of a sample (nitrate only) expressed in delta notation (d15N in units of per mil, ‰) relative to atmospheric N2, where d15N = {[(15N/14N)sample/(15N/14N)atmN2] – 1} × 1000
attribute d15N_avg_nitrate long_name String Mole Concentration Of Nitrate In Sea Water
attribute d15N_avg_nitrate units String per mil vs AIR
variable conc_avg_nitrate   float  
attribute conc_avg_nitrate _FillValue float NaN
attribute conc_avg_nitrate actual_range float 4.44, 29.0
attribute conc_avg_nitrate bcodmo_name String NO3
attribute conc_avg_nitrate colorBarMaximum double 50.0
attribute conc_avg_nitrate colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute conc_avg_nitrate description String Concentration of nitrate in a seawater sample
attribute conc_avg_nitrate long_name String Mole Concentration Of Nitrate In Sea Water
attribute conc_avg_nitrate nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/NTRAIGGS/ (external link)
attribute conc_avg_nitrate units String micromolar (uM)
variable d15N_avg_nitrate_nitrite   float  
attribute d15N_avg_nitrate_nitrite _FillValue float NaN
attribute d15N_avg_nitrate_nitrite actual_range float 5.32, 10.58
attribute d15N_avg_nitrate_nitrite bcodmo_name String 15N of nitrate plus nitrite
attribute d15N_avg_nitrate_nitrite colorBarMaximum double 50.0
attribute d15N_avg_nitrate_nitrite colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute d15N_avg_nitrate_nitrite description String Average d15N. d15N is the nitrogen isotopic composition of a sample (nitrate+nitrite) expressed in delta notation (d15N in units of per mil, ‰) relative to atmospheric N2, where d15N = {[(15N/14N)sample/(15N/14N)atmN2] – 1} × 1000
attribute d15N_avg_nitrate_nitrite long_name String Mole Concentration Of Nitrate In Sea Water
attribute d15N_avg_nitrate_nitrite units String per mil vs AIR
variable conc_avg_nitrate_nitrite   float  
attribute conc_avg_nitrate_nitrite _FillValue float NaN
attribute conc_avg_nitrate_nitrite actual_range float 4.56, 28.99
attribute conc_avg_nitrate_nitrite bcodmo_name String NO3_NO2
attribute conc_avg_nitrate_nitrite colorBarMaximum double 50.0
attribute conc_avg_nitrate_nitrite colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute conc_avg_nitrate_nitrite description String Concentration of nitrate+nitrite in a seawater sample
attribute conc_avg_nitrate_nitrite long_name String Mole Concentration Of Nitrate In Sea Water
attribute conc_avg_nitrate_nitrite units String micromolar (uM)
variable temperature_ctd   float  
attribute temperature_ctd _FillValue float NaN
attribute temperature_ctd actual_range float -0.57, 13.929
attribute temperature_ctd bcodmo_name String temperature
attribute temperature_ctd description String Temperature measured by CTD
attribute temperature_ctd long_name String Temperature Ctd
attribute temperature_ctd nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/TEMPP901/ (external link)
attribute temperature_ctd units String degrees Celsius
variable salinity_ctd   float  
attribute salinity_ctd _FillValue float NaN
attribute salinity_ctd actual_range float 33.763, 35.086
attribute salinity_ctd bcodmo_name String sal
attribute salinity_ctd colorBarMaximum double 37.0
attribute salinity_ctd colorBarMinimum double 32.0
attribute salinity_ctd description String Salinity measured by CTD
attribute salinity_ctd long_name String Sea Water Practical Salinity
attribute salinity_ctd nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/PSALST01/ (external link)
attribute salinity_ctd units String psu
variable oxygen_ctd   float  
attribute oxygen_ctd _FillValue float NaN
attribute oxygen_ctd actual_range float 4.926, 7.286
attribute oxygen_ctd bcodmo_name String dissolved Oxygen
attribute oxygen_ctd description String Oxygen measured by CTD
attribute oxygen_ctd long_name String Oxygen Ctd
attribute oxygen_ctd units String milliliters per liter (ml/l)
variable fluorescence_ctd   float  
attribute fluorescence_ctd _FillValue float NaN
attribute fluorescence_ctd actual_range float 0.43, 1.592
attribute fluorescence_ctd bcodmo_name String fluorescence
attribute fluorescence_ctd description String Fluorescence measured by CTD
attribute fluorescence_ctd long_name String Fluorescence Ctd
attribute fluorescence_ctd nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/CPHLPM01/ (external link)
attribute fluorescence_ctd units String milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3)
variable potdens_calc   float  
attribute potdens_calc _FillValue float NaN
attribute potdens_calc actual_range float 1026.225, 1027.207
attribute potdens_calc bcodmo_name String density
attribute potdens_calc description String Potential density, calculated from temperature and salinity
attribute potdens_calc long_name String Potdens Calc
attribute potdens_calc units String kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3)
variable MLD_calc   short  
attribute MLD_calc _FillValue short 32767
attribute MLD_calc actual_range short 43, 143
attribute MLD_calc bcodmo_name String depth_mixed_layer
attribute MLD_calc description String Calculated mixed layer depth at each profile station, defined as the closest depth to the surface at which potential density is greater by greater than or equal to 0.03 kg/m3 than the value at a reference depth of 11 m (the shallowest depth common to every CTD station), based on the criterion of de Boyer Montégut et al. (2004).
attribute MLD_calc long_name String MLD Calc
attribute MLD_calc units String meters (m)
variable conc_PON_avg   float  
attribute conc_PON_avg _FillValue float NaN
attribute conc_PON_avg actual_range float 0.59, 1.27
attribute conc_PON_avg bcodmo_name String PON
attribute conc_PON_avg description String Average concentration of PON. PON is the bulk (> 0.3 um) particulate organic nitrogen in surface waters filtered from the ship’s underway intake during the net tow.
attribute conc_PON_avg long_name String Conc PON Avg
attribute conc_PON_avg nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/MDMAP013/ (external link)
attribute conc_PON_avg units String micromolar (uM)
variable conc_PON_sd   float  
attribute conc_PON_sd _FillValue float NaN
attribute conc_PON_sd actual_range float 0.01, 0.34
attribute conc_PON_sd bcodmo_name String PON
attribute conc_PON_sd colorBarMaximum double 50.0
attribute conc_PON_sd colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute conc_PON_sd description String Standard deviation of PON concentration
attribute conc_PON_sd long_name String Conc PON Sd
attribute conc_PON_sd nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/MDMAP013/ (external link)
attribute conc_PON_sd units String micromolar (uM)
variable conc_PON_n   byte  
attribute conc_PON_n _FillValue byte 127
attribute conc_PON_n actual_range byte 3, 4
attribute conc_PON_n bcodmo_name String num_reps
attribute conc_PON_n description String Number of replicate measurements of PON concentration
attribute conc_PON_n long_name String Conc PON N
attribute conc_PON_n units String unitless
variable d15N_PON_avg   float  
attribute d15N_PON_avg _FillValue float NaN
attribute d15N_PON_avg actual_range float -3.3, 4.93
attribute d15N_PON_avg bcodmo_name String d15N
attribute d15N_PON_avg description String Average d15N of PON. d15N is the nitrogen isotopic composition of a sample (nitrate only) expressed in delta notation (d15N in units of per mil, ‰) relative to atmospheric N2, where d15N = {[(15N/14N)sample/(15N/14N)atmN2] – 1} × 1000
attribute d15N_PON_avg long_name String D15 N PON Avg
attribute d15N_PON_avg units String per mil vs AIR
variable d15N_PON_sd   float  
attribute d15N_PON_sd _FillValue float NaN
attribute d15N_PON_sd actual_range float 0.03, 0.44
attribute d15N_PON_sd bcodmo_name String d15N
attribute d15N_PON_sd colorBarMaximum double 50.0
attribute d15N_PON_sd colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute d15N_PON_sd description String Standard deviation of d15N of PON
attribute d15N_PON_sd long_name String D15 N PON Sd
attribute d15N_PON_sd units String per mil vs AIR
variable d15N_PON_n   byte  
attribute d15N_PON_n _FillValue byte 127
attribute d15N_PON_n actual_range byte 3, 4
attribute d15N_PON_n bcodmo_name String num_reps
attribute d15N_PON_n description String Number of replicate measurements of d15N of PON
attribute d15N_PON_n long_name String D15 N PON N
attribute d15N_PON_n units String unitless
variable d15N_zoop_avg   float  
attribute d15N_zoop_avg _FillValue float NaN
attribute d15N_zoop_avg actual_range float -1.75, 5.68
attribute d15N_zoop_avg bcodmo_name String d15N_bio
attribute d15N_zoop_avg description String Average d15N of zooplankton. zoop refers to the bulk (i.e.,
attribute d15N_zoop_avg long_name String D15 N Zoop Avg
attribute d15N_zoop_avg nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/IRBO/ (external link)
attribute d15N_zoop_avg units String per mil vs AIR
variable d15N_zoop_se   float  
attribute d15N_zoop_se _FillValue float NaN
attribute d15N_zoop_se actual_range float 0.16, 1.48
attribute d15N_zoop_se bcodmo_name String d15N_bio
attribute d15N_zoop_se description String Standard error of the d15N of zooplankton
attribute d15N_zoop_se long_name String D15 N Zoop Se
attribute d15N_zoop_se nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/IRBO/ (external link)
attribute d15N_zoop_se units String per mil vs AIR
variable d15N_zoop_n   byte  
attribute d15N_zoop_n _FillValue byte 127
attribute d15N_zoop_n actual_range byte 5, 8
attribute d15N_zoop_n bcodmo_name String num_reps
attribute d15N_zoop_n description String Number of replicate measurements of the d15N of zooplankton
attribute d15N_zoop_n long_name String D15 N Zoop N
attribute d15N_zoop_n units String unitless
variable time   double  
attribute time _CoordinateAxisType String Time
attribute time actual_range double 1.4379984E9, NaN
attribute time axis String T
attribute time bcodmo_name String ISO_DateTime_UTC
attribute time description String Date and time (UTC) of start of tow formatted to ISO 8601 standard; format: yyyy-mm-ddTHH:MM:SSZ
attribute time ioos_category String Time
attribute time long_name String ISO Date Time UTC Starttow
attribute time nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/DTUT8601/ (external link)
attribute time standard_name String time
attribute time time_origin String 01-JAN-1970 00:00:00
attribute time units String seconds since 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z
variable ISO_DateTime_UTC_endtow   String  
attribute ISO_DateTime_UTC_endtow bcodmo_name String ISO_DateTime_UTC
attribute ISO_DateTime_UTC_endtow description String Date and time (UTC) of end of tow formatted to ISO 8601 standard; format: yyyy-mm-ddTHH:MM:SSZ
attribute ISO_DateTime_UTC_endtow long_name String ISO Date Time UTC Endtow
attribute ISO_DateTime_UTC_endtow nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/DTUT8601/ (external link)
attribute ISO_DateTime_UTC_endtow units String unitless

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