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     data   graph     files  public Global reconstruction of surface oceanic N2O disequilibrium and its associated flux    ?         M   background (external link) RSS Subscribe BCO-DMO bcodmo_dataset_810032

The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String We compiled surface (0m-12m depth) marine N2O concentrations and partial
pressures measurements from a variety of sources. The core of the data is
sourced from the MEMENTO database (Kock\u00a0& Bange, 2015). We complement
MEMENTO with additional published N2O measurements from the literature, and
unpublished N2O measurements from 16 additional cruises (see Supplemental File
\"SuppCruiseTable_dec11.xlsx\"), including 11 cruises from the Global Ocean
Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP). We do not perform
any further quality control of the N2O data from published sources besides
that performed by the individual contributors and the MEMENTO database
administrators (Kock\u00a0& Bange, 2015). A description of the quality control
performed on new unpublished N2O data is reported as footnotes to the
annotations labeled as qc1**, qc2**, or qc3** (see
\"SuppCruiseTable_dec11.xlsx\"). We convert each marine N2O measurement to
XwN2O (the N2O mixing ratio in seawater, in units of ppb) using, when needed,
the N2O solubility coefficient (Weiss & Price, 1980). The coefficient is
calculated using co-measured temperature, and salinity, as well as sea level
pressure from the ERA5 reanalysis (Copernicus Climate Change Service, 2017),
at the time (month and year), and location of the measurement. If the
measurement time is not available in the ERA5 reanalysis prediction, we
instead use the climatological atmospheric pressure at sea level, calculated
from the monthly predictions for the years from 1979 through 2018. We then
calculated N2O disequilibrium as DN2O = XwN2O \u2212 XaN2O, where XaN2O is the
atmospheric N2O mixing ratio estimated by linear interpolation of NOAA\u2019s
flask measurement dataset (Hall\u00a0et al., 2007) at the time and latitude of
each marine N2O measurement.;

To convert sparse observations to a global climatology, we trained 100
ensembles of regressions trees (Random Forests) to predict DN2O based on its
relationship to well-sampled physical and biogeochemical predictors. We note
that, while the prediction of N2O disequilibrium is done in mixing ratio units
(ppb), the results are reported in the more commonly used pressure units
(natm): pN2O = XN2O . P, where P is the climatological atmospheric pressure at
sea level in atm, predicted by ERA5, included as part of the relevant data
file for easy conversion. (see Data File: dn2o-mapped-Yang2020.nc).\u00a0

We calculate the N2O air-sea flux using two wind-speed dependent
parameterizations: an updated version of a commonly-used quadratic formulation
(Wanninkhof, 1992; Wanninkhof, 2014) and a recent formulation that explicitly
accounts for the effect of bubble-mediated fluxes (Liang et al., 2013). We
apply each parameterization to two high-resolution wind products (Copernicus
Climate Change Service, 2017;\u00a0Wentz et al., 2015), yielding four
permutations of the piston velocity. In total, we obtain an ensemble of 400
global N2O air-sea flux estimates, from which we calculate a mean and
uncertainty range (see Data File: n2oFlux-Yang2020.nc).

Sampling and analytical prodcedures:
The data is compiled from multiple sources, published and unpublished.\u00a0
Refer to the associated Supplemental File
\"SuppCruiseTable_dec11.xlsx\"\u00a0for a detailed description of sampling and
analytical methods associated with new data and references associated with
published data. \"qc\" refers to \"qualtiy control and methods\"; see related
references and descriptions in the Supplemental File.

GOSHIP (qc1): N2O was measured using shipboard gas chromatography-electron
capture detection (GC-ECD) using analytical techniques modified from those
described in Bullister and Wisegarver (2008). N2O was purged from 200 mL
seawater samples using N2 carrier gas and trapped onto a trap that included
MS5A held at -60\u00b0C. The trap was subsequently heated to 175\u00b0C to
release N2O, which was further separated and purified via two precolumns
before being quantified using electron capture detection. (The carrier gas for
the N2O analyses was a 95%Ar/5% CH4 mix) The analytical system was calibrated
frequently using internal standards of known N2O compositions or standards
from Working Group no. 143 of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research
(SCOR) (Wilson et al. 2018). Concentrations of N2O in seawater samples and gas
standards are reported relative to the SIO98 calibration scale.

SPOT (qc3): Dissolved N2O concentrations were measured using a headspace
equilibration method modified from Laperriere et al. (2019). A 30-mL ultra-
high purity N2 headspace was introduced into 160 mL seawater samples using a
30-mL syringe with a second empty 30-mL syringe inserted into the septum to
collect displaced sample water. Each headspace was overpressured with 10 mL of
ultra high purity N2 to minimize atmospheric contamination. Samples were
analyzed on an SRI 8610 Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Gas Chromatograph (GC)
equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD), dual HayeSep D packed
columns, and a 1-mL sample loop (SRI Instruments, Torrance, California, USA).
Ultra-high purity N2 gas was used as the carrier with the sample loop kept at
60 \u00b0C and the column oven kept at 100 \u00b0C. Two certified standards,
0.1 ppm and 1 ppm N2O (Matheson Tri-Gas) were used for daily calibration using
a linear calibration scheme.

Others (qc2): N2O concentrations were measured with a GV IsoPrime Continuous
Flow Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectrometer (CF-IRMS) as described in Bourbonnais et
al. (2017). Briefly, seawater was pumped from sample bottles and completely
extracted using a gas-extractor continuously sparged with He. N2O was then
concentrated and purified in a purge-trap system. CO2 and H2O were removed
with chemical and cryogenic traps. N2O was cryofocused with liquid N2 traps
and passed through a gas chromatography (GC) column before IRMS analysis. N2O
concentrations were calculated from relative peak heights between the samples
and seawater standards of known N2O concentration equilibrated with the
atmosphere at 5C and 20C. Equilibrium surface N2O concentrations were
calculated based on the global mean atmospheric N2O dry mole fraction at the
time of the cruise. The data were inter calibrated with samples also measured
using purge-trap gas extraction systems coupled with either a GC-Electron
Capture Detector (ECD) or a GC-quadrupole mass spectrometer (Fenwick et al.,
2017) when available (e.g., P18 GO-SHIP, ArcticNet 2017 expedition) and
yielded comparable N2O concentrations (generally less than 5% difference).

The data is compiled from multiple sources, published and unpublished. Refer
to the Supplemental File, \"SuppCruiseTable_dec11.xlsx\", for a detailed
description of sampling and analytical methods associated with new data and
references associated with published data.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 809664
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1847687
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1847687 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String Elizabeth Canuel
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 778642
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Surface N2O Compilation
orig file name: surfocean-n2o-compilation.csv
PI: Daniele Bianchi (UCLA)
Co-PI: Simon Yang (UCLA)
Version date: 27 April 2020
** NOTE: This is a large dataset that may take some time to fully load in the browser.
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL dataset_current_state String Final and no updates
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2020-04-27T16:58:48Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2020-05-01T19:16:38Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.26008/1912/bco-dmo.810032.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double 359.999995521472
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double 88.3943333333333
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double -77.177
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double 359.999995521472
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double 0.0
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_max double 9.973
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_min double 0.0
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_positive String down
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_units String m
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/810032 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_acronym String IR Mass Spec
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description String Others (see qc2): GV IsoPrime Continuous Flow Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectrometer (CF-IRMS)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 810055
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String The Isotope-ratio Mass Spectrometer is a particular type of mass spectrometer used to measure the relative abundance of isotopes in a given sample (e.g. VG Prism II Isotope Ratio Mass-Spectrometer).
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB16/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String Isotope-ratio Mass Spectrometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 469
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_supplied_name String GV IsoPrime Continuous Flow Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectrometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_acronym String Gas Chromatograph
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_description String GOSHIP: Shipboard gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD)
SPOT: SRI 8610 Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Gas Chromatograph (GC) equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD), dual HayeSep D packed columns, and a 1-mL sample loop (SRI Instruments, Torrance, California, USA).
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_nid String 810054
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_description String Instrument separating gases, volatile substances, or substances dissolved in a volatile solvent by transporting an inert gas through a column packed with a sorbent to a detector for assay. (from SeaDataNet, BODC)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB02/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_name String Gas Chromatograph
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_nid String 661
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_supplied_name String Shipboard gas chromatography-electron capture detection
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String atm, atmPressure, bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, cruise, data, dataset, date, day, density, depth, dmo, dn2o, dn2o_ppb, earth, Earth Science > Oceans > Salinity/Density > Salinity, erddap, latitude, longitude, management, month, n2o, n2o_nM, n2o_ppb, ocean, oceanography, oceans, office, ppb, practical, preliminary, pressure, salinity, science, sea, sea_water_practical_salinity, seawater, temperature, time, water, year
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords_vocabulary String GCMD Science Keywords
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/810032/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/810032 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double 88.3943333333333
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'810032': {'latitude': 'flag - latitude', 'depth': 'flag - depth', 'longitude': 'flag - longitude'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/810032/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String University of California-Los Angeles
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String UCLA
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Daniele Bianchi
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 809667
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String University of California-Los Angeles
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String UCLA
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Simon Yang
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 810042
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Shannon Rauch
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 51498
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Multiple Scales of Nitrogen Cycle in the Ocean
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Multiple Scales of Nitrogen Cycle in the Ocean
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String NSF Award Abstract:
The nitrogen cycle in the ocean is key to ocean productivity, carbon storage, and emissions of nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas, to the atmosphere. The chemical processes that connect nitrogen species in the ocean are sensitive to the amount of oxygen dissolved in seawater. These reactions become more intense within oxygen minimum zones, areas of the ocean with little or no dissolved oxygen. Oxygen minimum zones are affected by currents that range in scale from hundreds to less than few kilometers. These currents create microhabitats where nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide emissions are higher. This project investigates the interaction between small-scale ocean circulation, oxygen availability, and the nitrogen cycle. It uses a series of increasingly finer-scale numerical simulations of the Pacific Ocean, where two of the largest oxygen minimum zones are found. These simulations provide information about nitrogen transformations and nitrous oxide emissions on timescales from less than one year to several decades, and spatial scales from a few kilometers to the basin scale. This research will increase our ability to simulate and predict ocean responses to natural and human disturbances, with implications for society. The educational component of the project establishes a series of ocean-going chemical oceanography activities for approximately 100 undergraduate students at the University of California at Los Angeles each year. The field trips involve half-day cruises in the Santa Monica Bay, where students sample a variety of biogeochemical properties. Observations collected during the field trips will be used as a resource in classroom activities and student research projects. The field trips and educational materials offer opportunities to explore cutting-edge questions in ocean biogeochemistry, increase student interest in ocean sciences and access to research, and enhance student learning and self-efficacy, ultimately promoting retention in oceanography and STEM.
Oxygen minimum zones host major nitrogen transformations, including denitrification, anammox, and nitrous oxide production, which are essential for biogeochemistry and climate. These reactions are strongly partitioned along oxygen gradients in the suboxic range, making them sensitive to ventilation and chemical heterogeneity driven by variable ocean currents. However, the nature of this sensitivity is poorly understood. The objective of this project is to test the hypothesis that physical circulation at scales from tens of kilometers (mesoscale) to less than one kilometer (submesoscale) is critical in shaping these nitrogen cycle transformations. To test the hypothesis and investigate its implications, we will optimize a new model of the nitrogen cycle against a range of recent observations, and implement it in a realistic three-dimensional hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model. We will adopt a nesting strategy to downscale a Pacific-wide historical simulation to a series of regional domains at resolutions down to few kilometers or less, resolving the oxygen minimum zone boundaries and their fine-scale variability. By analyzing these model solutions, we will: (1) constrain the sensitivity of the microbial nitrogen cycle to oxygen, ventilation, and chemical heterogeneity; (2) in light of this sensitivity, quantify the role of mesoscale and submesoscale processes in shaping nitrogen transformations and transport across oxygen minimum zone boundaries; and (3) investigate the response of the nitrogen cycle to climate variability, in particular fixed-nitrogen losses and nitrous oxide emissions to the atmosphere.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2024-06
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Global
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String CAREER: Multiple Scales of Nitrogen Cycle in Oxygen Minimum Zones
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 809665
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2019-07
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double -77.177
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Global reconstruction of surface oceanic N2O disequilibrium and its associated flux. The dataset consists of (1) a global compilation of observed nitrous oxide pressure, concentration, mixing ratio measurements and their associated disequilibrium in the surface ocean; (2) the globally mapped N2O disequilibrium predicted by a supervised learning algorithm, and (3) the reconstructed ocean to atmosphere N2O flux.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Global reconstruction of surface oceanic N2O disequilibrium and its associated flux
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double 0.0
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.5
variable cruise   String  
attribute cruise bcodmo_name String Cruise Name
attribute cruise description String Cruise name
attribute cruise long_name String Cruise
attribute cruise units String unitless
variable date   String  
attribute date bcodmo_name String date
attribute date description String Date; format: YYYY-MM-DD
attribute date long_name String Date
attribute date nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/ (external link)
attribute date source_name String date
attribute date time_precision String 1970-01-01
attribute date units String unitless
variable year   short  
attribute year _FillValue short 32767
attribute year actual_range short 1971, 2018
attribute year bcodmo_name String year
attribute year description String Measurement year; format: YYYY
attribute year long_name String Year
attribute year nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/YEARXXXX/ (external link)
attribute year units String unitless
variable month   byte  
attribute month _FillValue byte 127
attribute month actual_range byte 1, 12
attribute month bcodmo_name String month
attribute month description String Measurement month; format: MM
attribute month long_name String Month
attribute month nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/MNTHXXXX/ (external link)
attribute month units String unitless
variable day   byte  
attribute day _FillValue byte 127
attribute day actual_range byte 1, 31
attribute day bcodmo_name String day
attribute day description String Measurement day; format: DD
attribute day long_name String Day
attribute day nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/DAYXXXXX/ (external link)
attribute day units String unitless
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double -77.177, 88.3943333333333
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude bcodmo_name String latitude
attribute latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute latitude description String Measurement latitude
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double 0.0, 359.999995521472
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude bcodmo_name String longitude
attribute longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute longitude description String Measurement longitude
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable depth   double  
attribute depth _CoordinateAxisType String Height
attribute depth _CoordinateZisPositive String down
attribute depth _FillValue double NaN
attribute depth actual_range double 0.0, 9.973
attribute depth axis String Z
attribute depth bcodmo_name String depth
attribute depth colorBarMaximum double 8000.0
attribute depth colorBarMinimum double -8000.0
attribute depth colorBarPalette String TopographyDepth
attribute depth description String Measurement depth
attribute depth ioos_category String Location
attribute depth long_name String Depth
attribute depth nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/DEPH/ (external link)
attribute depth positive String down
attribute depth standard_name String depth
attribute depth units String m
variable n2o_ppb   double  
attribute n2o_ppb _FillValue double NaN
attribute n2o_ppb actual_range double 140.097262188757, 30401.7581479621
attribute n2o_ppb bcodmo_name String Nitrous Oxide
attribute n2o_ppb description String Ocean n2o mixing ratio
attribute n2o_ppb long_name String N2o Ppb
attribute n2o_ppb units String ppb
variable n2o_nM   double  
attribute n2o_nM _FillValue double NaN
attribute n2o_nM actual_range double 3.41, 842.972937199327
attribute n2o_nM bcodmo_name String Nitrous Oxide
attribute n2o_nM description String Ocean n2o mixing ratio
attribute n2o_nM long_name String N2o N M
attribute n2o_nM units String nmol/L
variable dn2o_ppb   double  
attribute dn2o_ppb _FillValue double NaN
attribute dn2o_ppb actual_range double -178.519816514739, 30076.2397223307
attribute dn2o_ppb bcodmo_name String Nitrous Oxide
attribute dn2o_ppb description String Estimated n2o disequilibrium
attribute dn2o_ppb long_name String Dn2o Ppb
attribute dn2o_ppb units String ppb
variable atmPressure   double  
attribute atmPressure _FillValue double NaN
attribute atmPressure actual_range double 0.940551788914571, 1.02529054735944
attribute atmPressure bcodmo_name String press_bar
attribute atmPressure description String Sea level pressure estimated at observed time and location
attribute atmPressure long_name String Atm Pressure
attribute atmPressure units String atm
variable temperature   double  
attribute temperature _FillValue double NaN
attribute temperature actual_range double -2.2, 31.896
attribute temperature bcodmo_name String temperature
attribute temperature description String Co-measured temperature
attribute temperature long_name String Temperature
attribute temperature nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/TEMPP901/ (external link)
attribute temperature units String degrees Celsius
variable salinity   double  
attribute salinity _FillValue double NaN
attribute salinity actual_range double 0.0, 42.2815780639648
attribute salinity bcodmo_name String sal
attribute salinity colorBarMaximum double 37.0
attribute salinity colorBarMinimum double 32.0
attribute salinity description String Co-measured salinity (or estimated from climatology if absent)
attribute salinity long_name String Sea Water Practical Salinity
attribute salinity nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/PSALST01/ (external link)
attribute salinity units String g/kg

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.


 
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