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Institution Dataset ID
     data   graph     files  public Depth profiles of seawater dissolved 232Th, 230Th, and 231Pa from RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer
cruise NBP1702 from January to March 2017
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson,.odvTxt
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Dissolved data:
Water samples were collected with a Sea-Bird Electronics CTD carousel fitted
with 24 12-liter PVC Niskin bottles.The carousel was lowered from the ship
with steel wire. Niskin bottles were equipped with nylon-coated closure
springs and Viton O-rings. After collection seawater was drained with Teflon-
lined TygonTM tubing and filtered through Pall AcropakTM 500 filters on deck
(gravity filtration, 0.8/0.45 \u03bcm pore size) into Fisher I-Chem series 300
LDPE cubitainers. Approximately 5L was collected per desired depth. Prior to
the cruise, the tubing, filters and cubitainers were cleaned by immersion in
1.2 M HCl (Fisher Scientific Trace Metal Grade) for 4-5 days. Once filtered,
samples were adjusted to a pH ~2 with ultra-clean 6 M HCl (Fisher Scientific
OPTIMA grade), double-bagged, stored in pallet boxes until the end of the
cruise and then at room temperature once shipped to the participating
laboratories analysis.

Analytical methods for dissolved radionuclides:
In the on-shore laboratory, seawater samples were weighed to determine
sample size, taking into account the weight of the cubitainer and of the acid
added at sea. Then weighed aliquots of the artificial isotope yield monitors
229Th (20 pg) and 233Pa (0.5 pg) and 15 mg dissolved Fe were added to each
sample. After allowing 1 day for spike equilibration, the pH of each sample
was raised to 8.3-8.7 by adding ~12 mL of concentrated NH4OH (Fisher
Scientific OPTIMA grade) which caused iron (oxy)hydroxide precipitates to
form. Each sample cubitainer was fitted with a nozzle cap, inverted, and the
Fe precipitate was allowed to settle for 2 days. After 2 days, the nozzle caps
were opened and the pH~8.3-8.7 water was slowly drained, leaving only the iron
oxyhydroxide precipitate and 250-500mL of water. The Fe precipitate was
transferred to centrifuge tubes for centrifugation and rinsing with Milli-Q
H2O (>18 M\u03a9) to remove the major seawater ions. The precipitate was then
dissolved in 16 M HNO3 (Fisher Scientific OPTIMA grade) and transferred to a
Teflon beaker for a high-temperature (180-200\u00b0C) digestion with HClO4 and
HF (Fisher Scientific OPTIMA grade) on a hotplate in a HEPA-filtered laminar
flow hood. After total dissolution of the sample, another precipitation of
iron (oxy)hydroxide followed and the precipitate was washed with Mill-Q H2O,
centrifuged, and dissolved in 12 M HCl for a series of anion-exchange
chromatography using 6 mL polypropylene columns each containing a 1 mL bed of
Bio-rad resin (AG1-X8, 100-200 mesh size) and a 45 \u03bcm porous polyethylene
frit (Anderson et al. 2012). The final column elutions were dried down at
180\u00b0C in the presence of 2 drops of HClO4 and taken up in approximately 1
mL of 0.16 M HNO3/0.026 M HF for mass spectrometric analysis.

Concentrations of 232Th, 230Th and 231Pa were calculated by isotope dilution,
relative to the calibrated tracers 229Th and 233Pa added at the beginning of
sample processing. Analyses were carried out on a Thermo-Finnegan ELEMENT XR
Single Collector Magnetic Sector ICP-MS, equipped with a high-performance
Interface pump (Jet Pump), and specially-designed sample (X) and skimmer (Jet)
cones to ensure the highest possible sensitivity. All measurements were made
in low-resolution mode (\u2206m/M\u2248300), peak jumping in Escan mode across
the central 5% of the flat-topped peaks. Measurements were made on a
MasCom\u2122 SEM; 229Th, 230Th,231Pa and 233Pa were measured in Counting mode,
while the 232Th signals were large enough that they were measured in Analog
mode. Two solutions of SRM129, a natural U standard, were run multiple times
throughout each run. One solution was in a concentration range where 238U and
235U were both measured in counting mode, allowing us to determine the mass
bias/amu (typical values varied from -0.01/amu to 0.03/amu). In the other,
more concentrated solution, 238U was measured in Analog mode and 235U was
measured in Counting mode, yielding a measurement of the Analog/Counting
Correction Factor. These corrections assume that the mass bias and Analog
Correction Factor measured on U isotopes can be applied to Th and Pa isotope
measurements. Each sample measurement was bracketed by measurement of an
aliquot of the run solution, used to correct for the instrumental background
count rates. To correct for tailing of 232Th into the minor Th and Pa
isotopes, a series of 232Th standards were run at concentrations bracketing
the expected 232Th concentrations in the samples. The analysis routine for
these standards was identical to the analysis routine for samples, so we could
see the changing beam intensities at the minor masses as we increased the
concentration of the 232Th standards. The 232Th count rates in our Pa
fractions are quite small, reflecting mainly reagent blanks, compared to the
232Th signal intensity in the Th fraction. The regressions of 230Th, 231Pa,
and 233Pa signals as a function of the 232Th signal in the standards was used
to correct for tailing of 232Th in samples.

Water samples were analyzed in batches of 15. Procedural blanks were
determined by processing two 4-5 L of Milli-Q water in an acid-cleaned
cubitainer acidified to pH ~2 with 6 M HCl as a sample in each batch. An
aliquot of two intercalibrated working standard solutions of 232Th, 230Th and
231Pa, SW STD 2010-1 referred to by Anderson et al. (2012) and SW STD 2015-1
which has lower 232Th activity (more similar to Pacific seawater conditions),
were also processed like a sample in each batch. Samples were corrected using
the pooled average of all procedural blanks run during processing of NBP1702
samples, with the exception of two batches (30 samples). It was discovered
that the 233Pa spike added to these batches also contained ~0.4fg of 231Pa.
The samples which had this contaminated spike added were blank corrected for
231Pa using the average 231Pa values in the two procedural blanks run in each
of those two batches. The average procedural blanks (not including two batches
with high 231Pa in the 233Pa spike) for 232Th, 230Th, and 231Pa were 3.2 pg,
0.25 fg, and 0.01 fg respectively.

Derived Parameters:
Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE \- The dissolved excess Th-230 concentration refers
to the measured dissolved Th-230 corrected for a contribution of Th-230 due to
the partial dissolution of uranium-bearing minerals, or lithogenics. Thereby
the dissolved excess represents solely the fraction of Th-230 produced in the
water by decay of dissolved uranium-234. We estimate the lithogenic Th-230
using measuring dissolved Th-232 and a lithogenic Th-230/Th-232 ratio of
4.0e-6 (atom ratio) as determined by Roy-Barman et al. (2002) and a conversion
factor to convert picomoles to micro-Becquerels.

Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE = Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE \u2013 4.0e-6 *1.7473e5 *

Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE \- The dissolved excess Pa-231 concentration refers to
the measured dissolved Pa-231 corrected for a contribution of Pa-231 due to
the partial dissolution of uranium-bearing minerals, or lithogenics. Thereby
the dissolved excess represents solely the fraction of Pa-231 produced in the
water by decay of dissolved uranium-235. We estimate the lithogenic Pa-231
using measuring dissolved Th-232 and a lithogenic Pa-231/Th-232 ratio of
8.8e-8 (atom ratio) which is derived from assuming an average upper
continental crustal U/Th ratio (Taylor and McClennan, 1995) and secular
equilibrium between Pa-231 and U-235 in the lithogenic material. An additional
conversion factor is needed to convert picomoles to micro-Becquerels.

Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE = Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE \u2013 8.8e-8 * 4.0370e5 *

The correction for dissolved 231Pa and 230Th derived from dissolution of
lithogenic particles, when calculating xs230Th and xs231Pa is small.
Therefore, even for a sample where the 232Th, used to make the correction, is
flagged as bad, the error contributed in calculating xs230Th nd xs231Pa is
small, so they are flagged as questionable (2).\u00a0See the Processing
Description for complete\u00a0quality flag definitions.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 810778
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OPP-1542962
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1542962 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Office of Polar Programs (formerly NSF PLR)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OPP
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 713360
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String Michael E. Jackson
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 806862
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Depth profiles of seawater dissolved 232Th, 230Th, and 231Pa
from RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer cruise NBP1702
PI: Robert F. Anderson (LDEO)
Co-PI: Martin Q. Fleisher (LDEO)
Contact: Frank J. Pavia (LDEO)
Version date: 03 June 2020
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL dataset_current_state String Final and no updates
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2020-05-28T20:17:06Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2020-06-04T20:11:49Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.26008/1912/bco-dmo.813379.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double -169.598
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double -53.958
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double -66.841
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double -169.598
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double -173.907
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_max double 5247.235
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_min double 4.513
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_positive String down
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_vertical_units String m
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/813379 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_acronym String Niskin bottle
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 813444
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String A Niskin bottle (a next generation water sampler based on the Nansen bottle) is a cylindrical, non-metallic water collection device with stoppers at both ends. The bottles can be attached individually on a hydrowire or deployed in 12, 24, or 36 bottle Rosette systems mounted on a frame and combined with a CTD. Niskin bottles are used to collect discrete water samples for a range of measurements including pigments, nutrients, plankton, etc.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L22/current/TOOL0412/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String Niskin bottle
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 413
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_supplied_name String 24 12-liter PVC Niskin bottles
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_acronym String CTD Sea-Bird
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_nid String 813443
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_description String Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) sensor package from SeaBird Electronics, no specific unit identified. This instrument designation is used when specific make and model are not known. See also other SeaBird instruments listed under CTD. More information from Sea-Bird Electronics.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/130/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_name String CTD Sea-Bird
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_nid String 447
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_supplied_name String Sea-Bird Electronics CTD
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_acronym String ICP Mass Spec
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_dataset_instrument_nid String 813446
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_description String An ICP Mass Spec is an instrument that passes nebulized samples into an inductively-coupled gas plasma (8-10000 K) where they are atomized and ionized. Ions of specific mass-to-charge ratios are quantified in a quadrupole mass spectrometer.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB15/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_instrument_name String Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_instrument_nid String 530
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_supplied_name String Thermo-Finnegan ELEMENT XR Single Collector Magnetic Sector ICP-MS
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_dataset_instrument_nid String 813445
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_description String A machine with a rapidly rotating container that applies centrifugal force to its contents, typically to separate fluids of different densities (e.g., cream from milk) or liquids from solids.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_instrument_name String Centrifuge
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_instrument_nid String 629890
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String bco, bco-dmo, biological, bottle, bwiimj, chemical, conc, data, dataset, date, depth, dmo, end, End_Date_UTC, End_ISO_DateTime_UTC, End_Latitude, End_Longitude, End_Time_UTC, erddap, error, event, Event_ID, flag, Flag_Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw, Flag_Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6, Flag_Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj, iso, latitude, longitude, management, oceanography, office, Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw, Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE, Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_ERR, Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_FLAG, preliminary, sample, Sample_Depth, Sample_ID, sd1, SD1_Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw, SD1_Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6, SD1_Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj, start, Start_Date_UTC, Start_Time_UTC, station, Station_ID, Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6, Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE, Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_ERR, Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_FLAG, Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj, time, xucmu6, yq8ckw
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/813379/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/813379 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double -53.958
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'813379': {'Start_ISO_DateTime_UTC': 'flag - time', 'Sample_Depth': 'flag - depth', 'Start_Longitude': 'flag - longitude', 'Start_Latitude': 'flag - latitude'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/813379/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String LDEO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Robert F. Anderson
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 50572
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String LDEO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Martin Q. Fleisher
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 51612
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String LDEO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Frank J. Pavia
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 643657
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String Contact
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_name String Shannon Rauch
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_nid String 51498
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String SNOWBIRDS
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String SNOWBIRDS
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String NSF Award Abstract:
Scientists established more than 30 years ago that the climate-related variability of carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere over Earth's ice-age cycles was regulated by the ocean. Hypotheses to explain how the ocean regulates atmospheric carbon dioxide have long been debated, but they have proven to be difficult to test. Work proposed here will test one leading hypothesis, specifically that the ocean experienced greater density stratification during the ice ages. That is, with greater stratification during the ice ages and slower replacement of deep water by cold dense water formed near the poles, the deep ocean would have held more carbon dioxide, which is produced by biological respiration of the organic carbon that constantly rains to the abyss in the form of dead organisms and organic debris that sink from the sunlit surface ocean. To test this hypothesis, the degree of ocean stratification during the last ice age and the rate of deep-water replacement will be constrained by comparing the radiocarbon ages of organisms that grew in the surface ocean and at the sea floor within a critical region around Antarctica, where most of the replacement of deep waters occurs. Completing this work will contribute toward improved models of future climate change. Climate scientists rely on models to estimate the amount of fossil fuel carbon dioxide that will be absorbed by the ocean in the future. Currently the ocean absorbs about 25% of the carbon dioxide produced by burning fossil fuels. Most of this carbon is absorbed in the Southern Ocean (the region around Antarctica). How this will change in the future is poorly known. Models have difficulty representing physical conditions in the Southern Ocean accurately, thereby adding substantial uncertainty to projections of future ocean uptake of carbon dioxide. Results of the proposed study will provide a benchmark to test the ability of models to simulate ocean processes under climate conditions distinctly different from those that occur today, ultimately leading to improvement of the models and to more reliable projections of future absorption of carbon dioxide by the ocean.
The proposed work will add a research component to an existing scientific expedition to the Southern Ocean, in the region between the Ross Sea and New Zealand, that will collect sediment cores at three to five locations down the northern flank of the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge at approximately 170°W. The goal is to collect sediments at each location deposited since early in the peak of the last ice age. This region is unusual in the Southern Ocean in that sediments deposited during the last ice age contain foraminifera, tiny organisms with calcium carbonate shells, in much greater abundance than in other regions of the Southern Ocean. Foraminifera are widely used as an archive of several geochemical tracers of past ocean conditions. In the proposed work the radiocarbon age of foraminifera that inhabited the surface ocean will be compared with the age of contemporary specimens that grew on the seabed. The difference in age between surface and deep-swelling organisms will be used to discriminate between two proposed mechanisms of deep water renewal during the ice age: formation in coastal polynyas around the edge of Antarctica, much as occurs today, versus formation by open-ocean convection in deep-water regions far from the continent. If the latter mechanism prevails, then it is expected that surface and deep-dwelling foraminifera will exhibit similar radiocarbon ages. In the case of dominance of deep-water formation in coastal polynyas, one expects to find very different radiocarbon ages in the two populations of foraminifera. In the extreme case of greater ocean stratification during the last ice age, one even expects the surface dwellers to appear to be older than contemporary bottom dwellers because the targeted core sites lie directly under the region where the oldest deep waters return to the surface following their long circuitous transit through the deep ocean. The primary objective of the proposed work is to reconstruct the water mass age structure of the Southern Ocean during the last ice age, which, in turn, is a primary factor that controls the amount of carbon dioxide stored in the deep sea. In addition, the presence of foraminifera in the cores to be recovered provides a valuable resource for many other paleoceanographic applications, such as: 1) the application of nitrogen isotopes to constrain the level of nutrient utilization in the Southern Ocean and, thus, the efficiency of the ocean?s biological pump, 2) the application of neodymium isotopes to constrain the transport history of deep water masses, 3) the application of boron isotopes and boron/calcium ratios to constrain the pH and inorganic carbon system parameters of ice-age seawater, and 4) the exploitation of metal/calcium ratios in foraminifera to reconstruct the temperature (Mg/Ca) and nutrient content (Cd/Ca) of deep waters during the last ice age at a location near their source near Antarctica.
Note: Project Acronym "SNOWBIRDS" = Silicon and Nitrogen Observed in the Water column Biologic Isotope Records During Sedimentation
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2020-05
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Pacific Southern Ocean (170ºW from 67ºS to 54ºS)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Water Mass Structure and Bottom Water Formation in the Ice-age Southern Ocean
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 810779
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_website String https://www.snowbirdstransect.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2016-06
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double -66.841
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String This dataset contains depth profiles of seawater dissolved 232Th, 230Th, and 231Pa from cruise NBP1702 (GEOTRACES-compliant).
attribute NC_GLOBAL time_coverage_end String 2017-02-28T17:01Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL time_coverage_start String 2017-01-29T02:32Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Depth profiles of seawater dissolved 232Th, 230Th, and 231Pa from RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer cruise NBP1702 from January to March 2017
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double -173.907
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.5
variable Station_ID   byte  
attribute Station_ID _FillValue byte 127
attribute Station_ID actual_range byte 1, 15
attribute Station_ID bcodmo_name String station
attribute Station_ID description String Station number
attribute Station_ID long_name String Station ID
attribute Station_ID units String unitless
variable Start_Date_UTC   String  
attribute Start_Date_UTC bcodmo_name String date
attribute Start_Date_UTC description String Start date (UTC); format: DD/MM/YYYY
attribute Start_Date_UTC long_name String Start Date UTC
attribute Start_Date_UTC nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/ (external link)
attribute Start_Date_UTC units String unitless
variable Start_Time_UTC   String  
attribute Start_Time_UTC bcodmo_name String time
attribute Start_Time_UTC description String Start time (UTC); format: hh:mm
attribute Start_Time_UTC long_name String Start Time UTC
attribute Start_Time_UTC nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/AHMSAA01/ (external link)
attribute Start_Time_UTC units String unitless
variable time   double  
attribute time _CoordinateAxisType String Time
attribute time actual_range double 1.48565712E9, 1.48830126E9
attribute time axis String T
attribute time bcodmo_name String ISO_DateTime_UTC
attribute time description String Start date and time (UTC) formatted to ISO8601 standard: YYYY-MM-DDThh:mmZ
attribute time ioos_category String Time
attribute time long_name String Start ISO Date Time UTC
attribute time nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/DTUT8601/ (external link)
attribute time source_name String Start_ISO_DateTime_UTC
attribute time standard_name String time
attribute time time_origin String 01-JAN-1970 00:00:00
attribute time time_precision String 1970-01-01T00:00Z
attribute time units String seconds since 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z
variable End_Date_UTC   String  
attribute End_Date_UTC bcodmo_name String date
attribute End_Date_UTC description String End date (UTC); format: DD/MM/YYYY
attribute End_Date_UTC long_name String End Date UTC
attribute End_Date_UTC nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/ (external link)
attribute End_Date_UTC units String unitless
variable End_Time_UTC   String  
attribute End_Time_UTC bcodmo_name String time
attribute End_Time_UTC description String End time (UTC); format: hh:mm
attribute End_Time_UTC long_name String End Time UTC
attribute End_Time_UTC nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/AHMSAA01/ (external link)
attribute End_Time_UTC units String unitless
variable End_ISO_DateTime_UTC   String  
attribute End_ISO_DateTime_UTC bcodmo_name String ISO_DateTime_UTC
attribute End_ISO_DateTime_UTC description String End date and time (UTC) formatted to ISO8601 standard: YYYY-MM-DDThh:mmZ
attribute End_ISO_DateTime_UTC long_name String End ISO Date Time UTC
attribute End_ISO_DateTime_UTC nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/DTUT8601/ (external link)
attribute End_ISO_DateTime_UTC time_precision String 1970-01-01T00:00Z
attribute End_ISO_DateTime_UTC units String unitless
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double -66.841, -53.958
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude bcodmo_name String latitude
attribute latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute latitude description String Start latitude
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute latitude source_name String Start_Latitude
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double -173.907, -169.598
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude bcodmo_name String longitude
attribute longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute longitude description String Start longitude
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute longitude source_name String Start_Longitude
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable End_Latitude   float  
attribute End_Latitude _FillValue float NaN
attribute End_Latitude actual_range float -66.975, -53.835
attribute End_Latitude bcodmo_name String latitude
attribute End_Latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute End_Latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute End_Latitude description String End latitude
attribute End_Latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute End_Latitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute End_Latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute End_Latitude units String degrees North
variable End_Longitude   float  
attribute End_Longitude _FillValue float NaN
attribute End_Longitude actual_range float -173.785, -169.6
attribute End_Longitude bcodmo_name String longitude
attribute End_Longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute End_Longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute End_Longitude description String End longitude
attribute End_Longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute End_Longitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute End_Longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute End_Longitude units String degrees East
variable Event_ID   byte  
attribute Event_ID _FillValue byte 127
attribute Event_ID actual_range byte 5, 114
attribute Event_ID bcodmo_name String event
attribute Event_ID description String Event number
attribute Event_ID long_name String Event ID
attribute Event_ID nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/EVTAGFL/ (external link)
attribute Event_ID units String unitless
variable Sample_ID   byte  
attribute Sample_ID _FillValue byte 127
attribute Sample_ID actual_range byte 1, 23
attribute Sample_ID bcodmo_name String sample
attribute Sample_ID description String Sample number
attribute Sample_ID long_name String Sample ID
attribute Sample_ID nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P02/current/ACYC/ (external link)
attribute Sample_ID units String unitless
variable depth   double  
attribute depth _CoordinateAxisType String Height
attribute depth _CoordinateZisPositive String down
attribute depth _FillValue double NaN
attribute depth actual_range double 4.513, 5247.235
attribute depth axis String Z
attribute depth bcodmo_name String depth
attribute depth description String Sample depth
attribute depth ioos_category String Location
attribute depth long_name String Sample Depth
attribute depth nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/DEPH/ (external link)
attribute depth positive String down
attribute depth standard_name String depth
attribute depth units String m
variable Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6   float  
attribute Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6 _FillValue float NaN
attribute Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6 actual_range float 0.65, 17.06
attribute Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6 bcodmo_name String trace_element_conc
attribute Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6 description String Dissolved Th-230 concentration
attribute Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6 long_name String Th 230 D CONC BOTTLE Xucmu6
attribute Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6 units String uBq/kg
variable SD1_Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6   float  
attribute SD1_Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6 _FillValue float NaN
attribute SD1_Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6 actual_range float 0.03, 0.26
attribute SD1_Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6 bcodmo_name String trace_element_conc
attribute SD1_Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6 description String One standard deviation of Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6
attribute SD1_Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6 long_name String SD1 Th 230 D CONC BOTTLE Xucmu6
attribute SD1_Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6 units String uBq/kg
variable Flag_Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6   byte  
attribute Flag_Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6 _FillValue byte 127
attribute Flag_Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6 actual_range byte 1, 2
attribute Flag_Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6 bcodmo_name String q_flag
attribute Flag_Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6 colorBarMaximum double 150.0
attribute Flag_Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6 colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute Flag_Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6 description String Quality flag for Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6
attribute Flag_Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6 long_name String Flag Th 230 D CONC BOTTLE Xucmu6
attribute Flag_Th_230_D_CONC_BOTTLE_xucmu6 units String None
variable Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj   float  
attribute Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj _FillValue float NaN
attribute Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj actual_range float 0.0168, 0.1426
attribute Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj bcodmo_name String trace_element_conc
attribute Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj description String Dissolved Th-232 concentration
attribute Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj long_name String Th 232 D CONC BOTTLE Bwiimj
attribute Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj units String pmol/kg
variable SD1_Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj   float  
attribute SD1_Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj _FillValue float NaN
attribute SD1_Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj actual_range float 6.0E-4, 0.0023
attribute SD1_Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj bcodmo_name String trace_element_conc
attribute SD1_Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj description String One standard deviation of Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj
attribute SD1_Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj long_name String SD1 Th 232 D CONC BOTTLE Bwiimj
attribute SD1_Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj units String pmol/kg
variable Flag_Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj   byte  
attribute Flag_Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj _FillValue byte 127
attribute Flag_Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj actual_range byte 1, 2
attribute Flag_Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj bcodmo_name String q_flag
attribute Flag_Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj colorBarMaximum double 150.0
attribute Flag_Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute Flag_Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj description String Quality flag for Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj
attribute Flag_Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj long_name String Flag Th 232 D CONC BOTTLE Bwiimj
attribute Flag_Th_232_D_CONC_BOTTLE_bwiimj units String None
variable Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw   float  
attribute Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw _FillValue float NaN
attribute Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw actual_range float 0.43, 8.39
attribute Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw bcodmo_name String trace_element_conc
attribute Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw description String Dissolved Pa-231 concentration
attribute Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw long_name String Pa 231 D CONC BOTTLE Yq8ckw
attribute Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw units String uBq/kg
variable SD1_Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw   float  
attribute SD1_Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw _FillValue float NaN
attribute SD1_Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw actual_range float 0.03, 0.55
attribute SD1_Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw bcodmo_name String trace_element_conc
attribute SD1_Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw description String One standard deviation of Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw
attribute SD1_Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw long_name String SD1 Pa 231 D CONC BOTTLE Yq8ckw
attribute SD1_Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw units String uBq/kg
variable Flag_Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw   byte  
attribute Flag_Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw _FillValue byte 127
attribute Flag_Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw actual_range byte 1, 3
attribute Flag_Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw bcodmo_name String q_flag
attribute Flag_Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw colorBarMaximum double 150.0
attribute Flag_Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute Flag_Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw description String Quality flag for Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw
attribute Flag_Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw long_name String Flag Pa 231 D CONC BOTTLE Yq8ckw
attribute Flag_Pa_231_D_CONC_BOTTLE_yq8ckw units String None
variable Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE   float  
attribute Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE _FillValue float NaN
attribute Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE actual_range float 0.62, 16.96
attribute Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE bcodmo_name String trace_element_conc
attribute Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE description String Dissolved Th-230 concentration corrected for the dissolution of lithogenic minerals, thereby isolating the dissolved Th-230 produced by decay of dissolved uranium
attribute Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE long_name String Th 230 D XS CONC BOTTLE
attribute Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE units String uBq/kg
variable Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_ERR   float  
attribute Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_ERR _FillValue float NaN
attribute Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_ERR actual_range float 0.03, 0.27
attribute Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_ERR bcodmo_name String trace_element_conc
attribute Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_ERR description String One standard deviation of Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE
attribute Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_ERR long_name String Th 230 D XS CONC BOTTLE ERR
attribute Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_ERR units String uBq/kg
variable Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_FLAG   byte  
attribute Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_FLAG _FillValue byte 127
attribute Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_FLAG actual_range byte 1, 2
attribute Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_FLAG bcodmo_name String q_flag
attribute Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_FLAG colorBarMaximum double 150.0
attribute Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_FLAG colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_FLAG description String Quality flag for Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE
attribute Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_FLAG long_name String Th 230 D XS CONC BOTTLE FLAG
attribute Th_230_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_FLAG units String none
variable Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE   float  
attribute Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE _FillValue float NaN
attribute Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE actual_range float 0.43, 8.39
attribute Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE bcodmo_name String trace_element_conc
attribute Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE description String Dissolved Pa-231 concentration corrected for the dissolution of lithogenic minerals (see metadata for full explanation)
attribute Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE long_name String Pa 231 D XS CONC BOTTLE
attribute Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE units String uBq/kg
variable Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_ERR   float  
attribute Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_ERR _FillValue float NaN
attribute Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_ERR actual_range float 0.03, 0.55
attribute Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_ERR bcodmo_name String trace_element_conc
attribute Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_ERR description String One standard deviation of Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE
attribute Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_ERR long_name String Pa 231 D XS CONC BOTTLE ERR
attribute Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_ERR units String uBq/kg
variable Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_FLAG   byte  
attribute Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_FLAG _FillValue byte 127
attribute Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_FLAG actual_range byte 1, 3
attribute Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_FLAG bcodmo_name String q_flag
attribute Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_FLAG colorBarMaximum double 150.0
attribute Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_FLAG colorBarMinimum double 0.0
attribute Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_FLAG description String Quality flag for Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE
attribute Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_FLAG long_name String Pa 231 D XS CONC BOTTLE FLAG
attribute Pa_231_D_XS_CONC_BOTTLE_FLAG units String none

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