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Dataset Title:  Ammonium (NH4) data from CTD rosette bottles from R/V Thomas G. Thompson and R/
V Kilo Moana cruises TN277, KM1301, KM1312 in the Eastern North Pacific Ocean
from 2012-2013 (POWOW project)
Institution:  BCO-DMO   (Dataset ID: bcodmo_dataset_3754)
Range: longitude = -160.6166 to -118.316°E, latitude = 21.3428 to 46.6888°N, depth = 2.0 to 1000.0m, time = 2012-03-01T12:46:00Z to 2013-07-27T19:10:00Z
Information:  Summary ? | License ? | ISO 19115 | Metadata | Background (external link) | Data Access Form | Files
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Things You Can Do With Your Graphs

Well, you can do anything you want with your graphs, of course. But some things you might not have considered are:

The Dataset Attribute Structure (.das) for this Dataset

Attributes {
 s {
  cruise_name {
    String description "Cruise identifier (POWOW1 = TN277 = R/V Thomas G. Thompson cruise 277; POWOW2 = KM1301 = R/V Kilo Moana cruise 1301; POWOW3 = KM1312 = R/V Kilo Moana cruise 1312).";
    String ioos_category "Unknown";
    String long_name "Cruise Name";
    String units "text";
  cast {
    String description "Consecutive CTD cast number. CTD numbers are unique and sequential across stations.";
    String ioos_category "Unknown";
    String long_name "Cast";
    String units "unitless";
  latitude {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Lat";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range 21.3428, 46.6888;
    String axis "Y";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 90.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -90.0;
    String description "Latitude at start of CTD cast. Positive = North.";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Latitude";
    String standard_name "latitude";
    String units "degrees_north";
  longitude {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Lon";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range -160.6166, -118.316;
    String axis "X";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 180.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -180.0;
    String description "Longitude at start of CTD cast. Positive = East.";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Longitude";
    String standard_name "longitude";
    String units "degrees_east";
  depth_w {
    Int16 _FillValue 32767;
    Int16 actual_range 349, 6055;
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 8000.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -8000.0;
    String colorBarPalette "TopographyDepth";
    String description "Depth of the water (bottom depth) at sampling station.";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Depth";
    String standard_name "depth";
    String units "meters";
  month_utc {
    String description "2-digit month of year, UTC.";
    String ioos_category "Time";
    String long_name "Month Utc";
    String units "mm (01 to 12)";
  day_utc {
    String description "2-digit day of month, UTC.";
    String ioos_category "Time";
    String long_name "Day Utc";
    String units "dd (01 to 31)";
  year {
    Int16 _FillValue 32767;
    Int16 actual_range 2012, 2013;
    String description "4-digit year. in�YYYY format";
    String ioos_category "Time";
    String long_name "Year";
    String units "unitless";
  time_utc {
    String description "Time (UTC) at start of sample collection, 24-hour clock.";
    String ioos_category "Time";
    String long_name "Time Utc";
    String units "HHMM.mm";
  time {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Time";
    Float64 actual_range 1.33060596e+9, 1.3749522e+9;
    String axis "T";
    String description "Date/Time (UTC) ISO8601 formatted. T indicates start of time string; Z indicates UTC.";
    String ioos_category "Time";
    String long_name "ISO Date Time UTC";
    String source_name "ISO_DateTime_UTC";
    String standard_name "time";
    String time_origin "01-JAN-1970 00:00:00";
    String units "seconds since 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z";
  depth {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Height";
    String _CoordinateZisPositive "down";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range 2.0, 1000.0;
    String axis "Z";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 8000.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -8000.0;
    String colorBarPalette "TopographyDepth";
    String description "Sample depth.";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Depth";
    String positive "down";
    String standard_name "depth";
    String units "m";
  bot {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 1, 24;
    String description "Rosette position of the bottle.";
    String ioos_category "Unknown";
    String long_name "Bot";
    String units "unitless";
  NH4 {
    Int16 _FillValue 32767;
    Int16 actual_range 0, 647;
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 5.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum 0.0;
    String description "Ammonium (NH4) concentration in nM.";
    String ioos_category "Dissolved Nutrients";
    String long_name "Mole Concentration Of Ammonium In Sea Water";
    String units "nanomolar (nM)";
    String access_formats ".htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson,.odvTxt";
    String acquisition_description 
"Ammonium was measured on fresh, unfiltered samples following Holmes et al.
1999. Certified reference materials were used to verify protocols (Inorganic
Ventures: QCP-NT, QCP-NUT-1, CGSI1-1). The detection limits of NH4 were:  
 9 nM for POWOW1 samples  
 5 nM for POWOW2 and POWOW3 samples";
    String awards_0_award_nid "55018";
    String awards_0_award_number "OCE-1031064";
    String awards_0_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1031064";
    String awards_0_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_0_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_0_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_0_program_manager "Dr David  L. Garrison";
    String awards_0_program_manager_nid "50534";
    String cdm_data_type "Other";
    String comment 
"Ammonium (NH4) 
 PI: Zackary Johnson (Duke University) 
 Version History: 
   Dataset updated: 10 July 2014 (current version) 
   Original data:   25 Oct 2012 
 Note: 0 = mean of replicated samples was below detection limit  
       (Detection limits: 9 nM for POWOW1; 5 nM for POWOW2 and 3).";
    String Conventions "COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3";
    String creator_email "info@bco-dmo.org";
    String creator_name "BCO-DMO";
    String creator_type "institution";
    String creator_url "https://www.bco-dmo.org/";
    String data_source "extract_data_as_tsv version 2.2d  13 Jun 2019";
    String date_created "2012-10-23T19:42:35Z";
    String date_modified "2019-03-05T18:16:51Z";
    String defaultDataQuery "&time";
    String doi "10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.3754.2";
    Float64 Easternmost_Easting -118.316;
    Float64 geospatial_lat_max 46.6888;
    Float64 geospatial_lat_min 21.3428;
    String geospatial_lat_units "degrees_north";
    Float64 geospatial_lon_max -118.316;
    Float64 geospatial_lon_min -160.6166;
    String geospatial_lon_units "degrees_east";
    Float64 geospatial_vertical_max 1000.0;
    Float64 geospatial_vertical_min 2.0;
    String geospatial_vertical_positive "down";
    String geospatial_vertical_units "m";
    String history 
"2019-06-25T09:48:07Z (local files)
2019-06-25T09:48:07Z https://erddap.bco-dmo.org/tabledap/bcodmo_dataset_3754.das";
    String infoUrl "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3754";
    String institution "BCO-DMO";
    String instruments_0_acronym "Niskin bottle";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid "518543";
    String instruments_0_description "A Niskin bottle (a next generation water sampler based on the Nansen bottle) is a cylindrical, non-metallic water collection device with stoppers at both ends.  The bottles can be attached individually on a hydrowire or deployed in 12, 24 or 36 bottle Rosette systems mounted on a frame and combined with a CTD.  Niskin bottles are used to collect discrete water samples for a range of measurements including pigments, nutrients, plankton, etc.";
    String instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L22/current/TOOL0412/";
    String instruments_0_instrument_name "Niskin bottle";
    String instruments_0_instrument_nid "413";
    String instruments_0_supplied_name "Niskin bottle";
    String keywords "ammonia, ammonium, bco, bco-dmo, biological, bot, cast, chemical, chemistry, concentration, cruise, cruise_name, data, dataset, date, day, day_utc, depth, depth_w, dissolved, dissolved nutrients, dmo, earth, Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Chemistry > Ammonia, erddap, iso, latitude, longitude, management, mole, mole_concentration_of_ammonium_in_sea_water, month, month_utc, name, nh4, nutrients, ocean, oceanography, oceans, office, preliminary, science, sea, seawater, time, time_utc, water, year";
    String keywords_vocabulary "GCMD Science Keywords";
    String license 
"The data may be used and redistributed for free but is not intended
for legal use, since it may contain inaccuracies. Neither the data
Contributor, ERD, NOAA, nor the United States Government, nor any
of their employees or contractors, makes any warranty, express or
implied, including warranties of merchantability and fitness for a
particular purpose, or assumes any legal liability for the accuracy,
completeness, or usefulness, of this information.";
    String metadata_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/3754";
    Float64 Northernmost_Northing 46.6888;
    String param_mapping "{'3754': {'lat': 'master - latitude', 'depth': 'flag - depth', 'lon': 'master - longitude', 'ISO_DateTime_UTC': 'master - time'}}";
    String parameter_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/3754/parameters";
    String people_0_affiliation "Duke University";
    String people_0_person_name "Dr Zackary I. Johnson";
    String people_0_person_nid "50749";
    String people_0_role "Principal Investigator";
    String people_0_role_type "originator";
    String people_1_affiliation "Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution";
    String people_1_affiliation_acronym "WHOI BCO-DMO";
    String people_1_person_name "Shannon Rauch";
    String people_1_person_nid "51498";
    String people_1_role "BCO-DMO Data Manager";
    String people_1_role_type "related";
    String project "Seasonal and decadal changes in temperature drive Prochlorococcus ecotype distribution patterns";
    String projects_0_acronym "POWOW";
    String projects_0_description 
"Project also known as 'Prochlorococcus Of Warming Ocean Waters' (POWOW).
The two numerically-dominant ecotypes of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus partition the surface ocean niche latitudinally, with ecotype eMIT9312 dominant in the 30 degree N to 30 degree S region and eMED4 dominant at higher latitudes. These ecotypes may account for 25-50% of primary production in open ocean ecosystems, but this percentage is dependent on which ecotype dominates. The relative abundance of the two ecotypes follows a log-linear relationship with temperature, with the transition from eMIT9312 to eMED4 occurring at approx. 18 degrees C. From these descriptive data, it has been hypothesized that temperature is the primary driver of relative abundance. Their contribution to net primary production, however, appears to be independent of temperature, suggesting temperature regulates ecotype dominance through photosynthesis-independent mechanisms.
To test these hypotheses, the PIs are undertaking a series of field and lab studies to investigate the effect of temperature change on the distribution of these ecotypes. Two cruises in the North Pacific will trace the transitions from eMIT9312- to eMED4-dominated regions, with one cruise during the winter and the other during summer. They have hypothesized that the ratio of ecotype abundance will move latitudinally with the seasonal shift in temperature gradient: migration of the 18 degrees C isotherm northward in the summer will be matched by a similar migration of the 1:1 ecotype transition point. Multiple crossings of the 18 degrees C isotherm are proposed, and the summer cruise will also follow the isotherm to the Western US coast to gain insight on physical and geochemical influences. Environmental variables such as nutrient concentrations, light/mixing depths, and virus /grazing based mortality, which may impinge on the relationship between temperature and ecotype ratio, will be assessed through a series of multivariate analyses of the collected suite of physical, chemical and biological data. Seasonal comparisons will be complemented with on-deck incubations and lab competition assays (using existing and new isolates) that will establish, for the first time, how fitness coefficients of these ecotypes relate to temperature. As latitudinal shifts in temperature gradient and migration of ecotypes during seasonal warming likely share common features with high latitude warming as a consequence of climate change, the investigator's analyses will contribute important biological parameters (e.g., abundances, production rates, temperature change coefficients) for modeling biological and biogeochemical responses to climate change. This research will be integrated with that of committed collaborators, generating data sufficient for ecosystem-scale characterizations of the contributions of temperature (relative to other forcing factors) in constraining the range and seasonal migration of these numerically dominant marine phototrophs.
Publications produced as result of this research:
Rowe, J.M., DeBruyn, J.M., Poorvin, L., LeCleir, G.R., Johnson, Z.I., Zinser, E.R., and Wilhelm, S.W. 2012. Viral and bacterial abundance and production in the Western Pacific Ocean and the relation to other oceanic realms. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 72, p. 359. DOI:�10.1111/j.1574-6941.2011.01223.x
Morris, J.J., Lenski, R.E. and E.R. Zinser. 2012. The Black Queen Hypothesis: Evolution of Dependencies through Adaptive Gene Loss. mBio, 3, p. e00036-12. DOI: 10.1128/mBio.00036-12
Morris, J.J., Johnson, Z.I., Szul, M.J., Keller, M., and Zinser, E.R. 2011. Dependence of the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus on hydrogen peroxide scavenging microbes for growth at the ocean's surface. PLoS One, 6(2), p. 16805. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0016805
Ringuet, S., Sassano, L., and Johnson, Z.I. 2011. A suite of microplate reader-based colorimetric methods to quantify ammonium, nitrate, orthophosphate and silicate concentrations for aquatic nutrient monitoring. Journal of Environmental Monitoring. DOI:10.1039/C0EM00290A
Ritchie, A.E. and Johnson, Z.I. 2012. Abundance and genetic diversity of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria of coastal regions of the Pacific Ocean. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78, p. 2858. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.06268-11";
    String projects_0_end_date "2014-09";
    String projects_0_geolocation "Eastern North Pacific Ocean";
    String projects_0_name "Seasonal and decadal changes in temperature drive Prochlorococcus ecotype distribution patterns";
    String projects_0_project_nid "2237";
    String projects_0_project_website "http://oceanography.ml.duke.edu/johnson/research/powow/";
    String projects_0_start_date "2010-10";
    String publisher_name "Shannon Rauch";
    String publisher_role "BCO-DMO Data Manager(s)";
    String sourceUrl "(local files)";
    Float64 Southernmost_Northing 21.3428;
    String standard_name_vocabulary "CF Standard Name Table v29";
    String summary "Ammonium (NH4) data from CTD rosette bottles from R/V Thomas G. Thompson and R/V Kilo Moana cruises TN277, KM1301, KM1312 in the Eastern North Pacific Ocean from 2012-2013 (POWOW project)";
    String time_coverage_end "2013-07-27T19:10:00Z";
    String time_coverage_start "2012-03-01T12:46:00Z";
    String title "Ammonium (NH4) data from CTD rosette bottles from R/V Thomas G. Thompson and R/V Kilo Moana cruises TN277, KM1301, KM1312 in the Eastern North Pacific Ocean from 2012-2013 (POWOW project)";
    String version "2";
    Float64 Westernmost_Easting -160.6166;
    String xml_source "osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.5-beta";


Using tabledap to Request Data and Graphs from Tabular Datasets

tabledap lets you request a data subset, a graph, or a map from a tabular dataset (for example, buoy data), via a specially formed URL. tabledap uses the OPeNDAP (external link) Data Access Protocol (DAP) (external link) and its selection constraints (external link).

The URL specifies what you want: the dataset, a description of the graph or the subset of the data, and the file type for the response.

Tabledap request URLs must be in the form
For example,
Thus, the query is often a comma-separated list of desired variable names, followed by a collection of constraints (e.g., variable<value), each preceded by '&' (which is interpreted as "AND").

For details, see the tabledap Documentation.

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