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Dataset Title:  Record of lionfish sighted during surveys near Lee Stocking Isalnd, Bahamas
from 2009-2011 (Lionfish Invasion project)
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Institution:  BCO-DMO   (Dataset ID: bcodmo_dataset_3909)
Information:  Summary ? | License ? | ISO 19115 | Metadata | Background (external link) | Files | Make a graph
 
Variable ?   Optional
Constraint #1 ?
Optional
Constraint #2 ?
   Minimum ?
 
   Maximum ?
 
 year (unitless) ?          2009    2011
 site (code) ?          "Artificial_Reefs"    "Woobie_Rock"
 latitude (degrees_north) ?          23.67021    23.83203
  < slider >
 longitude (degrees_east) ?          -7.6131289E7    -76.02326
  < slider >
 fish_id (code) ?          "???"    "NaN"
 date_sighted (unitless) ?          "05/30/2009"    "NaN"
 location (text) ?          "100m N of anchor"    "wall behind big rock"
 depth (m) ?          1.0    55.0
  < slider >
 len_tot_est (cm) ?          "10"    "NaN"
 person (text) ?          "??"    "WR, TP"
 notes (text) ?          "Clipped and put on..."    "upside down in sma..."
 used_for (text) ?          "AD Experiment"    "Teacher Demonstrat..."
 
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The Dataset Attribute Structure (.das) for this Dataset

Attributes {
 s {
  year {
    Int16 _FillValue 32767;
    Int16 actual_range 2009, 2011;
    String bcodmo_name "year";
    String description "Year of collection in YYYY format.";
    String long_name "Year";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/YEARXXXX/";
    String units "unitless";
  }
  site {
    String bcodmo_name "site";
    String description "The specific reef site where the lionfish was sighted.";
    String long_name "Site";
    String units "code";
  }
  latitude {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Lat";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range 23.67021, 23.83203;
    String axis "Y";
    String bcodmo_name "latitude";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 90.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -90.0;
    String description "Latitude of the reef site.";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Latitude";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/";
    String standard_name "latitude";
    String units "degrees_north";
  }
  longitude {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Lon";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range -7.6131289e+7, -76.02326;
    String axis "X";
    String bcodmo_name "longitude";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 180.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -180.0;
    String description "Longitude of the reef site.";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Longitude";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/";
    String standard_name "longitude";
    String units "degrees_east";
  }
  fish_id {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Unique code given to all lionfish that were collected. (Originally called 'Collection_ID'.)";
    String long_name "Fish Id";
    String units "code";
  }
  date_sighted {
    String bcodmo_name "date";
    String description "The date that each lionfish was sighted in mm/dd/YYYY format.";
    String long_name "Date Sighted";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/";
    String units "unitless";
  }
  location {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Description of the location within each site where the lionfish was sighted.";
    String long_name "Location";
    String units "text";
  }
  depth {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Height";
    String _CoordinateZisPositive "down";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range 1.0, 55.0;
    String axis "Z";
    String bcodmo_name "depth";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 8000.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -8000.0;
    String colorBarPalette "TopographyDepth";
    String description "Approximate depth of lionfish sighting.";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Depth";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/DEPH/";
    String positive "down";
    String standard_name "depth";
    String units "m";
  }
  len_tot_est {
    String bcodmo_name "fish_len";
    String description "Estimated total length of lionfish (cenimeters).";
    String long_name "Len Tot Est";
    String units "cm";
  }
  person {
    String bcodmo_name "person";
    String description "Identity of observer.";
    String long_name "Person";
    String units "text";
  }
  notes {
    String bcodmo_name "comment";
    String description "Detailed description of the microhabitat where each lionfish was sighted.";
    String long_name "Notes";
    String units "text";
  }
  used_for {
    String bcodmo_name "comment";
    String description "If the lionfish was for an experiment, this column states for which experiment it was used for.";
    String long_name "Used For";
    String units "text";
  }
 }
  NC_GLOBAL {
    String access_formats ".htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson";
    String acquisition_description 
"From 2009 to 2011, a record was made for all lionfish (Pterois volitans)
sightings in the vicinity of Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas for various sub-
projects within the project titled \\\"Ecological Release and Resistance at Sea:
Invasion of Atlantic Coral Reefs by Pacific Lionfish\\\". All lionfish that were
handled for a specific sub-project were assigned a unique lionfish ID number
(fish_id).";
    String awards_0_award_nid "55160";
    String awards_0_award_number "OCE-0851162";
    String awards_0_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=0851162";
    String awards_0_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_0_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_0_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_0_program_manager "David L. Garrison";
    String awards_0_program_manager_nid "50534";
    String cdm_data_type "Other";
    String comment 
"Lionfish Sightings Record, 2009-2011 
  from Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas 
 (From sub-project \"Lionfish sightings and collections record\") 
 Lead PI: Mark Hixon (OSU) 
 Sub-Project Co-Leads: Timothy J. Pusack & Mark A. Albins (OSU) 
 Version: 09 April 2013";
    String Conventions "COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3";
    String creator_email "info@bco-dmo.org";
    String creator_name "BCO-DMO";
    String creator_type "institution";
    String creator_url "https://www.bco-dmo.org/";
    String data_source "extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3  19 Dec 2019";
    String date_created "2013-04-10T14:22:00Z";
    String date_modified "2019-10-29T15:56:46Z";
    String defaultDataQuery "&amp;time&lt;now";
    String doi "10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.3909.1";
    Float64 Easternmost_Easting -76.02326;
    Float64 geospatial_lat_max 23.83203;
    Float64 geospatial_lat_min 23.67021;
    String geospatial_lat_units "degrees_north";
    Float64 geospatial_lon_max -76.02326;
    Float64 geospatial_lon_min -7.6131289e+7;
    String geospatial_lon_units "degrees_east";
    Float64 geospatial_vertical_max 55.0;
    Float64 geospatial_vertical_min 1.0;
    String geospatial_vertical_positive "down";
    String geospatial_vertical_units "m";
    String history 
"2022-08-17T22:44:37Z (local files)
2022-08-17T22:44:37Z https://erddap.bco-dmo.org/erddap/tabledap/bcodmo_dataset_3909.html";
    String infoUrl "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3909";
    String institution "BCO-DMO";
    String keywords "bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, data, dataset, date, date_sighted, depth, dmo, erddap, est, fish, fish_id, latitude, len, len_tot_est, longitude, management, notes, oceanography, office, person, preliminary, sighted, site, tot, used, used_for, year";
    String license "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3909/license";
    String metadata_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/3909";
    Float64 Northernmost_Northing 23.83203;
    String param_mapping "{'3909': {'lat': 'master - latitude', 'depth': 'master - depth', 'lon': 'master - longitude'}}";
    String parameter_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/3909/parameters";
    String people_0_affiliation "Oregon State University";
    String people_0_affiliation_acronym "OSU";
    String people_0_person_name "Mark Hixon";
    String people_0_person_nid "51647";
    String people_0_role "Lead Principal Investigator";
    String people_0_role_type "originator";
    String people_1_affiliation "Oregon State University";
    String people_1_affiliation_acronym "OSU";
    String people_1_person_name "Mark  A Albins";
    String people_1_person_nid "51666";
    String people_1_role "Scientist";
    String people_1_role_type "originator";
    String people_2_affiliation "Oregon State University";
    String people_2_affiliation_acronym "OSU";
    String people_2_person_name "Timothy J Pusack";
    String people_2_person_nid "51671";
    String people_2_role "Scientist";
    String people_2_role_type "originator";
    String people_3_affiliation "Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution";
    String people_3_affiliation_acronym "WHOI BCO-DMO";
    String people_3_person_name "Shannon Rauch";
    String people_3_person_nid "51498";
    String people_3_role "BCO-DMO Data Manager";
    String people_3_role_type "related";
    String project "Lionfish Invasion";
    String projects_0_acronym "Lionfish Invasion";
    String projects_0_description 
"Invasive species are increasingly introduced by human activities to new regions of the world where those species have never existed previously. In the absence of natural enemies (predators, competitors, and diseases) from their homeland, invasives may have strong negative effects on invaded ecosystems, especially systems with fewer species (\"ecological release\"), and may even drive native species extinct. However, if native natural enemies can somehow control the invaders (\"ecological resistance\"), then ecological disruption can be prevented or at least moderated. Most of the many invasive species in the sea have been seaweeds and invertebrates, and the few documented invasive marine fishes have not caused major problems. However, this situation has recently changed in a stunning and ominous way. In the early 1990s, lionfish (Pterois volitans) from the Pacific Ocean were accidentally or intentionally released from aquaria to the ocean in the vicinity of Florida. Camouflaged by shape and color, protected by venomous spines, consuming native coral-reef fishes voraciously, and reproducing rapidly, lionfish have subsequently undergone a population explosion. They now range from the mid-Atlantic coast of the US to the Caribbean, including the Bahamas. Native Atlantic fishes have never before encountered this spiny, stealthy, efficient predator and seldom take evasive action. In fact, the investigator has documented that a single lionfish is capable of reducing the abundance of small fish on a small coral patch reef by nearly 80% in just 5 weeks. There is great concern that invasive lionfish may severely reduce the abundance of native coral-reef fishes important as food for humans (e.g., grouper and snapper in their juvenile stages) as well as species that normally maintain the integrity of coral reefs (e.g., grazing parrotfishes that can prevent seaweeds from smothering corals). There are far more species of coral-reef fish in the Pacific than the Atlantic, so this invasion may represent a case of extreme ecological release with minor ecological resistance. Dr. Hixon and colleagues will study the mechanisms of ecological release in lionfish, as well as examine potential sources of ecological resistance in the heavily invaded Bahamas. Because very little is known about the ecology and behavior of lionfish in their native Pacific range, he will also conduct comparative studies in both oceans, which may provide clues regarding the extreme success of this invasion. In the Bahamas, the investigator will document the direct and indirect effects on native species of the ecological release of lionfish, both as a predator and as a competitor. These studies will be conducted at various scales of time and space, from short-term experiments on small patch reefs, to long-term experiments and observations on large reefs. Whereas direct effects involve mostly changes in the abundance of native species, indirect effects can be highly variable. For example, lionfish may actually indirectly benefit some native species by either consuming or outcompeting the competitors of those natives. The project will explore possible ecological resistance to the invasion by determining whether any native Bahamian species are effective natural enemies of lionfish, including predators, parasites, and competitors of both juvenile and adult lionfish. Comparative studies of natural enemies, as well as lionfish ecology and behavior, in both the Atlantic and the Pacific may provide clues regarding the explosive spread of lionfish in the Atlantic.
Regarding broader impacts, this basic research will provide information valuable to coral-reef and fisheries managers fighting the lionfish invasion in the US, the Bahamas, and the greater Caribbean, especially if sources of native ecological resistance are identified. The study will fund the PhD research of U.S. graduate students, as well as involve assistance and participation by a broad variety of undergraduates and reef/fisheries managers, including women, minorities, native Bahamians, and native Pacific islanders. Participation in this project will promote education in marine ecology and conservation biology directly via Dr. Hixon's and graduate students' teaching and outreach activities, and indirectly via the experiences of undergraduate field assistants and various associates.";
    String projects_0_end_date "2012-11";
    String projects_0_geolocation "Bahamas; Cayman Islands; Mariana Islands; Philippines";
    String projects_0_name "Ecological Release and Resistance at Sea: Invasion of Atlantic Coral Reefs by Pacific Lionfish";
    String projects_0_project_nid "2256";
    String projects_0_project_website "http://hixon.science.oregonstate.edu/content/highlight-lionfish-invasion";
    String projects_0_start_date "2009-06";
    String publisher_name "Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)";
    String publisher_type "institution";
    String sourceUrl "(local files)";
    Float64 Southernmost_Northing 23.67021;
    String standard_name_vocabulary "CF Standard Name Table v55";
    String summary "Record of lionfish sighted during surveys near Lee Stocking Isalnd, Bahamas from 2009-2011.";
    String title "Record of lionfish sighted during surveys near Lee Stocking Isalnd, Bahamas from 2009-2011 (Lionfish Invasion project)";
    String version "1";
    Float64 Westernmost_Easting -7.6131289e+7;
    String xml_source "osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3";
  }
}

 

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