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Dataset Title:  Results of manipulative field study and controlled lab experiment on growth
rates of juvenile lionfish on reefs with controlled abundances of Nassau
grouper; Bahamas, 2010 (Lionfish Invasion project)
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Institution:  BCO-DMO   (Dataset ID: bcodmo_dataset_3939)
Range: longitude = -76.14035 to -76.12997°E, latitude = 23.75047 to 23.76094°N
Information:  Summary ? | License ? | ISO 19115 | Metadata | Background (external link) | Subset | Data Access Form | Files
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Things You Can Do With Your Graphs

Well, you can do anything you want with your graphs, of course. But some things you might not have considered are:

The Dataset Attribute Structure (.das) for this Dataset

Attributes {
 s {
  site {
    String bcodmo_name "site";
    String description "Name of the site.";
    String long_name "Site";
    String units "nd";
  latitude {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Lat";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range 23.75047, 23.76094;
    String axis "Y";
    String bcodmo_name "latitude";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 90.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -90.0;
    String description "Latitude of the reef site.";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Latitude";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/";
    String standard_name "latitude";
    String units "degrees_north";
  longitude {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Lon";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range -76.14035, -76.12997;
    String axis "X";
    String bcodmo_name "longitude";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 180.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -180.0;
    String description "Longitude of the reef site.";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Longitude";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/";
    String standard_name "longitude";
    String units "degrees_east";
  grouper_abund {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 0, 5;
    String bcodmo_name "count";
    String description "Number of Nassau grouper on each reef.";
    String long_name "Grouper Abund";
    String units "integer";
  lionfish_id {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "The identification number of each lionfish. See 'lionfish collections 2009-2011' dataset for information about individual.";
    String long_name "Lionfish Id";
    String units "dimensionless";
  location {
    String bcodmo_name "site_descrip";
    String description "Indicates the specfic patch reef in the matrix.";
    String long_name "Location";
    String units "text";
  tag_elastomer {
    String bcodmo_name "tagid";
    String description "Indicates the side (L = left; R = right); Color (B = blue; R = red; G = green; Y = Yellow; O = orange); and location on the lionfish (C = caudal; UM = upper middle; UC = upper caudal; LC = lower caudal)";
    String long_name "Tag Elastomer";
    String units "text";
  date {
    String bcodmo_name "date";
    String description "Indicates the date of each measurement in mm/dd/YYYY format.";
    String long_name "Date";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/";
    String source_name "date";
    String time_precision "1970-01-01";
    String units "unitless";
  month {
    String bcodmo_name "month";
    String description "2-digit month when measurement was taken.";
    String long_name "Month";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/MNTHXXXX/";
    String units "mm (01 to 12)";
  day {
    String bcodmo_name "day";
    String description "2-digit day of month when measurement was taken.";
    String long_name "Day";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/DAYXXXXX/";
    String units "dd (01 to 31)";
  year {
    Int16 _FillValue 32767;
    Int16 actual_range 2010, 2010;
    String bcodmo_name "year";
    String description "4-digit year when measurement was taken in YYYY format.";
    String long_name "Year";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/YEARXXXX/";
    String units "unitless";
  present_or_absent {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Whether or not the lionfish was present.P = lionfish was present on reef.A = lionfish was absent on reef.";
    String long_name "Present Or Absent";
    String units "P (present) or A (absent)";
  len_tot {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 2.1, 22.8;
    String bcodmo_name "fish_len";
    String description "Total length of lionfish in centimeters.";
    String long_name "Len Tot";
    String units "cm";
  mass {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.12, 31.204;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Mass of the lionfish (dry weight).";
    String long_name "Mass";
    String units "grams";
  num_days {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 0, 71;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Total number of days up to that measurement.";
    String long_name "Num Days";
    String units "integer";
  growth_rate {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.033, 0.929;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Growth rate of lionfish since last measurement in centimeters per day.";
    String long_name "Growth Rate";
    String units "cm/day";
  notes {
    String bcodmo_name "comment";
    String description "Any information including descriptions about behavoir or interesting observations.";
    String long_name "Notes";
    String units "text";
    String access_formats ".htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson";
    String acquisition_description 
"During the summer of 2010, the investigators manipulated the abundance of
Nassau grouper on 28 near-shore patch reefs and measured the growth and
survival of juvenile (20-140 mm) lionfish. They also censused the community of
small reef fishes (< 50 mm) to look for evidence of indirect effects that
grouper might have mediated through lionfish.";
    String awards_0_award_nid "55160";
    String awards_0_award_number "OCE-0851162";
    String awards_0_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=0851162";
    String awards_0_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_0_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_0_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_0_program_manager "David L. Garrison";
    String awards_0_program_manager_nid "50534";
    String cdm_data_type "Other";
    String comment 
"Lionfish growth 
 (From sub-project \"Interactions between native Nassau grouper and 
   invasive lionfish\") 
 Lead PI: Mark Hixon (OSU) 
 Sub-Project Lead: Timothy J. Pusack (OSU) 
 Version: 06 May 2013";
    String Conventions "COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3";
    String creator_email "info@bco-dmo.org";
    String creator_name "BCO-DMO";
    String creator_type "institution";
    String creator_url "https://www.bco-dmo.org/";
    String data_source "extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3  19 Dec 2019";
    String date_created "2013-05-06T19:36:43Z";
    String date_modified "2019-11-06T15:09:08Z";
    String defaultDataQuery "&amp;time&lt;now";
    String doi "10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.3939.1";
    Float64 Easternmost_Easting -76.12997;
    Float64 geospatial_lat_max 23.76094;
    Float64 geospatial_lat_min 23.75047;
    String geospatial_lat_units "degrees_north";
    Float64 geospatial_lon_max -76.12997;
    Float64 geospatial_lon_min -76.14035;
    String geospatial_lon_units "degrees_east";
    String history 
"2022-12-03T23:40:24Z (local files)
2022-12-03T23:40:24Z https://erddap.bco-dmo.org/tabledap/bcodmo_dataset_3939.das";
    String infoUrl "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3939";
    String institution "BCO-DMO";
    String keywords "absent, abund, bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, data, dataset, date, day, days, dmo, elastomer, erddap, grouper, grouper_abund, growth, growth_rate, latitude, len, len_tot, lionfish, lionfish_id, longitude, management, mass, month, notes, num, num_days, oceanography, office, preliminary, present, present_or_absent, rate, site, tag, tag_elastomer, time, tot, year";
    String license "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3939/license";
    String metadata_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/3939";
    Float64 Northernmost_Northing 23.76094;
    String param_mapping "{'3939': {'lat': 'master - latitude', 'lon': 'master - longitude'}}";
    String parameter_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/3939/parameters";
    String people_0_affiliation "Oregon State University";
    String people_0_affiliation_acronym "OSU";
    String people_0_person_name "Mark Hixon";
    String people_0_person_nid "51647";
    String people_0_role "Lead Principal Investigator";
    String people_0_role_type "originator";
    String people_1_affiliation "Oregon State University";
    String people_1_affiliation_acronym "OSU";
    String people_1_person_name "Timothy J Pusack";
    String people_1_person_nid "51671";
    String people_1_role "Scientist";
    String people_1_role_type "originator";
    String people_2_affiliation "Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution";
    String people_2_affiliation_acronym "WHOI BCO-DMO";
    String people_2_person_name "Shannon Rauch";
    String people_2_person_nid "51498";
    String people_2_role "BCO-DMO Data Manager";
    String people_2_role_type "related";
    String project "Lionfish Invasion";
    String projects_0_acronym "Lionfish Invasion";
    String projects_0_description 
"Invasive species are increasingly introduced by human activities to new regions of the world where those species have never existed previously. In the absence of natural enemies (predators, competitors, and diseases) from their homeland, invasives may have strong negative effects on invaded ecosystems, especially systems with fewer species (\"ecological release\"), and may even drive native species extinct. However, if native natural enemies can somehow control the invaders (\"ecological resistance\"), then ecological disruption can be prevented or at least moderated. Most of the many invasive species in the sea have been seaweeds and invertebrates, and the few documented invasive marine fishes have not caused major problems. However, this situation has recently changed in a stunning and ominous way. In the early 1990s, lionfish (Pterois volitans) from the Pacific Ocean were accidentally or intentionally released from aquaria to the ocean in the vicinity of Florida. Camouflaged by shape and color, protected by venomous spines, consuming native coral-reef fishes voraciously, and reproducing rapidly, lionfish have subsequently undergone a population explosion. They now range from the mid-Atlantic coast of the US to the Caribbean, including the Bahamas. Native Atlantic fishes have never before encountered this spiny, stealthy, efficient predator and seldom take evasive action. In fact, the investigator has documented that a single lionfish is capable of reducing the abundance of small fish on a small coral patch reef by nearly 80% in just 5 weeks. There is great concern that invasive lionfish may severely reduce the abundance of native coral-reef fishes important as food for humans (e.g., grouper and snapper in their juvenile stages) as well as species that normally maintain the integrity of coral reefs (e.g., grazing parrotfishes that can prevent seaweeds from smothering corals). There are far more species of coral-reef fish in the Pacific than the Atlantic, so this invasion may represent a case of extreme ecological release with minor ecological resistance. Dr. Hixon and colleagues will study the mechanisms of ecological release in lionfish, as well as examine potential sources of ecological resistance in the heavily invaded Bahamas. Because very little is known about the ecology and behavior of lionfish in their native Pacific range, he will also conduct comparative studies in both oceans, which may provide clues regarding the extreme success of this invasion. In the Bahamas, the investigator will document the direct and indirect effects on native species of the ecological release of lionfish, both as a predator and as a competitor. These studies will be conducted at various scales of time and space, from short-term experiments on small patch reefs, to long-term experiments and observations on large reefs. Whereas direct effects involve mostly changes in the abundance of native species, indirect effects can be highly variable. For example, lionfish may actually indirectly benefit some native species by either consuming or outcompeting the competitors of those natives. The project will explore possible ecological resistance to the invasion by determining whether any native Bahamian species are effective natural enemies of lionfish, including predators, parasites, and competitors of both juvenile and adult lionfish. Comparative studies of natural enemies, as well as lionfish ecology and behavior, in both the Atlantic and the Pacific may provide clues regarding the explosive spread of lionfish in the Atlantic.
Regarding broader impacts, this basic research will provide information valuable to coral-reef and fisheries managers fighting the lionfish invasion in the US, the Bahamas, and the greater Caribbean, especially if sources of native ecological resistance are identified. The study will fund the PhD research of U.S. graduate students, as well as involve assistance and participation by a broad variety of undergraduates and reef/fisheries managers, including women, minorities, native Bahamians, and native Pacific islanders. Participation in this project will promote education in marine ecology and conservation biology directly via Dr. Hixon's and graduate students' teaching and outreach activities, and indirectly via the experiences of undergraduate field assistants and various associates.";
    String projects_0_end_date "2012-11";
    String projects_0_geolocation "Bahamas; Cayman Islands; Mariana Islands; Philippines";
    String projects_0_name "Ecological Release and Resistance at Sea: Invasion of Atlantic Coral Reefs by Pacific Lionfish";
    String projects_0_project_nid "2256";
    String projects_0_project_website "http://hixon.science.oregonstate.edu/content/highlight-lionfish-invasion";
    String projects_0_start_date "2009-06";
    String publisher_name "Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)";
    String publisher_type "institution";
    String sourceUrl "(local files)";
    Float64 Southernmost_Northing 23.75047;
    String standard_name_vocabulary "CF Standard Name Table v55";
    String subsetVariables "year";
    String summary "Results of manipulative field study and controlled lab experiment on growth rates of juvenile lionfish on reefs with controlled abundances of Nassau grouper; Bahamas, 2010.";
    String title "Results of manipulative field study and controlled lab experiment on growth rates of juvenile lionfish on reefs with controlled abundances of Nassau grouper; Bahamas, 2010 (Lionfish Invasion project)";
    String version "1";
    Float64 Westernmost_Easting -76.14035;
    String xml_source "osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3";


Using tabledap to Request Data and Graphs from Tabular Datasets

tabledap lets you request a data subset, a graph, or a map from a tabular dataset (for example, buoy data), via a specially formed URL. tabledap uses the OPeNDAP (external link) Data Access Protocol (DAP) (external link) and its selection constraints (external link).

The URL specifies what you want: the dataset, a description of the graph or the subset of the data, and the file type for the response.

Tabledap request URLs must be in the form
For example,
Thus, the query is often a comma-separated list of desired variable names, followed by a collection of constraints (e.g., variable<value), each preceded by '&' (which is interpreted as "AND").

For details, see the tabledap Documentation.

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