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Title Sum-
Institution Dataset ID
   set  data   graph     files  public Results of manipulative field study and controlled lab experiment on growth rates of juvenile
lionfish on reefs with controlled abundances of Nassau grouper; Bahamas, 2010 (Lionfish
Invasion project)
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String During the summer of 2010, the investigators manipulated the abundance of
Nassau grouper on 28 near-shore patch reefs and measured the growth and
survival of juvenile (20-140 mm) lionfish. They also censused the community of
small reef fishes (< 50 mm) to look for evidence of indirect effects that
grouper might have mediated through lionfish.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 55160
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-0851162
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=0851162 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Lionfish growth
(From sub-project "Interactions between native Nassau grouper and
invasive lionfish")
Lead PI: Mark Hixon (OSU)
Sub-Project Lead: Timothy J. Pusack (OSU)
Version: 06 May 2013
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2013-05-06T19:36:43Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-11-06T15:09:08Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &amp;time&lt;now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.3939.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double -76.12997
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double 23.76094
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double 23.75047
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double -76.12997
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double -76.14035
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3939 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String absent, abund, bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, data, dataset, date, day, days, dmo, elastomer, erddap, grouper, grouper_abund, growth, growth_rate, latitude, len, len_tot, lionfish, lionfish_id, longitude, management, mass, month, notes, num, num_days, oceanography, office, preliminary, present, present_or_absent, rate, site, tag, tag_elastomer, time, tot, year
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3939/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/3939 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double 23.76094
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'3939': {'lat': 'master - latitude', 'lon': 'master - longitude'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/3939/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String Oregon State University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String OSU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Mark Hixon
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 51647
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Lead Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Oregon State University
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String OSU
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Timothy J Pusack
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 51671
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Scientist
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Shannon Rauch
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 51498
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Lionfish Invasion
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Lionfish Invasion
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String Invasive species are increasingly introduced by human activities to new regions of the world where those species have never existed previously. In the absence of natural enemies (predators, competitors, and diseases) from their homeland, invasives may have strong negative effects on invaded ecosystems, especially systems with fewer species ("ecological release"), and may even drive native species extinct. However, if native natural enemies can somehow control the invaders ("ecological resistance"), then ecological disruption can be prevented or at least moderated. Most of the many invasive species in the sea have been seaweeds and invertebrates, and the few documented invasive marine fishes have not caused major problems. However, this situation has recently changed in a stunning and ominous way. In the early 1990s, lionfish (Pterois volitans) from the Pacific Ocean were accidentally or intentionally released from aquaria to the ocean in the vicinity of Florida. Camouflaged by shape and color, protected by venomous spines, consuming native coral-reef fishes voraciously, and reproducing rapidly, lionfish have subsequently undergone a population explosion. They now range from the mid-Atlantic coast of the US to the Caribbean, including the Bahamas. Native Atlantic fishes have never before encountered this spiny, stealthy, efficient predator and seldom take evasive action. In fact, the investigator has documented that a single lionfish is capable of reducing the abundance of small fish on a small coral patch reef by nearly 80% in just 5 weeks. There is great concern that invasive lionfish may severely reduce the abundance of native coral-reef fishes important as food for humans (e.g., grouper and snapper in their juvenile stages) as well as species that normally maintain the integrity of coral reefs (e.g., grazing parrotfishes that can prevent seaweeds from smothering corals). There are far more species of coral-reef fish in the Pacific than the Atlantic, so this invasion may represent a case of extreme ecological release with minor ecological resistance. Dr. Hixon and colleagues will study the mechanisms of ecological release in lionfish, as well as examine potential sources of ecological resistance in the heavily invaded Bahamas. Because very little is known about the ecology and behavior of lionfish in their native Pacific range, he will also conduct comparative studies in both oceans, which may provide clues regarding the extreme success of this invasion. In the Bahamas, the investigator will document the direct and indirect effects on native species of the ecological release of lionfish, both as a predator and as a competitor. These studies will be conducted at various scales of time and space, from short-term experiments on small patch reefs, to long-term experiments and observations on large reefs. Whereas direct effects involve mostly changes in the abundance of native species, indirect effects can be highly variable. For example, lionfish may actually indirectly benefit some native species by either consuming or outcompeting the competitors of those natives. The project will explore possible ecological resistance to the invasion by determining whether any native Bahamian species are effective natural enemies of lionfish, including predators, parasites, and competitors of both juvenile and adult lionfish. Comparative studies of natural enemies, as well as lionfish ecology and behavior, in both the Atlantic and the Pacific may provide clues regarding the explosive spread of lionfish in the Atlantic.
Regarding broader impacts, this basic research will provide information valuable to coral-reef and fisheries managers fighting the lionfish invasion in the US, the Bahamas, and the greater Caribbean, especially if sources of native ecological resistance are identified. The study will fund the PhD research of U.S. graduate students, as well as involve assistance and participation by a broad variety of undergraduates and reef/fisheries managers, including women, minorities, native Bahamians, and native Pacific islanders. Participation in this project will promote education in marine ecology and conservation biology directly via Dr. Hixon's and graduate students' teaching and outreach activities, and indirectly via the experiences of undergraduate field assistants and various associates.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2012-11
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Bahamas; Cayman Islands; Mariana Islands; Philippines
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Ecological Release and Resistance at Sea: Invasion of Atlantic Coral Reefs by Pacific Lionfish
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 2256
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_website String http://hixon.science.oregonstate.edu/content/highlight-lionfish-invasion (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2009-06
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double 23.75047
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL subsetVariables String year
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Results of manipulative field study and controlled lab experiment on growth rates of juvenile lionfish on reefs with controlled abundances of Nassau grouper; Bahamas, 2010.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Results of manipulative field study and controlled lab experiment on growth rates of juvenile lionfish on reefs with controlled abundances of Nassau grouper; Bahamas, 2010 (Lionfish Invasion project)
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double -76.14035
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable site   String  
attribute site bcodmo_name String site
attribute site description String Name of the site.
attribute site long_name String Site
attribute site units String nd
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double 23.75047, 23.76094
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude bcodmo_name String latitude
attribute latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute latitude description String Latitude of the reef site.
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/ (external link)
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double -76.14035, -76.12997
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude bcodmo_name String longitude
attribute longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute longitude description String Longitude of the reef site.
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/ (external link)
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable grouper_abund   byte  
attribute grouper_abund _FillValue byte 127
attribute grouper_abund actual_range byte 0, 5
attribute grouper_abund bcodmo_name String count
attribute grouper_abund description String Number of Nassau grouper on each reef.
attribute grouper_abund long_name String Grouper Abund
attribute grouper_abund units String integer
variable lionfish_id   String  
attribute lionfish_id bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute lionfish_id description String The identification number of each lionfish. See 'lionfish collections 2009-2011' dataset for information about individual.
attribute lionfish_id long_name String Lionfish Id
attribute lionfish_id units String dimensionless
variable location   String  
attribute location bcodmo_name String site_descrip
attribute location description String Indicates the specfic patch reef in the matrix.
attribute location long_name String Location
attribute location units String text
variable tag_elastomer   String  
attribute tag_elastomer bcodmo_name String tagid
attribute tag_elastomer description String Indicates the side (L = left; R = right); Color (B = blue; R = red; G = green; Y = Yellow; O = orange); and location on the lionfish (C = caudal; UM = upper middle; UC = upper caudal; LC = lower caudal)
attribute tag_elastomer long_name String Tag Elastomer
attribute tag_elastomer units String text
variable date   String  
attribute date bcodmo_name String date
attribute date description String Indicates the date of each measurement in mm/dd/YYYY format.
attribute date long_name String Date
attribute date nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/ (external link)
attribute date source_name String date
attribute date time_precision String 1970-01-01
attribute date units String unitless
variable month   String  
attribute month bcodmo_name String month
attribute month description String 2-digit month when measurement was taken.
attribute month long_name String Month
attribute month nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/MNTHXXXX/ (external link)
attribute month units String mm (01 to 12)
variable day   String  
attribute day bcodmo_name String day
attribute day description String 2-digit day of month when measurement was taken.
attribute day long_name String Day
attribute day nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/DAYXXXXX/ (external link)
attribute day units String dd (01 to 31)
variable year   short  
attribute year _FillValue short 32767
attribute year actual_range short 2010, 2010
attribute year bcodmo_name String year
attribute year description String 4-digit year when measurement was taken in YYYY format.
attribute year long_name String Year
attribute year nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/YEARXXXX/ (external link)
attribute year units String unitless
variable present_or_absent   String  
attribute present_or_absent bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute present_or_absent description String Whether or not the lionfish was present.P = lionfish was present on reef.A = lionfish was absent on reef.
attribute present_or_absent long_name String Present Or Absent
attribute present_or_absent units String P (present) or A (absent)
variable len_tot   float  
attribute len_tot _FillValue float NaN
attribute len_tot actual_range float 2.1, 22.8
attribute len_tot bcodmo_name String fish_len
attribute len_tot description String Total length of lionfish in centimeters.
attribute len_tot long_name String Len Tot
attribute len_tot units String cm
variable mass   float  
attribute mass _FillValue float NaN
attribute mass actual_range float 0.12, 31.204
attribute mass bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute mass description String Mass of the lionfish (dry weight).
attribute mass long_name String Mass
attribute mass units String grams
variable num_days   byte  
attribute num_days _FillValue byte 127
attribute num_days actual_range byte 0, 71
attribute num_days bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute num_days description String Total number of days up to that measurement.
attribute num_days long_name String Num Days
attribute num_days units String integer
variable growth_rate   float  
attribute growth_rate _FillValue float NaN
attribute growth_rate actual_range float 0.033, 0.929
attribute growth_rate bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute growth_rate description String Growth rate of lionfish since last measurement in centimeters per day.
attribute growth_rate long_name String Growth Rate
attribute growth_rate units String cm/day
variable notes   String  
attribute notes bcodmo_name String comment
attribute notes description String Any information including descriptions about behavoir or interesting observations.
attribute notes long_name String Notes
attribute notes units String text

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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