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Dataset Title:  Behavioral observations of lionfish at native Pacific and invaded Atlantic
locations (Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Guam, Philippines) from 2009-2012 (Lionfish
Invasion project)
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Institution:  BCO-DMO   (Dataset ID: bcodmo_dataset_3975)
Information:  Summary ? | License ? | ISO 19115 | Metadata | Background (external link) | Files | Make a graph
 
Variable ?   Optional
Constraint #1 ?
Optional
Constraint #2 ?
   Minimum ?
 
   Maximum ?
 
 basin (text) ?          "Caribbean"    "Pacific"
 region (text) ?          "Bahamas"    "Philippines"
 site (text) ?          "Achang_Channel"    "West_Agana"
 latitude (degrees_north) ?          9.073039    23.81761
  < slider >
 longitude (degrees_east) ?          -80.06091    144.800067
  < slider >
 date (unitless) ?          "01/04/2010"    "12/31/2009"
 month (mm (01 to 12)) ?          "01"    "12"
 day (dd (01 to 31)) ?          "01"    "31"
 year (unitless) ?          2009    2010
 time_sunrise (HH:MM) ?          "05:30"    "07:00"
 time_sunset (HH:MM) ?          "17:51"    "19:50"
 method (text) ?          "Scuba"    "Snorkel"
 time_start (HH:MM) ?          "06:00"    "18:21"
 time_start_adjusted (HH:MM) ?          "00:00"    "13:33"
 person (text) ?          "AM"    "TP"
 location (text) ?          "0_from_WM"    "~50m_/_90_deg_to_m..."
 body_orientation (text) ?          "4_all_under_large_..."    "vertical"
 habitat (text) ?          "Artificial"    "Sponge"
 weather (text) ?          "C"    "PC"
 current_strength (text) ?          "H"    "NaN"
 tagged (yes/no) ?          "n"    "y"
 fish_id (code) ?          "B1"    "NaN"
 num_spines_clipped (text or numbers) ?          "10"    "need_clarify_(2;3;4)"
 fish_tag_code (text or numbers) ?          "BBPTV-01/R-BC"    "WAPTV-02"
 size_est (cm) ?          5    35
 size_class (cm) ?          "10_to_15"    "NaN"
 resting_time (proportion) ?          0.0    1.0
 min_activity_time (proportion) ?          0.0    1.0
 active_time (proportion) ?          0.0    1.0
 passive_hunt_time (proportion) ?          0.0    1.0
 very_active_hunt_time (proportion) ?          0.0    1.0
 avg_activity (proportion) ?          0.0    0.8
 total_hunting_time (proportion) ?          0.0    1.0
 num_of_strikes (integer) ?          0    8
 strikes_at_species (code/text) ?          "0"    "yell&blue wrasse;f..."
 num_blows (integer) ?          "0"    "see Num_blows_Note_1"
 blows_at_species (code/text) ?          "0"    "z"
 num_aggressions (integer) ?          0    6
 aggression_at_species (code/text) ?          "0"    "Unidentified Trigg..."
 num_kills (integer) ?          0    3
 killed_species (code/text) ?          "0"    "water column; not ..."
 prey_size (cm) ?          "0"    "unk"
 num_aggression_against_PTVO (integer) ?          0    8
 aggressive_species (code/text) ?          "0"    "see Agg_sp_Note_5"
 notes (text) ?          "11:47:08 AUMA (11...."    "~10 30 cm grunts a..."
 
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The Dataset Attribute Structure (.das) for this Dataset

Attributes {
 s {
  basin {
    String bcodmo_name "site_descrip";
    String description "Atlantic or Pacific Ocean.";
    String long_name "Basin";
    String units "text";
  }
  region {
    String bcodmo_name "site_descrip";
    String description "Region sampled.";
    String long_name "Region";
    String units "text";
  }
  site {
    String bcodmo_name "site";
    String description "Name of the reef site.";
    String long_name "Site";
    String units "text";
  }
  latitude {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Lat";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range 9.073039, 23.81761;
    String axis "Y";
    String bcodmo_name "latitude";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 90.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -90.0;
    String description "Latitude of the reef site.";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Latitude";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/";
    String standard_name "latitude";
    String units "degrees_north";
  }
  longitude {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Lon";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range -80.06091, 144.800067;
    String axis "X";
    String bcodmo_name "longitude";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 180.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -180.0;
    String description "Longitude of the reef site.";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Longitude";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/";
    String standard_name "longitude";
    String units "degrees_east";
  }
  date {
    String bcodmo_name "date";
    String description "Date in which observation was taken in�mm/dd/YYYY format.";
    String long_name "Date";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/";
    String source_name "date";
    String time_precision "1970-01-01";
    String units "unitless";
  }
  month {
    String bcodmo_name "month";
    String description "2-digit month when observation was made.";
    String long_name "Month";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/MNTHXXXX/";
    String units "mm (01 to 12)";
  }
  day {
    String bcodmo_name "day";
    String description "2-digit day of month when observation was made.";
    String long_name "Day";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/DAYXXXXX/";
    String units "dd (01 to 31)";
  }
  year {
    Int16 _FillValue 32767;
    Int16 actual_range 2009, 2010;
    String bcodmo_name "year";
    String description "4-digit year when observation was made in�YYYY format.";
    String long_name "Year";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/YEARXXXX/";
    String units "unitless";
  }
  time_sunrise {
    String bcodmo_name "time_local";
    String description "Time (local) of sunrise at region sampled.";
    String long_name "Time Sunrise";
    String units "HH:MM";
  }
  time_sunset {
    String bcodmo_name "time_local";
    String description "Time (local) of sunset at region sampled.";
    String long_name "Time Sunset";
    String units "HH:MM";
  }
  method {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Description of method use for observation (snorkel or scuba).";
    String long_name "Method";
    String units "text";
  }
  time_start {
    String bcodmo_name "time_start";
    String description "Time of day when 10-minute observation started.";
    String long_name "Time Start";
    String units "HH:MM";
  }
  time_start_adjusted {
    String bcodmo_name "time_start";
    String description "Time in hours and minutes between observation start and sunset at each site (i.e. time_start_adjusted = time_sunset - time_start)";
    String long_name "Time Start Adjusted";
    String units "HH:MM";
  }
  person {
    String bcodmo_name "investigator";
    String description "Initials of person who observed lionfish.";
    String long_name "Person";
    String units "text";
  }
  location {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Description of specific area where lionfish was found at study site.";
    String long_name "Location";
    String units "text";
  }
  body_orientation {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Description of specific body position of lionfish during the observation period.";
    String long_name "Body Orientation";
    String units "text";
  }
  habitat {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Desciption of the habitat.Artificial = wrecks, tires, logs, piers, any kind of man-made or associated habitat.Coral = continuous reef or coral patch.Sand/rubble = sandy or coarse rubble area.Sponge = sponge gardens.Rock/boulder/cave = large rocks and boulders especially along channels. Seagrass = seagrass beds.";
    String long_name "Habitat";
    String units "text";
  }
  weather {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Description of weather/cloud-cover.C = clear 0-25%PC = partly cloudy 25-75%O = overcast >75%";
    String long_name "Weather";
    String units "text";
  }
  current_strength {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Description of current strength.low = diver barely kicking to maintain position.medium = periodic kicking required by diver to maintain position.high = constant kicking by diver required to maintain position.";
    String long_name "Current Strength";
    String units "text";
  }
  tagged {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Describes whether or not elastomer tag was present on observed lionfish.";
    String long_name "Tagged";
    String units "yes/no";
  }
  fish_id {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Identifies individuals when they were tagged according to a numbered record.";
    String long_name "Fish Id";
    String units "code";
  }
  num_spines_clipped {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Numbers for the dorsal spines which were clipped on tagged individuals (e.g. 3;10 means spines # 3 and 10 were clipped). NC stands for not clipped.";
    String long_name "Num Spines Clipped";
    String units "text or numbers";
  }
  fish_tag_code {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Describes combination of letters used to identify elsatomer tag placement along body (e.g. L-GM means tag is on the left side; green color in the mid region).";
    String long_name "Fish Tag Code";
    String units "text or numbers";
  }
  size_est {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 5, 35;
    String bcodmo_name "fish_len";
    String description "Size in cm; estimated visually.";
    String long_name "Size Est";
    String units "cm";
  }
  size_class {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Classes in 5 cm increments for posterior analyses.";
    String long_name "Size Class";
    String units "cm";
  }
  resting_time {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.0, 1.0;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Total proportion of 10 minute observation lionfish spent resting (0).";
    String long_name "Resting Time";
    String units "proportion";
  }
  min_activity_time {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.0, 1.0;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Total proportion of 10 minute observation lionfish spent in minimal activity (1).";
    String long_name "Min Activity Time";
    String units "proportion";
  }
  active_time {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.0, 1.0;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Total proportion of 10 minute observation that lionfish was active (2).";
    String long_name "Active Time";
    String units "proportion";
  }
  passive_hunt_time {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.0, 1.0;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Total proportion of 10 minute observation that lionfish spent passively hunting (3).";
    String long_name "Passive Hunt Time";
    String units "proportion";
  }
  very_active_hunt_time {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.0, 1.0;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Total proportion of 10 minute observation that lionfish was hunting/very active (4).";
    String long_name "Very Active Hunt Time";
    String units "proportion";
  }
  avg_activity {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.0, 0.8;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Weighted average of proportions of time spent in all observed activities during each 10-minute observation. avg_activity = [(0*resting_time)+(1*min_activity_time)+(2*active_time)+(3*passive_hunt_time)+(4*very_active_hunt_time)]/5";
    String long_name "Avg Activity";
    String units "proportion";
  }
  total_hunting_time {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.0, 1.0;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Sum of proportion of time spent hunting (passive hunting + active hunting).";
    String long_name "Total Hunting Time";
    String units "proportion";
  }
  num_of_strikes {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 0, 8;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Total number of strikes by lionfish against prey.";
    String long_name "Num Of Strikes";
    String units "integer";
  }
  strikes_at_species {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Identification of species or taxa striked against by lionfish for each strike.";
    String long_name "Strikes At Species";
    String units "code/text";
  }
  num_blows {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Total number of blows against prey.";
    String long_name "Num Blows";
    String units "integer";
  }
  blows_at_species {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Identification of species or taxa blown against by lionfish.";
    String long_name "Blows At Species";
    String units "code/text";
  }
  num_aggressions {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 0, 6;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Total number of aggressions by lionfish against other species.";
    String long_name "Num Aggressions";
    String units "integer";
  }
  aggression_at_species {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Identification of species or taxa aggresive towards lionfish.";
    String long_name "Aggression At Species";
    String units "code/text";
  }
  num_kills {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 0, 3;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Total number of kills.";
    String long_name "Num Kills";
    String units "integer";
  }
  killed_species {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Identification of species or taxa killed by lionfish.";
    String long_name "Killed Species";
    String units "code/text";
  }
  prey_size {
    String bcodmo_name "fish_len";
    String description "Estimate of prey size (cm) when a kill occurred.";
    String long_name "Prey Size";
    String units "cm";
  }
  num_aggression_against_PTVO {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 0, 8;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Total number of aggressions by other species against lionfish.";
    String long_name "Num Aggression Against PTVO";
    String units "integer";
  }
  aggressive_species {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Identification of species or taxa aggresive towards lionfish.";
    String long_name "Aggressive Species";
    String units "code/text";
  }
  notes {
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Data entry related or QA/AC related notes or notes about a particular observation. NONE or nd if no notes associated with observation.";
    String long_name "Notes";
    String units "text";
  }
 }
  NC_GLOBAL {
    String access_formats ".htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson";
    String acquisition_description 
"This sub-project aimed to compare native vs. invasive populations of lionfish,
in order to assess some of the potential factors responsible for the invasive
success of lionfish in the Atlantic. Assessment in the native range included
analysis of behaviour and juvenile growth patterns, at two general locations:
Guam and the Philippines. Behaviour was assessed via 10-minute observations on
inividual lionfish, aiming to assess different individuals and their hunting
behaviour as well as interactions with other species at different times of the
day. Observations were done wherever lionfish were found, and included
artificial habitats, coral reefs, sandy areas and reef channels with
rock/boulder habitat. Observations in the native range were then compared to
those at invaded locations (Bahamas and Caymans) undertaken with identical
methods by other members of the team. Data were QA/QCd by spot checking
against original field data sheets.
 
Lengthy notes/comments extracted from dataset are below. Indicated by
'see_Note_x' in the data.
 
Notes in strikes_at_species column:  
 Strikes_at_sp_Note_1 = Not visible but around P. coelestis and wanting to
feed on them  
 Stikes_at_sp_Note_2 = Plotosus lineatus and something not visible in the
water column  
 Strikes_at_sp_Note_3 = Recruits pomacentrids & cardinals less than 2cm  
 Strikes_at_sp_Note_4 = Unidentified Apogonidae with bright yell spot on the
caudal peduncle
 
\\----------------------------  
Notes in num_blows column:  
 Num_blows_Note_1 = 4 (plus 3 continuous bLings at a little sandy bay under a
rock)  
 \\u00a0  
 ----------------------------  
Notes in blows_at_species column:  
 Blows_at_sp_Note_1 = unidentified; not possible to view from distance  
 Blows_at_sp_Note_2 = Labrid small; perhaps Labroides bicolor  
 Blows_at_sp_Note_3 = unidentified; cannot see from distance at which
observer located and water murky; only prey IDd nearby was yell and blue
little fish  
 Blows_at_sp_Note_4 = While being cleaned by L. dimidaitus  
 Blows_at_sp_Note_5 = cardinalfish bright yelL margin on dorsal fin
 
\\---------------------------------  
Notes in aggression_at_species column:  
 Aggrssn_at_Note_1 = 2 pennant bannerfish(H.chrysostomus);agression=approach
w flared fins & upright spines;slight movement displaced Heniochus  
 Aggrssn_at_Note_2 = 2X P.antennata;flaring fins & moving to defend;1 against
lrgr PTVO(27cm) that it encntrd looking for diff spot;got it out of its hole &
occupied hole  
 Aggrssn_at_Note_3 = Parrotfish large darting by; lion reacted by flaring
spines defensively
 
\\------------------------  
Notes in killed_species column:  
 Killed_sp_Note_1 = Invert maybe;not seen;definite action under boat while
upsidedown amongst algae overgrowth  
 Killed_sp_Note_2 = Not visible but feeding observed;must be prey small
enough to not be seen at distance of observation  
 Killed_sp_Note_3 = Not visible but clearly lion turned around from position
and ate
 
\\------------------------  
Notes in aggressive_species column:  
 Agg_sp_Note_1 = PTVO smaller size (13) approached with flared fins trying to
get a hunting spot  
 Agg_sp_Note_2 = PTVO smaller size approached it with flared fins and kept
staring at it;no close approach but enought to cause this animal to move away
and stop rest. This PTVO was observed by Brett Taylor, line 39  
 Agg_sp_Note_3 = Ptvo larger 37 cm; kept displacing this one from its
position  
 Agg_sp_Note_4 = Ptvo larger 37 cm;\\u00a0 displaced it from its position  
 Agg_sp_Note_5 = PTAT 10cm moved voli from its spot
 
\\-----------------------------------  
Notes in location column:  
 Loc_Note_1 = 260 deg from mooring / 270 deg from x-mas tree / 310 deg over
little mushroom  
 Loc_Note_2 = 10 deg from ally with mallet head on right / mallet head is 235
deg from x-mas tree  
 Loc_Note_3 = 80 deg to triple head (?) boundary ~10 m/past other 2 300 deg
to lion ledge/ 3 fan rock  
 Loc_Note_4 = New head across alley from flag 290/300 to Lion ledge (closer
to lion ledge)  
 Loc_Note_5 = Near Goniopora field;Under plate of coral at cleaning stn being
cleaned by a blue&yell wrasse w straight caudal fin  
 Loc_Note_6 = On table Porites rus at the northernmost part of the dive;
towards Love Rock; next to previous  
 Loc_Note_7 = On table Porites rus at the northernmost part of the dive;
towards Love Rock  
 Loc_Note_8 = Under ledge of almost dead skirt like coral w no bumps;not
P.rus;reddish color;looks like P. asteroides in Caribbn  
 Loc_Note_9 = Massive semi dead;under larger volitans;moved & sat next to the
big guy & repositioned itself  
 Loc_Note_10 = On Boulder;Non Coral;undrneath & close to PTVO 32cm;ended next
to big guy;at cleaning stn at branching Porites  
 Loc_Note_11 = At boulder;non-coral;next to Prus cleaning colony;another PTVO
under it in silt
 
\\-----------------------  
Notes in body_orientation column:  
 Body_Note_1 = Upright and exposed but upon approach kept running away and
tucking itself more and more until ended up in cave with only pectorals and
tail seen  
 Body_Note_2 = Area w sm colonies of Pocillopora & recruit Chromis;vertcl
position;under boat canopy;recently fallen;couldnt find lttle guy;kept
envrnmnt dark & kept opening&closing space  
 Body_Note_3 = On top of massive boulder w somewhat live coral;horizntl
position;next to darker phase volitans almost touching each other  
 Body_Note_4 = Under sm ledge near bottm facing wall vertically;diff place
than othr times;but same head  
 Body_Note_5 = Upright on sandy bottom; under boulder; could be seen through
a hole; right next to previous one";
    String awards_0_award_nid "55160";
    String awards_0_award_number "OCE-0851162";
    String awards_0_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=0851162";
    String awards_0_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_0_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_0_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_0_program_manager "David L. Garrison";
    String awards_0_program_manager_nid "50534";
    String cdm_data_type "Other";
    String comment 
"Comparative lionfish behavior (native vs. invaded locations) 
  (From sub-project \"Inter-Ocean Comparative Lionfish Behavior and Growth\") 
 Lead PI: Mark Hixon (OSU) 
 Sub-Project Lead: Katherine Cure 
 Version: 21 June 2013";
    String Conventions "COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3";
    String creator_email "info@bco-dmo.org";
    String creator_name "BCO-DMO";
    String creator_type "institution";
    String creator_url "https://www.bco-dmo.org/";
    String data_source "extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3  19 Dec 2019";
    String date_created "2013-06-26T18:52:30Z";
    String date_modified "2019-11-12T19:48:54Z";
    String defaultDataQuery "&amp;time&lt;now";
    String doi "10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.3975.1";
    Float64 Easternmost_Easting 144.800067;
    Float64 geospatial_lat_max 23.81761;
    Float64 geospatial_lat_min 9.073039;
    String geospatial_lat_units "degrees_north";
    Float64 geospatial_lon_max 144.800067;
    Float64 geospatial_lon_min -80.06091;
    String geospatial_lon_units "degrees_east";
    String history 
"2020-07-11T10:35:01Z (local files)
2020-07-11T10:35:01Z https://erddap.bco-dmo.org/erddap/tabledap/bcodmo_dataset_3975.html";
    String infoUrl "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3975";
    String institution "BCO-DMO";
    String keywords "active, active_time, activity, adjusted, against, aggression, aggression_at_species, aggressions, aggressive, aggressive_species, array, array-data, average, avg_activity, basin, bco, bco-dmo, biological, blows, blows_at_species, body, body_orientation, chemical, class, clipped, code, comprehensive, current, current_strength, data, dataset, date, day, dmo, erddap, est, fish, fish_id, fish_tag_code, habitat, hunt, hunting, killed, killed_species, kills, large, latitude, longitude, management, method, min, min_activity_time, month, notes, num, num_aggression_against_PTVO, num_aggressions, num_blows, num_kills, num_of_strikes, num_spines_clipped, oceanography, office, orientation, passive, passive_hunt_time, person, preliminary, prey, prey_size, ptvo, region, resting, resting_time, site, size, size_class, size_est, species, spines, start, stewardship, strength, strikes, strikes_at_species, sunrise, sunset, system, tag, tagged, time, time_start, time_start_adjusted, time_sunrise, time_sunset, total, total_hunting_time, very, very_active_hunt_time, weather, year";
    String license "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/3975/license";
    String metadata_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/3975";
    Float64 Northernmost_Northing 23.81761;
    String param_mapping "{'3975': {'lat': 'master - latitude', 'lon': 'master - longitude'}}";
    String parameter_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/3975/parameters";
    String people_0_affiliation "Oregon State University";
    String people_0_affiliation_acronym "OSU";
    String people_0_person_name "Mark Hixon";
    String people_0_person_nid "51647";
    String people_0_role "Lead Principal Investigator";
    String people_0_role_type "originator";
    String people_1_affiliation "University of Guam Marine Laboratory";
    String people_1_affiliation_acronym "UOGML";
    String people_1_person_name "Katherine Cure";
    String people_1_person_nid "51710";
    String people_1_role "Scientist";
    String people_1_role_type "originator";
    String people_2_affiliation "Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution";
    String people_2_affiliation_acronym "WHOI BCO-DMO";
    String people_2_person_name "Shannon Rauch";
    String people_2_person_nid "51498";
    String people_2_role "BCO-DMO Data Manager";
    String people_2_role_type "related";
    String project "Lionfish Invasion";
    String projects_0_acronym "Lionfish Invasion";
    String projects_0_description 
"Invasive species are increasingly introduced by human activities to new regions of the world where those species have never existed previously. In the absence of natural enemies (predators, competitors, and diseases) from their homeland, invasives may have strong negative effects on invaded ecosystems, especially systems with fewer species (\"ecological release\"), and may even drive native species extinct. However, if native natural enemies can somehow control the invaders (\"ecological resistance\"), then ecological disruption can be prevented or at least moderated. Most of the many invasive species in the sea have been seaweeds and invertebrates, and the few documented invasive marine fishes have not caused major problems. However, this situation has recently changed in a stunning and ominous way. In the early 1990s, lionfish (Pterois volitans) from the Pacific Ocean were accidentally or intentionally released from aquaria to the ocean in the vicinity of Florida. Camouflaged by shape and color, protected by venomous spines, consuming native coral-reef fishes voraciously, and reproducing rapidly, lionfish have subsequently undergone a population explosion. They now range from the mid-Atlantic coast of the US to the Caribbean, including the Bahamas. Native Atlantic fishes have never before encountered this spiny, stealthy, efficient predator and seldom take evasive action. In fact, the investigator has documented that a single lionfish is capable of reducing the abundance of small fish on a small coral patch reef by nearly 80% in just 5 weeks. There is great concern that invasive lionfish may severely reduce the abundance of native coral-reef fishes important as food for humans (e.g., grouper and snapper in their juvenile stages) as well as species that normally maintain the integrity of coral reefs (e.g., grazing parrotfishes that can prevent seaweeds from smothering corals). There are far more species of coral-reef fish in the Pacific than the Atlantic, so this invasion may represent a case of extreme ecological release with minor ecological resistance. Dr. Hixon and colleagues will study the mechanisms of ecological release in lionfish, as well as examine potential sources of ecological resistance in the heavily invaded Bahamas. Because very little is known about the ecology and behavior of lionfish in their native Pacific range, he will also conduct comparative studies in both oceans, which may provide clues regarding the extreme success of this invasion. In the Bahamas, the investigator will document the direct and indirect effects on native species of the ecological release of lionfish, both as a predator and as a competitor. These studies will be conducted at various scales of time and space, from short-term experiments on small patch reefs, to long-term experiments and observations on large reefs. Whereas direct effects involve mostly changes in the abundance of native species, indirect effects can be highly variable. For example, lionfish may actually indirectly benefit some native species by either consuming or outcompeting the competitors of those natives. The project will explore possible ecological resistance to the invasion by determining whether any native Bahamian species are effective natural enemies of lionfish, including predators, parasites, and competitors of both juvenile and adult lionfish. Comparative studies of natural enemies, as well as lionfish ecology and behavior, in both the Atlantic and the Pacific may provide clues regarding the explosive spread of lionfish in the Atlantic.
Regarding broader impacts, this basic research will provide information valuable to coral-reef and fisheries managers fighting the lionfish invasion in the US, the Bahamas, and the greater Caribbean, especially if sources of native ecological resistance are identified. The study will fund the PhD research of U.S. graduate students, as well as involve assistance and participation by a broad variety of undergraduates and reef/fisheries managers, including women, minorities, native Bahamians, and native Pacific islanders. Participation in this project will promote education in marine ecology and conservation biology directly via Dr. Hixon's and graduate students' teaching and outreach activities, and indirectly via the experiences of undergraduate field assistants and various associates.";
    String projects_0_end_date "2012-11";
    String projects_0_geolocation "Bahamas; Cayman Islands; Mariana Islands; Philippines";
    String projects_0_name "Ecological Release and Resistance at Sea: Invasion of Atlantic Coral Reefs by Pacific Lionfish";
    String projects_0_project_nid "2256";
    String projects_0_project_website "http://hixon.science.oregonstate.edu/content/highlight-lionfish-invasion";
    String projects_0_start_date "2009-06";
    String publisher_name "Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)";
    String publisher_type "institution";
    String sourceUrl "(local files)";
    Float64 Southernmost_Northing 9.073039;
    String standard_name_vocabulary "CF Standard Name Table v55";
    String summary "Behavioral observations of lionfish, with a focus on hunting activity throughout the day, at native Pacific (Guam and the Philippines) vs. invasive Atlantic locations (Bahamas and Caymans) to assess possible differences between ranges. Particular emphasis was placed on species hunted, time spent hunting and total numbers of kills and strikes. The investigators hypothesized that lionfish at invaded locations would have higher success at killing prey and spend less time hunting.";
    String title "Behavioral observations of lionfish at native Pacific and invaded Atlantic locations (Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Guam, Philippines) from 2009-2012 (Lionfish Invasion project)";
    String version "1";
    Float64 Westernmost_Easting -80.06091;
    String xml_source "osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3";
  }
}

 

Using tabledap to Request Data and Graphs from Tabular Datasets

tabledap lets you request a data subset, a graph, or a map from a tabular dataset (for example, buoy data), via a specially formed URL. tabledap uses the OPeNDAP (external link) Data Access Protocol (DAP) (external link) and its selection constraints (external link).

The URL specifies what you want: the dataset, a description of the graph or the subset of the data, and the file type for the response.

Tabledap request URLs must be in the form
https://coastwatch.pfeg.noaa.gov/erddap/tabledap/datasetID.fileType{?query}
For example,
https://coastwatch.pfeg.noaa.gov/erddap/tabledap/pmelTaoDySst.htmlTable?longitude,latitude,time,station,wmo_platform_code,T_25&time>=2015-05-23T12:00:00Z&time<=2015-05-31T12:00:00Z
Thus, the query is often a comma-separated list of desired variable names, followed by a collection of constraints (e.g., variable<value), each preceded by '&' (which is interpreted as "AND").

For details, see the tabledap Documentation.


 
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