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Dataset Title:  Pteropod shell dissolution in natural and high-CO2 environments from samples
collected on RRS James Clark Ross cruise JR177 in the Scotia Sea, Southern
Ocean from 2007-2008
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Institution:  BCO-DMO   (Dataset ID: bcodmo_dataset_489471)
Information:  Summary ? | License ? | ISO 19115 | Metadata | Background (external link) | Subset | Files | Make a graph
 
Variable ?   Optional
Constraint #1 ?
Optional
Constraint #2 ?
   Minimum ?
   or a List of Values ?
   Maximum ?
 
 treatment (dimensionless) ?          "Natural_control"    "Undersaturation"
 incubation_time (days) ?          4    14
 N (dimensionless) ?          9    11
 species (dimensionless) ?      
   - +  ?
 sal (dimensionless) ?          33.82    33.86
 temp (Temperature, degrees Celsius) ?          3    4
 phosphate (micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)) ?          1.15    1.8
 silicate (micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)) ?          8.0    12.5
 alk_tot (micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)) ?          2290.6    2360.3
 alk_tot_stdev (micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)) ?          1.3    8.9
 DIC (micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)) ?          2123.0    2298.3
 DIC_stdev (micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)) ?          0.0    61.9
 pH (dimensionless) ?          7.7    8.13
 pH_stdev (dimensionless) ?          0.01    0.13
 pCO2 (microatmospheres (uatm)) ?          318    940
 pCO2_stdev (microatmospheres (uatm)) ?          12    111
 bicarbonate (micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)) ?          1983.1    2192.7
 bicarbonate_stdev (micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)) ?          4.4    91.9
 carbonate (micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)) ?          51.6    121.6
 carbonate_stdev (micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)) ?          0.9    39.6
 omega_Arg (dimensionless) ?          0.78    1.82
 omega_Arg_stdev (dimensionless) ?          0.02    0.6
 non_diss (percentage (%)) ?          0.04    0.997
 non_diss_stdev (percentage (%)) ?          0.005    0.15
 diss_rate1 (percentage (%)) ?          0.002    0.8
 diss_rate1_stdev (percentage (%)) ?          0.003    0.15
 diss_rate2 (percentage (%)) ?          0.0    0.26
 diss_rate2_stdev (percentage (%)) ?          0.0    0.1
 diss_rate3 (percentage (%)) ?          0.0    0.31
 diss_rate3_stdev (percentage (%)) ?          0.0    0.06
 
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The Dataset Attribute Structure (.das) for this Dataset

Attributes {
 s {
  treatment {
    String bcodmo_name "treatment";
    String description "Type of experimental treatment.";
    String long_name "Treatment";
    String units "dimensionless";
  }
  incubation_time {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 4, 14;
    String bcodmo_name "incubation time";
    String description "Number of days incubated.";
    String long_name "Incubation Time";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/AZDRZZ01/";
    String units "days";
  }
  N {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 9, 11;
    String bcodmo_name "number";
    String description "Number of samples in the treatment.";
    String long_name "N";
    String units "dimensionless";
  }
  species {
    String bcodmo_name "species";
    String description "Name of the species of study.";
    String long_name "Species";
    String units "dimensionless";
  }
  sal {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 33.82, 33.86;
    String bcodmo_name "sal";
    String description "Salinity.";
    String long_name "Sal";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/PSALST01/";
    String units "dimensionless";
  }
  temp {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 3, 4;
    String bcodmo_name "temperature";
    String description "Water temperature.";
    String long_name "Temperature";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/TEMPP901/";
    String units "degrees Celsius";
  }
  phosphate {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 1.15, 1.8;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Phosphate concentration.";
    String long_name "Mass Concentration Of Phosphate In Sea Water";
    String units "micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)";
  }
  silicate {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 8.0, 12.5;
    String bcodmo_name "SiOH_4";
    String description "Silicate concentration.";
    String long_name "Mass Concentration Of Silicate In Sea Water";
    String units "micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)";
  }
  alk_tot {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 2290.6, 2360.3;
    String bcodmo_name "TALK";
    String description "Total alkalinity.";
    String long_name "Alk Tot";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/MDMAP014/";
    String units "micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)";
  }
  alk_tot_stdev {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 1.3, 8.9;
    String bcodmo_name "standard deviation";
    String description "Standard deviation of alk_tot.";
    String long_name "Alk Tot Stdev";
    String units "micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)";
  }
  DIC {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 2123.0, 2298.3;
    String bcodmo_name "DIC";
    String description "Total dissolved inorganic carbon.";
    String long_name "DIC";
    String units "micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)";
  }
  DIC_stdev {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.0, 61.9;
    String bcodmo_name "standard deviation";
    String description "Standard deviation of C_tot.";
    String long_name "DIC Stdev";
    String units "micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)";
  }
  pH {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 7.7, 8.13;
    String bcodmo_name "pH";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 9.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum 7.0;
    String description "pH of the water.";
    String long_name "Sea Water Ph Reported On Total Scale";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/PHXXZZXX/";
    String units "dimensionless";
  }
  pH_stdev {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.01, 0.13;
    String bcodmo_name "standard deviation";
    String description "Standard deviation of pH.";
    String long_name "P H Stdev";
    String units "dimensionless";
  }
  pCO2 {
    Int16 _FillValue 32767;
    Int16 actual_range 318, 940;
    String bcodmo_name "pCO2";
    String description "Partial pressure of carbon dioxide at sea surface temperature.";
    String long_name "P CO2";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/PCO2C101/";
    String units "microatmospheres (uatm)";
  }
  pCO2_stdev {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 12, 111;
    String bcodmo_name "standard deviation";
    String description "Standard deviation of pCO2.";
    String long_name "P CO2 Stdev";
    String units "microatmospheres (uatm)";
  }
  bicarbonate {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 1983.1, 2192.7;
    String bcodmo_name "bicarbonate";
    String description "Concentration of bicarbonate ion [HCO3]-.";
    String long_name "Bicarbonate";
    String units "micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)";
  }
  bicarbonate_stdev {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 4.4, 91.9;
    String bcodmo_name "standard deviation";
    String description "Standard deviation of bicarbonate concentration.";
    String long_name "Bicarbonate Stdev";
    String units "micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)";
  }
  carbonate {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 51.6, 121.6;
    String bcodmo_name "carbonate";
    String description "Concentration of carbonate ion [CO3]2-.";
    String long_name "Carbonate";
    String units "micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)";
  }
  carbonate_stdev {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.9, 39.6;
    String bcodmo_name "standard deviation";
    String description "Standard deviation of carbonate concentration.";
    String long_name "Carbonate Stdev";
    String units "micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)";
  }
  omega_Arg {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.78, 1.82;
    String bcodmo_name "OM_ar";
    String description "Aragonite saturation state.";
    String long_name "Omega Arg";
    String units "dimensionless";
  }
  omega_Arg_stdev {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.02, 0.6;
    String bcodmo_name "standard deviation";
    String description "Standard deviation of omega_Arg.";
    String long_name "Omega Arg Stdev";
    String units "dimensionless";
  }
  non_diss {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.04, 0.997;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Percentage of non-dissolving individuals as determined by SEM.";
    String long_name "Non Diss";
    String units "percentage (%)";
  }
  non_diss_stdev {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.005, 0.15;
    String bcodmo_name "standard deviation";
    String description "Standard deviation of non_diss.";
    String long_name "Non Diss Stdev";
    String units "percentage (%)";
  }
  diss_rate1 {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.002, 0.8;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Type I dissolution rate as determined by SEM. Bednarsek et al. (2012) describe Type I dissolution as \"First indices of slightly increased porosity. Aragonite crystals within the upper-prismatic layer affected by dissolution - ‘cauliflower heads’ present.\"";
    String long_name "Diss Rate1";
    String units "percentage (%)";
  }
  diss_rate1_stdev {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.003, 0.15;
    String bcodmo_name "standard deviation";
    String description "Standard deviation of diss_rate1.";
    String long_name "Diss Rate1 Stdev";
    String units "percentage (%)";
  }
  diss_rate2 {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.0, 0.26;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Type II dissolution rate as determined by SEM. Bednarsek et al. (2012) describe Type II dissolution as \"Increased porosity. Dissolved patches more extensive and numerous. Prismatic layer partially or completely dissolved, crossed-lamellar layer exposed.\"";
    String long_name "Diss Rate2";
    String units "percentage (%)";
  }
  diss_rate2_stdev {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.0, 0.1;
    String bcodmo_name "standard deviation";
    String description "Standard deviation of diss_rate2.";
    String long_name "Diss Rate2 Stdev";
    String units "percentage (%)";
  }
  diss_rate3 {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.0, 0.31;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "Type III dissolution rate as determined by SEM. Bednarsek et al. (2012) describe Type III dissolution as \"Less compact crystal structure with compromised shell integrity and extreme frailness. Dissolution within crossed-lamellar layer with crystals thicker and chunkier.\"";
    String long_name "Diss Rate3";
    String units "percentage (%)";
  }
  diss_rate3_stdev {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 0.0, 0.06;
    String bcodmo_name "standard deviation";
    String description "Standard deviation of diss_rate3.";
    String long_name "Diss Rate3 Stdev";
    String units "percentage (%)";
  }
 }
  NC_GLOBAL {
    String access_formats ".htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv";
    String acquisition_description 
"Sample collection:  
 Pteropods were collected from upper ocean water down to a maximum depth of
200 m from various locations across the Scotia Sea using a combination of
vertically and obliquely towed Bongo nets and MOCNESS nets during the JR177
research cruise. Oblique tows were carried out at speeds of less than 1 knot.
 
Experimental conditions:  
 A fraction of the captured specimens was preserved immediately in 70%
ethanol to act as controls for comparison with those exposed to raised pCO2
conditions. A further fraction of specimens was incubated at various levels of
pCO2 to test the effect on shell dissolution. Two liter bottles containing
filtered sea water (0.7 um filters) were bubbled with air/CO2 mixtures of 500
ppm, 750 ppm, and 1200 ppm, until the required xCO2 was reached. An average of
30 live pteropod of Limacina helicina ant. were incubated in each experimental
container and maintained for 4, 8, and 14 days before extraction and immediate
preservation in 70% ethanol. The majority of specimens were juvenile stages of
Limacina helicina ant., but the incubations were also carried out on adult
stages of both Limacina helicina ant. and Clio pyramidata f. ant.
 
Omega was assessed from measurements of DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon) and
total alkalinity (TA) at the start and end of each incubation experiment. DIC
and TA were measured using VINDTA instrument (Versatile INstrument for the
Determination of Titration Alkalinity, Marianda, Kiel, Germany) following the
Standard Operating Procedures for oceanic CO2 measurements (Dickson et al.
2007) with a Certified Reference Material (CRM) analysed in duplicate at the
beginning and end of each sample analysis day. Other carbonate chemistry
parameters (total pH and Omega-aragonite) were calculated from all discrete
samples using\\u00a0 DIC, TA, temperature, salinity, pressure and macronutrient
concentrations using the CO2SYS programme (Lewis and Wallace 1998) with
thermodynamic dissociation constants for K1 and K2 by Mehrbach et al. (1973)
refitted by Dickson & Millero (1987).
 
Shell dehydration:  
 Dehydration was undertaken using 2,2-Dimethoxypropane (DMP; chemical
formula: (CH3)2C(OCH3)2), and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS; chemical
formula: (CH3)3SiNHSi(CH3)3). Before starting dehydration with DMP, the shells
were transferred to 50% methanol for two 5 min washes then transferred to 85%
methanol (10 min). Complete tissue dehydration was accomplished by immersion
in DMP: two changes at 15-20 min each. It was important not to let the shells
air dry at this stage, so they were transferred to a 1:1 mixture of DMP and
HMDS for about 10 min, followed by 100% HMDS for 20\\u201325 min twice. The
HMDS was subsequently allowed to evaporate allowing the shells to dry
completely (Figure 2 of Bednarsek et al., 2012). The moderate vapor pressure
and very low surface tension of HMDS allowed the shells to dry without
distortion or loss of shell integrity.
 
SEM:  
 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was done using a JEOL JSM 5900LV fitted
with a tungsten filament at an acceleration voltage of 15 kV and a working
distance of about 10 mm. Analysis of SEM photos enabled observation of the
shell surface and identification of shell dissolution. Refer to Bednarsek et
al. (2012) for more information on dissolution types.";
    String awards_0_award_nid "54896";
    String awards_0_award_number "OCE-1041106";
    String awards_0_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1041106";
    String awards_0_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_0_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_0_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_0_program_manager "David L. Garrison";
    String awards_0_program_manager_nid "50534";
    String awards_1_award_nid "489479";
    String awards_1_award_number "NE/H017267/1";
    String awards_1_data_url "http://gtr.rcuk.ac.uk/project/098910A1-90B5-48DD-8EDA-E546F7FD36EC";
    String awards_1_funder_name "United Kingdom Natural Environmental Research Council";
    String awards_1_funding_acronym "NERC";
    String awards_1_funding_source_nid "363";
    String awards_2_award_nid "489482";
    String awards_2_award_number "MEST-CT-2004-514159";
    String awards_2_funder_name "European Commission Marie Curie Actions Program";
    String awards_2_funding_acronym "EC - Marie Curie Actions";
    String awards_2_funding_source_nid "489481";
    String cdm_data_type "Other";
    String comment 
"Pteropod shell dissolution 
 Lead PI: Geraint Tarling  
 Co-PIs: Dorothee C.E. Bakker & Sophie Fielding 
 Contact: Nina Bednarsek (NOAA) 
 Version: 03 Feb 2014";
    String Conventions "COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3";
    String creator_email "info@bco-dmo.org";
    String creator_name "BCO-DMO";
    String creator_type "institution";
    String creator_url "https://www.bco-dmo.org/";
    String data_source "extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3  19 Dec 2019";
    String date_created "2014-02-03T21:24:03Z";
    String date_modified "2019-11-21T17:45:15Z";
    String defaultDataQuery "&time<now";
    String doi "10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.489471.1";
    String history 
"2020-12-02T12:01:01Z (local files)
2020-12-02T12:01:01Z https://erddap.bco-dmo.org/erddap/tabledap/bcodmo_dataset_489471.html";
    String infoUrl "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/489471";
    String institution "BCO-DMO";
    String instruments_0_acronym "Bongo Net";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description "Specimens were collected by vertically integrating the upper 200 m using a vertical Bongo (mesh size 200 um with an opening of 0.5 m2) and a towed Bongo net (2 nets, with 300 um and 600 um mesh sizes).";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid "489534";
    String instruments_0_description "A Bongo Net consists of paired plankton nets, typically with a 60 cm diameter mouth opening and varying mesh sizes, 10 to 1000 micron. The Bongo Frame was designed by the National Marine Fisheries Service for use in the MARMAP program. It consists of two cylindrical collars connected with a yoke so that replicate samples are collected at the same time. Variations in models are designed for either vertical hauls (OI-2500 = NMFS Pairovet-Style, MARMAP Bongo, CalVET) or both oblique and vertical hauls (Aquatic Research). The OI-1200 has an opening and closing mechanism that allows discrete \"known-depth\" sampling. This model is large enough to filter water at the rate of 47.5 m3/minute when towing at a speed of two knots. More information: Ocean Instruments, Aquatic Research, Sea-Gear";
    String instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L22/current/NETT0009/";
    String instruments_0_instrument_name "Bongo Net";
    String instruments_0_instrument_nid "410";
    String instruments_0_supplied_name "Bongo Net";
    String instruments_1_acronym "MOCNESS";
    String instruments_1_dataset_instrument_description "Pteropods were collected using a combination of vertically and obliquely towed Bongo nets and MOCNESS nets";
    String instruments_1_dataset_instrument_nid "489535";
    String instruments_1_description "The Multiple Opening/Closing Net and Environmental Sensing System or MOCNESS is a family of net systems based on the Tucker Trawl principle. There are currently 8 different sizes of MOCNESS in existence which are designed for capture of different size ranges of zooplankton and micro-nekton  Each system is designated according to the size of the net mouth opening and in two cases, the number of nets it carries. The original MOCNESS (Wiebe et al, 1976) was a redesigned and improved version of a system described by Frost and McCrone (1974).(from MOCNESS manual)  This designation is used when the specific type of MOCNESS (number and size of nets) was not specified by the contributing investigator.";
    String instruments_1_instrument_external_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L22/current/NETT0097/";
    String instruments_1_instrument_name "MOCNESS";
    String instruments_1_instrument_nid "511";
    String instruments_1_supplied_name "MOCNESS";
    String instruments_2_acronym "inorganic carbon and alkalinity analyser";
    String instruments_2_dataset_instrument_description "DIC and TA were measured using VINDTA instrument (Versatile INstrument for the Determination of Titration Alkalinity, Marianda, Kiel, Germany) following the Standard Operating Procedures for oceanic CO2 measurements (Dickson et al. 2007).";
    String instruments_2_dataset_instrument_nid "489536";
    String instruments_2_description "The Versatile INstrument for the Determination of Total inorganic carbon and titration Alkalinity (VINDTA) 3C is a laboratory alkalinity titration system combined with an extraction unit for coulometric titration, which simultaneously determines the alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon content of a sample. The sample transport is performed with peristaltic pumps and acid is added to the sample using a membrane pump. No pressurizing system is required and only one gas supply (nitrogen or dry and CO2-free air) is necessary. The system uses a Metrohm Titrino 719S, an ORION-Ross pH electrode and a Metrohm reference electrode. The burette, the pipette and the analysis cell have a water jacket around them. Precision is typically +/- 1 umol/kg for TA and/or DIC in open ocean water.";
    String instruments_2_instrument_external_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L22/current/TOOL0481/";
    String instruments_2_instrument_name "MARIANDA VINDTA 3C total inorganic carbon and titration alkalinity analyser";
    String instruments_2_instrument_nid "686";
    String instruments_2_supplied_name "inorganic carbon and alkalinity analyser";
    String instruments_3_dataset_instrument_description "SEM was done using a JEOL JSM 5900LV fitted with a tungsten filament at an acceleration voltage of 15 kV and a working distance of about 10 mm.";
    String instruments_3_dataset_instrument_nid "489537";
    String instruments_3_description "Instruments that generate enlarged images of samples using the phenomena of reflection and absorption of electrons behaving as waves.";
    String instruments_3_instrument_external_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB07/";
    String instruments_3_instrument_name "Microscope-Electron";
    String instruments_3_instrument_nid "709";
    String instruments_3_supplied_name "Scanning Electron Microscope";
    String keywords "alk, alk_tot, alk_tot_stdev, altimetry, arg, bco, bco-dmo, bicarbonate, bicarbonate_stdev, biological, carbon, carbon dioxide, carbonate, carbonate_stdev, chemical, chemistry, co2, co3, concentration, data, dataset, deviation, dic, DIC_stdev, dioxide, diss, diss_rate1, diss_rate1_stdev, diss_rate2, diss_rate2_stdev, diss_rate3, diss_rate3_stdev, dmo, earth, Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Chemistry > pH, Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Chemistry > Phosphate, Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Chemistry > Silicate, erddap, incubation, incubation_time, laboratory, management, mass, mass_concentration_of_phosphate_in_sea_water, mass_concentration_of_silicate_in_sea_water, non, non_diss, non_diss_stdev, ocean, oceanography, oceans, office, omega, omega_Arg, omega_Arg_stdev, pCO2, pCO2_stdev, pH_stdev, phosphate, po4, preliminary, rate1, rate2, rate3, reported, sal, satellite, scale, science, sea, sea_water_ph_reported_on_total_scale, seawater, silicate, species, standard, standard deviation, stdev, temperature, time, tot, total, treatment, water";
    String keywords_vocabulary "GCMD Science Keywords";
    String license "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/489471/license";
    String metadata_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/489471";
    String param_mapping "{'489471': {}}";
    String parameter_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/489471/parameters";
    String people_0_affiliation "British Antarctic Survey";
    String people_0_affiliation_acronym "BAS";
    String people_0_person_name "Geraint Tarling";
    String people_0_person_nid "489466";
    String people_0_role "Lead Principal Investigator";
    String people_0_role_type "originator";
    String people_1_affiliation "University of East Anglia";
    String people_1_affiliation_acronym "UEA";
    String people_1_person_name "Dorothee C.E. Bakker";
    String people_1_person_nid "50929";
    String people_1_role "Co-Principal Investigator";
    String people_1_role_type "originator";
    String people_2_affiliation "British Antarctic Survey";
    String people_2_affiliation_acronym "BAS";
    String people_2_person_name "Sophie Fielding";
    String people_2_person_nid "489467";
    String people_2_role "Co-Principal Investigator";
    String people_2_role_type "originator";
    String people_3_affiliation "National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration";
    String people_3_affiliation_acronym "NOAA-PMEL";
    String people_3_person_name "Nina Bednarsek";
    String people_3_person_nid "489468";
    String people_3_role "Contact";
    String people_3_role_type "related";
    String people_4_affiliation "Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution";
    String people_4_affiliation_acronym "WHOI BCO-DMO";
    String people_4_person_name "Shannon Rauch";
    String people_4_person_nid "51498";
    String people_4_role "BCO-DMO Data Manager";
    String people_4_role_type "related";
    String project "OA Nutrition and Coral Calcification";
    String projects_0_acronym "OA Nutrition and Coral Calcification";
    String projects_0_description 
"The project description is a modification of the original NSF award abstract.
This research project is part of the larger NSF funded CRI-OA collaborative research initiative and was funded as an Ocean Acidification-Category 1, 2010 award. Over the course of this century, all tropical coral reef ecosystems, whether fringing heavily populated coastlines or lining remote islands and atolls, face unprecedented threat from ocean acidification caused by rising levels of atmospheric CO2. In many laboratory experiments conducted to date, calcium carbonate production (calcification) by scleractinian (stony) corals showed an inverse correlation to seawater saturation state OMEGAar), whether OMEGAar was manipulated by acid or CO2 addition. Based on these data, it is predicted that coral calcification rates could decline by up to 80% of modern values by the end of this century. A growing body of new experimental data however, suggests that the coral calcification response to ocean acidification may be less straightforward and a lot more variable than previously recognized. In at least 10 recent experiments including our own, 8 different tropical and temperate species reared under nutritionally-replete but significantly elevated CO2 conditions (780-1200 ppm, OMEAGar ~1.5-2), continued to calcify at rates comparable to conspecifics reared under ambient CO2. These experimental results are consistent with initial field data collected on reefs in the eastern Pacific and southern Oman, where corals today live and accrete their skeletons under conditions equivalent to 2X and 3X pre-industrial CO2. On these high CO2, high nutrient reefs (where nitrate concentrations typically exceed 2.5 micro-molar), coral growth rates rival, and sometimes even exceed, those of conspecifics in low CO2, oligotrophic reef environments.
The investigators propose that a coral's energetic status, tightly coupled to the availability of inorganic nutrients and/or food, is a key factor in the calcification response to CO2-induced ocean acidification. Their hypothesis, if confirmed by the proposed laboratory investigations, implies that predicted changes in coastal and open ocean nutrient concentrations over the course of this century, driven by both climate impacts on ocean stratification and by increased human activity in coastal regions, could play a critical role in exacerbating and in some areas, modulating the coral reef response to ocean acidification. This research program builds on the investigators initial results and observations. The planned laboratory experiments will test the hypothesis that: (1) The coral calcification response to ocean acidification is linked to the energetic status of the coral host. The relative contribution of symbiont photosynthesis and heterotrophic feeding to a coral's energetic status varies amongst species. Enhancing the energetic status of corals reared under high CO2, either by stimulating photosynthesis with inorganic nutrients or by direct heterotrophic feeding of the host lowers the sensitivity of calcification to decreased seawater OMEGAar; (2) A species-specific threshold CO2 level exists over which enhanced energetic status can no longer compensate for decreased OMEGAar of the external seawater. Similarly, we will test the hypothesis that a nutrient threshold exists over which nutrients become detrimental for calcification even under high CO2 conditions; and (3) Temperature-induced reduction of algal symbionts is one stressor that can reduce the energetic reserve of the coral host and exacerbate the calcification response to ocean acidification.
The investigator's initial findings highlight the critical importance of energetic status in the coral calcification response to ocean acidification. Verification of these findings in the laboratory, and identification of nutrient and CO2 thresholds for a range of species will have immediate, direct impact on predictions of reef resilience in a high CO2 world. The research project brings together a diverse group of expertise in coral biogeochemistry, chemical oceanography, molecular biology and coral reproductive ecology to focus on a problem that has enormous societal, economic and conservation relevance.";
    String projects_0_end_date "2013-09";
    String projects_0_geolocation "global; experimental";
    String projects_0_name "An Investigation of the Role of Nutrition in the Coral Calcification Response to Ocean Acidification";
    String projects_0_project_nid "2183";
    String projects_0_start_date "2010-10";
    String publisher_name "Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)";
    String publisher_type "institution";
    String sourceUrl "(local files)";
    String standard_name_vocabulary "CF Standard Name Table v55";
    String subsetVariables "species";
    String summary "This dataset contains data from a study of pteropod shell dissolution on individuals exposed to CO2-enriched seawater. The data include the amount of dissolution as well as the physical and chemical parameters on which carbonate chemistry parameters were calculated.";
    String title "Pteropod shell dissolution in natural and high-CO2 environments from samples collected on RRS James Clark Ross cruise JR177 in the Scotia Sea, Southern Ocean from 2007-2008";
    String version "1";
    String xml_source "osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3";
  }
}

 

Using tabledap to Request Data and Graphs from Tabular Datasets

tabledap lets you request a data subset, a graph, or a map from a tabular dataset (for example, buoy data), via a specially formed URL. tabledap uses the OPeNDAP (external link) Data Access Protocol (DAP) (external link) and its selection constraints (external link).

The URL specifies what you want: the dataset, a description of the graph or the subset of the data, and the file type for the response.

Tabledap request URLs must be in the form
https://coastwatch.pfeg.noaa.gov/erddap/tabledap/datasetID.fileType{?query}
For example,
https://coastwatch.pfeg.noaa.gov/erddap/tabledap/pmelTaoDySst.htmlTable?longitude,latitude,time,station,wmo_platform_code,T_25&time>=2015-05-23T12:00:00Z&time<=2015-05-31T12:00:00Z
Thus, the query is often a comma-separated list of desired variable names, followed by a collection of constraints (e.g., variable<value), each preceded by '&' (which is interpreted as "AND").

For details, see the tabledap Documentation.


 
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