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   set  data   graph     files  public Pteropod shell dissolution in natural and high-CO2 environments from samples collected on RRS
James Clark Ross cruise JR177 in the Scotia Sea, Southern Ocean from 2007-2008
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The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String Sample collection:
Pteropods were collected from upper ocean water down to a maximum depth of
200 m from various locations across the Scotia Sea using a combination of
vertically and obliquely towed Bongo nets and MOCNESS nets during the JR177
research cruise. Oblique tows were carried out at speeds of less than 1 knot.

Experimental conditions:
A fraction of the captured specimens was preserved immediately in 70%
ethanol to act as controls for comparison with those exposed to raised pCO2
conditions. A further fraction of specimens was incubated at various levels of
pCO2 to test the effect on shell dissolution. Two liter bottles containing
filtered sea water (0.7 um filters) were bubbled with air/CO2 mixtures of 500
ppm, 750 ppm, and 1200 ppm, until the required xCO2 was reached. An average of
30 live pteropod of Limacina helicina ant. were incubated in each experimental
container and maintained for 4, 8, and 14 days before extraction and immediate
preservation in 70% ethanol. The majority of specimens were juvenile stages of
Limacina helicina ant., but the incubations were also carried out on adult
stages of both Limacina helicina ant. and Clio pyramidata f. ant.

Omega was assessed from measurements of DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon) and
total alkalinity (TA) at the start and end of each incubation experiment. DIC
and TA were measured using VINDTA instrument (Versatile INstrument for the
Determination of Titration Alkalinity, Marianda, Kiel, Germany) following the
Standard Operating Procedures for oceanic CO2 measurements (Dickson et al.
2007) with a Certified Reference Material (CRM) analysed in duplicate at the
beginning and end of each sample analysis day. Other carbonate chemistry
parameters (total pH and Omega-aragonite) were calculated from all discrete
samples using\u00a0 DIC, TA, temperature, salinity, pressure and macronutrient
concentrations using the CO2SYS programme (Lewis and Wallace 1998) with
thermodynamic dissociation constants for K1 and K2 by Mehrbach et al. (1973)
refitted by Dickson & Millero (1987).

Shell dehydration:
Dehydration was undertaken using 2,2-Dimethoxypropane (DMP; chemical
formula: (CH3)2C(OCH3)2), and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS; chemical
formula: (CH3)3SiNHSi(CH3)3). Before starting dehydration with DMP, the shells
were transferred to 50% methanol for two 5 min washes then transferred to 85%
methanol (10 min). Complete tissue dehydration was accomplished by immersion
in DMP: two changes at 15-20 min each. It was important not to let the shells
air dry at this stage, so they were transferred to a 1:1 mixture of DMP and
HMDS for about 10 min, followed by 100% HMDS for 20\u201325 min twice. The
HMDS was subsequently allowed to evaporate allowing the shells to dry
completely (Figure 2 of Bednarsek et al., 2012). The moderate vapor pressure
and very low surface tension of HMDS allowed the shells to dry without
distortion or loss of shell integrity.

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was done using a JEOL JSM 5900LV fitted
with a tungsten filament at an acceleration voltage of 15 kV and a working
distance of about 10 mm. Analysis of SEM photos enabled observation of the
shell surface and identification of shell dissolution. Refer to Bednarsek et
al. (2012) for more information on dissolution types.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 54896
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-1041106
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1041106 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_award_nid String 489479
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_award_number String NE/H017267/1
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_data_url String http://gtr.rcuk.ac.uk/project/098910A1-90B5-48DD-8EDA-E546F7FD36EC (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funder_name String United Kingdom Natural Environmental Research Council
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funding_acronym String NERC
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_1_funding_source_nid String 363
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_award_nid String 489482
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_award_number String MEST-CT-2004-514159
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_funder_name String European Commission Marie Curie Actions Program
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_funding_acronym String EC - Marie Curie Actions
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_2_funding_source_nid String 489481
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String Pteropod shell dissolution
Lead PI: Geraint Tarling
Co-PIs: Dorothee C.E. Bakker & Sophie Fielding
Contact: Nina Bednarsek (NOAA)
Version: 03 Feb 2014
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3 19 Dec 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2014-02-03T21:24:03Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2019-11-21T17:45:15Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time<now
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.489471.1
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/489471 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_acronym String Bongo Net
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_description String Specimens were collected by vertically integrating the upper 200 m using a vertical Bongo (mesh size 200 um with an opening of 0.5 m2) and a towed Bongo net (2 nets, with 300 um and 600 um mesh sizes).
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 489534
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String A Bongo Net consists of paired plankton nets, typically with a 60 cm diameter mouth opening and varying mesh sizes, 10 to 1000 micron. The Bongo Frame was designed by the National Marine Fisheries Service for use in the MARMAP program. It consists of two cylindrical collars connected with a yoke so that replicate samples are collected at the same time. Variations in models are designed for either vertical hauls (OI-2500 = NMFS Pairovet-Style, MARMAP Bongo, CalVET) or both oblique and vertical hauls (Aquatic Research). The OI-1200 has an opening and closing mechanism that allows discrete "known-depth" sampling. This model is large enough to filter water at the rate of 47.5 m3/minute when towing at a speed of two knots. More information: Ocean Instruments, Aquatic Research, Sea-Gear
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L22/current/NETT0009/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String Bongo Net
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 410
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_supplied_name String Bongo Net
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_acronym String MOCNESS
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_description String Pteropods were collected using a combination of vertically and obliquely towed Bongo nets and MOCNESS nets
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_dataset_instrument_nid String 489535
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_description String The Multiple Opening/Closing Net and Environmental Sensing System or MOCNESS is a family of net systems based on the Tucker Trawl principle. There are currently 8 different sizes of MOCNESS in existence which are designed for capture of different size ranges of zooplankton and micro-nekton Each system is designated according to the size of the net mouth opening and in two cases, the number of nets it carries. The original MOCNESS (Wiebe et al, 1976) was a redesigned and improved version of a system described by Frost and McCrone (1974).(from MOCNESS manual) This designation is used when the specific type of MOCNESS (number and size of nets) was not specified by the contributing investigator.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L22/current/NETT0097/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_name String MOCNESS
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_instrument_nid String 511
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_1_supplied_name String MOCNESS
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_acronym String inorganic carbon and alkalinity analyser
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_dataset_instrument_description String DIC and TA were measured using VINDTA instrument (Versatile INstrument for the Determination of Titration Alkalinity, Marianda, Kiel, Germany) following the Standard Operating Procedures for oceanic CO2 measurements (Dickson et al. 2007).
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_dataset_instrument_nid String 489536
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_description String The Versatile INstrument for the Determination of Total inorganic carbon and titration Alkalinity (VINDTA) 3C is a laboratory alkalinity titration system combined with an extraction unit for coulometric titration, which simultaneously determines the alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon content of a sample. The sample transport is performed with peristaltic pumps and acid is added to the sample using a membrane pump. No pressurizing system is required and only one gas supply (nitrogen or dry and CO2-free air) is necessary. The system uses a Metrohm Titrino 719S, an ORION-Ross pH electrode and a Metrohm reference electrode. The burette, the pipette and the analysis cell have a water jacket around them. Precision is typically +/- 1 umol/kg for TA and/or DIC in open ocean water.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L22/current/TOOL0481/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_instrument_name String MARIANDA VINDTA 3C total inorganic carbon and titration alkalinity analyser
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_instrument_nid String 686
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_2_supplied_name String inorganic carbon and alkalinity analyser
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_dataset_instrument_description String SEM was done using a JEOL JSM 5900LV fitted with a tungsten filament at an acceleration voltage of 15 kV and a working distance of about 10 mm.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_dataset_instrument_nid String 489537
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_description String Instruments that generate enlarged images of samples using the phenomena of reflection and absorption of electrons behaving as waves.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB07/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_instrument_name String Microscope-Electron
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_instrument_nid String 709
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_3_supplied_name String Scanning Electron Microscope
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String alk, alk_tot, alk_tot_stdev, altimetry, arg, bco, bco-dmo, bicarbonate, bicarbonate_stdev, biological, carbon, carbon dioxide, carbonate, carbonate_stdev, chemical, chemistry, co2, co3, concentration, data, dataset, deviation, dic, DIC_stdev, dioxide, diss, diss_rate1, diss_rate1_stdev, diss_rate2, diss_rate2_stdev, diss_rate3, diss_rate3_stdev, dmo, earth, Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Chemistry > pH, Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Chemistry > Phosphate, Earth Science > Oceans > Ocean Chemistry > Silicate, erddap, incubation, incubation_time, laboratory, management, mass, mass_concentration_of_phosphate_in_sea_water, mass_concentration_of_silicate_in_sea_water, non, non_diss, non_diss_stdev, ocean, oceanography, oceans, office, omega, omega_Arg, omega_Arg_stdev, pCO2, pCO2_stdev, pH_stdev, phosphate, po4, preliminary, rate1, rate2, rate3, reported, sal, satellite, scale, science, sea, sea_water_ph_reported_on_total_scale, seawater, silicate, species, standard, standard deviation, stdev, temperature, time, tot, total, treatment, water
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords_vocabulary String GCMD Science Keywords
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/489471/license (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/489471 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'489471': {}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/489471/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String British Antarctic Survey
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String BAS
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Geraint Tarling
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 489466
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Lead Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String University of East Anglia
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String UEA
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Dorothee C.E. Bakker
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 50929
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation String British Antarctic Survey
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_affiliation_acronym String BAS
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_name String Sophie Fielding
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_person_nid String 489467
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role String Co-Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_2_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation String National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_affiliation_acronym String NOAA-PMEL
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_name String Nina Bednarsek
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_person_nid String 489468
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role String Contact
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_3_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_person_name String Shannon Rauch
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_person_nid String 51498
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_4_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String OA Nutrition and Coral Calcification
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String OA Nutrition and Coral Calcification
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String The project description is a modification of the original NSF award abstract.
This research project is part of the larger NSF funded CRI-OA collaborative research initiative and was funded as an Ocean Acidification-Category 1, 2010 award. Over the course of this century, all tropical coral reef ecosystems, whether fringing heavily populated coastlines or lining remote islands and atolls, face unprecedented threat from ocean acidification caused by rising levels of atmospheric CO2. In many laboratory experiments conducted to date, calcium carbonate production (calcification) by scleractinian (stony) corals showed an inverse correlation to seawater saturation state OMEGAar), whether OMEGAar was manipulated by acid or CO2 addition. Based on these data, it is predicted that coral calcification rates could decline by up to 80% of modern values by the end of this century. A growing body of new experimental data however, suggests that the coral calcification response to ocean acidification may be less straightforward and a lot more variable than previously recognized. In at least 10 recent experiments including our own, 8 different tropical and temperate species reared under nutritionally-replete but significantly elevated CO2 conditions (780-1200 ppm, OMEAGar ~1.5-2), continued to calcify at rates comparable to conspecifics reared under ambient CO2. These experimental results are consistent with initial field data collected on reefs in the eastern Pacific and southern Oman, where corals today live and accrete their skeletons under conditions equivalent to 2X and 3X pre-industrial CO2. On these high CO2, high nutrient reefs (where nitrate concentrations typically exceed 2.5 micro-molar), coral growth rates rival, and sometimes even exceed, those of conspecifics in low CO2, oligotrophic reef environments.
The investigators propose that a coral's energetic status, tightly coupled to the availability of inorganic nutrients and/or food, is a key factor in the calcification response to CO2-induced ocean acidification. Their hypothesis, if confirmed by the proposed laboratory investigations, implies that predicted changes in coastal and open ocean nutrient concentrations over the course of this century, driven by both climate impacts on ocean stratification and by increased human activity in coastal regions, could play a critical role in exacerbating and in some areas, modulating the coral reef response to ocean acidification. This research program builds on the investigators initial results and observations. The planned laboratory experiments will test the hypothesis that: (1) The coral calcification response to ocean acidification is linked to the energetic status of the coral host. The relative contribution of symbiont photosynthesis and heterotrophic feeding to a coral's energetic status varies amongst species. Enhancing the energetic status of corals reared under high CO2, either by stimulating photosynthesis with inorganic nutrients or by direct heterotrophic feeding of the host lowers the sensitivity of calcification to decreased seawater OMEGAar; (2) A species-specific threshold CO2 level exists over which enhanced energetic status can no longer compensate for decreased OMEGAar of the external seawater. Similarly, we will test the hypothesis that a nutrient threshold exists over which nutrients become detrimental for calcification even under high CO2 conditions; and (3) Temperature-induced reduction of algal symbionts is one stressor that can reduce the energetic reserve of the coral host and exacerbate the calcification response to ocean acidification.
The investigator's initial findings highlight the critical importance of energetic status in the coral calcification response to ocean acidification. Verification of these findings in the laboratory, and identification of nutrient and CO2 thresholds for a range of species will have immediate, direct impact on predictions of reef resilience in a high CO2 world. The research project brings together a diverse group of expertise in coral biogeochemistry, chemical oceanography, molecular biology and coral reproductive ecology to focus on a problem that has enormous societal, economic and conservation relevance.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2013-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String global; experimental
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String An Investigation of the Role of Nutrition in the Coral Calcification Response to Ocean Acidification
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 2183
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2010-10
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v55
attribute NC_GLOBAL subsetVariables String species
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String This dataset contains data from a study of pteropod shell dissolution on individuals exposed to CO2-enriched seawater. The data include the amount of dissolution as well as the physical and chemical parameters on which carbonate chemistry parameters were calculated.
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Pteropod shell dissolution in natural and high-CO2 environments from samples collected on RRS James Clark Ross cruise JR177 in the Scotia Sea, Southern Ocean from 2007-2008
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3
variable treatment   String  
attribute treatment bcodmo_name String treatment
attribute treatment description String Type of experimental treatment.
attribute treatment long_name String Treatment
attribute treatment units String dimensionless
variable incubation_time   byte  
attribute incubation_time _FillValue byte 127
attribute incubation_time actual_range byte 4, 14
attribute incubation_time bcodmo_name String incubation time
attribute incubation_time description String Number of days incubated.
attribute incubation_time long_name String Incubation Time
attribute incubation_time nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/AZDRZZ01/ (external link)
attribute incubation_time units String days
variable N   byte  
attribute N _FillValue byte 127
attribute N actual_range byte 9, 11
attribute N bcodmo_name String number
attribute N description String Number of samples in the treatment.
attribute N long_name String N
attribute N units String dimensionless
variable species   String  
attribute species bcodmo_name String species
attribute species description String Name of the species of study.
attribute species long_name String Species
attribute species units String dimensionless
variable sal   float  
attribute sal _FillValue float NaN
attribute sal actual_range float 33.82, 33.86
attribute sal bcodmo_name String sal
attribute sal description String Salinity.
attribute sal long_name String Sal
attribute sal nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/PSALST01/ (external link)
attribute sal units String dimensionless
variable temp   byte  
attribute temp _FillValue byte 127
attribute temp actual_range byte 3, 4
attribute temp bcodmo_name String temperature
attribute temp description String Water temperature.
attribute temp long_name String Temperature
attribute temp nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/TEMPP901/ (external link)
attribute temp units String degrees Celsius
variable phosphate   float  
attribute phosphate _FillValue float NaN
attribute phosphate actual_range float 1.15, 1.8
attribute phosphate bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute phosphate description String Phosphate concentration.
attribute phosphate long_name String Mass Concentration Of Phosphate In Sea Water
attribute phosphate units String micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
variable silicate   float  
attribute silicate _FillValue float NaN
attribute silicate actual_range float 8.0, 12.5
attribute silicate bcodmo_name String SiOH_4
attribute silicate description String Silicate concentration.
attribute silicate long_name String Mass Concentration Of Silicate In Sea Water
attribute silicate units String micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
variable alk_tot   float  
attribute alk_tot _FillValue float NaN
attribute alk_tot actual_range float 2290.6, 2360.3
attribute alk_tot bcodmo_name String TALK
attribute alk_tot description String Total alkalinity.
attribute alk_tot long_name String Alk Tot
attribute alk_tot nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/MDMAP014/ (external link)
attribute alk_tot units String micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
variable alk_tot_stdev   float  
attribute alk_tot_stdev _FillValue float NaN
attribute alk_tot_stdev actual_range float 1.3, 8.9
attribute alk_tot_stdev bcodmo_name String standard deviation
attribute alk_tot_stdev description String Standard deviation of alk_tot.
attribute alk_tot_stdev long_name String Alk Tot Stdev
attribute alk_tot_stdev units String micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
variable DIC   float  
attribute DIC _FillValue float NaN
attribute DIC actual_range float 2123.0, 2298.3
attribute DIC bcodmo_name String DIC
attribute DIC description String Total dissolved inorganic carbon.
attribute DIC long_name String DIC
attribute DIC units String micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
variable DIC_stdev   float  
attribute DIC_stdev _FillValue float NaN
attribute DIC_stdev actual_range float 0.0, 61.9
attribute DIC_stdev bcodmo_name String standard deviation
attribute DIC_stdev description String Standard deviation of C_tot.
attribute DIC_stdev long_name String DIC Stdev
attribute DIC_stdev units String micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
variable pH   float  
attribute pH _FillValue float NaN
attribute pH actual_range float 7.7, 8.13
attribute pH bcodmo_name String pH
attribute pH colorBarMaximum double 9.0
attribute pH colorBarMinimum double 7.0
attribute pH description String pH of the water.
attribute pH long_name String Sea Water Ph Reported On Total Scale
attribute pH nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/PHXXZZXX/ (external link)
attribute pH units String dimensionless
variable pH_stdev   float  
attribute pH_stdev _FillValue float NaN
attribute pH_stdev actual_range float 0.01, 0.13
attribute pH_stdev bcodmo_name String standard deviation
attribute pH_stdev description String Standard deviation of pH.
attribute pH_stdev long_name String P H Stdev
attribute pH_stdev units String dimensionless
variable pCO2   short  
attribute pCO2 _FillValue short 32767
attribute pCO2 actual_range short 318, 940
attribute pCO2 bcodmo_name String pCO2
attribute pCO2 description String Partial pressure of carbon dioxide at sea surface temperature.
attribute pCO2 long_name String P CO2
attribute pCO2 nerc_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/PCO2C101/ (external link)
attribute pCO2 units String microatmospheres (uatm)
variable pCO2_stdev   byte  
attribute pCO2_stdev _FillValue byte 127
attribute pCO2_stdev actual_range byte 12, 111
attribute pCO2_stdev bcodmo_name String standard deviation
attribute pCO2_stdev description String Standard deviation of pCO2.
attribute pCO2_stdev long_name String P CO2 Stdev
attribute pCO2_stdev units String microatmospheres (uatm)
variable bicarbonate   float  
attribute bicarbonate _FillValue float NaN
attribute bicarbonate actual_range float 1983.1, 2192.7
attribute bicarbonate bcodmo_name String bicarbonate
attribute bicarbonate description String Concentration of bicarbonate ion [HCO3]-.
attribute bicarbonate long_name String Bicarbonate
attribute bicarbonate units String micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
variable bicarbonate_stdev   float  
attribute bicarbonate_stdev _FillValue float NaN
attribute bicarbonate_stdev actual_range float 4.4, 91.9
attribute bicarbonate_stdev bcodmo_name String standard deviation
attribute bicarbonate_stdev description String Standard deviation of bicarbonate concentration.
attribute bicarbonate_stdev long_name String Bicarbonate Stdev
attribute bicarbonate_stdev units String micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
variable carbonate   float  
attribute carbonate _FillValue float NaN
attribute carbonate actual_range float 51.6, 121.6
attribute carbonate bcodmo_name String carbonate
attribute carbonate description String Concentration of carbonate ion [CO3]2-.
attribute carbonate long_name String Carbonate
attribute carbonate units String micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
variable carbonate_stdev   float  
attribute carbonate_stdev _FillValue float NaN
attribute carbonate_stdev actual_range float 0.9, 39.6
attribute carbonate_stdev bcodmo_name String standard deviation
attribute carbonate_stdev description String Standard deviation of carbonate concentration.
attribute carbonate_stdev long_name String Carbonate Stdev
attribute carbonate_stdev units String micromoles per kilogram (umol/kg)
variable omega_Arg   float  
attribute omega_Arg _FillValue float NaN
attribute omega_Arg actual_range float 0.78, 1.82
attribute omega_Arg bcodmo_name String OM_ar
attribute omega_Arg description String Aragonite saturation state.
attribute omega_Arg long_name String Omega Arg
attribute omega_Arg units String dimensionless
variable omega_Arg_stdev   float  
attribute omega_Arg_stdev _FillValue float NaN
attribute omega_Arg_stdev actual_range float 0.02, 0.6
attribute omega_Arg_stdev bcodmo_name String standard deviation
attribute omega_Arg_stdev description String Standard deviation of omega_Arg.
attribute omega_Arg_stdev long_name String Omega Arg Stdev
attribute omega_Arg_stdev units String dimensionless
variable non_diss   float  
attribute non_diss _FillValue float NaN
attribute non_diss actual_range float 0.04, 0.997
attribute non_diss bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute non_diss description String Percentage of non-dissolving individuals as determined by SEM.
attribute non_diss long_name String Non Diss
attribute non_diss units String percentage (%)
variable non_diss_stdev   float  
attribute non_diss_stdev _FillValue float NaN
attribute non_diss_stdev actual_range float 0.005, 0.15
attribute non_diss_stdev bcodmo_name String standard deviation
attribute non_diss_stdev description String Standard deviation of non_diss.
attribute non_diss_stdev long_name String Non Diss Stdev
attribute non_diss_stdev units String percentage (%)
variable diss_rate1   float  
attribute diss_rate1 _FillValue float NaN
attribute diss_rate1 actual_range float 0.002, 0.8
attribute diss_rate1 bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute diss_rate1 description String Type I dissolution rate as determined by SEM. Bednarsek et al. (2012) describe Type I dissolution as "First indices of slightly increased porosity. Aragonite crystals within the upper-prismatic layer affected by dissolution - ‘cauliflower heads’ present."
attribute diss_rate1 long_name String Diss Rate1
attribute diss_rate1 units String percentage (%)
variable diss_rate1_stdev   float  
attribute diss_rate1_stdev _FillValue float NaN
attribute diss_rate1_stdev actual_range float 0.003, 0.15
attribute diss_rate1_stdev bcodmo_name String standard deviation
attribute diss_rate1_stdev description String Standard deviation of diss_rate1.
attribute diss_rate1_stdev long_name String Diss Rate1 Stdev
attribute diss_rate1_stdev units String percentage (%)
variable diss_rate2   float  
attribute diss_rate2 _FillValue float NaN
attribute diss_rate2 actual_range float 0.0, 0.26
attribute diss_rate2 bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute diss_rate2 description String Type II dissolution rate as determined by SEM. Bednarsek et al. (2012) describe Type II dissolution as "Increased porosity. Dissolved patches more extensive and numerous. Prismatic layer partially or completely dissolved, crossed-lamellar layer exposed."
attribute diss_rate2 long_name String Diss Rate2
attribute diss_rate2 units String percentage (%)
variable diss_rate2_stdev   float  
attribute diss_rate2_stdev _FillValue float NaN
attribute diss_rate2_stdev actual_range float 0.0, 0.1
attribute diss_rate2_stdev bcodmo_name String standard deviation
attribute diss_rate2_stdev description String Standard deviation of diss_rate2.
attribute diss_rate2_stdev long_name String Diss Rate2 Stdev
attribute diss_rate2_stdev units String percentage (%)
variable diss_rate3   float  
attribute diss_rate3 _FillValue float NaN
attribute diss_rate3 actual_range float 0.0, 0.31
attribute diss_rate3 bcodmo_name String unknown
attribute diss_rate3 description String Type III dissolution rate as determined by SEM. Bednarsek et al. (2012) describe Type III dissolution as "Less compact crystal structure with compromised shell integrity and extreme frailness. Dissolution within crossed-lamellar layer with crystals thicker and chunkier."
attribute diss_rate3 long_name String Diss Rate3
attribute diss_rate3 units String percentage (%)
variable diss_rate3_stdev   float  
attribute diss_rate3_stdev _FillValue float NaN
attribute diss_rate3_stdev actual_range float 0.0, 0.06
attribute diss_rate3_stdev bcodmo_name String standard deviation
attribute diss_rate3_stdev description String Standard deviation of diss_rate3.
attribute diss_rate3_stdev long_name String Diss Rate3 Stdev
attribute diss_rate3_stdev units String percentage (%)

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV1, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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