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Dataset Title:  Effect of habitat, origin, and herbivory on the survival and growth of recruit-
sized S. polycystum fronds from MPAs and non-MPAs when reciprocally transplanted
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Institution:  BCO-DMO   (Dataset ID: bcodmo_dataset_644035)
Range: longitude = 177.7 to 177.7°E, latitude = -18.208 to -18.208°N
Information:  Summary ? | License ? | ISO 19115 | Metadata | Background (external link) | Subset | Data Access Form | Files
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Things You Can Do With Your Graphs

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The Dataset Attribute Structure (.das) for this Dataset

Attributes {
 s {
  latitude {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Lat";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range -18.208, -18.208;
    String axis "Y";
    String bcodmo_name "latitude";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 90.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -90.0;
    String description "latitude; north is positive";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Latitude";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LATX/";
    String standard_name "latitude";
    String units "degrees_north";
  longitude {
    String _CoordinateAxisType "Lon";
    Float64 _FillValue NaN;
    Float64 actual_range 177.7, 177.7;
    String axis "X";
    String bcodmo_name "longitude";
    Float64 colorBarMaximum 180.0;
    Float64 colorBarMinimum -180.0;
    String description "longitude; east is positive";
    String ioos_category "Location";
    String long_name "Longitude";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P09/current/LONX/";
    String standard_name "longitude";
    String units "degrees_east";
  location {
    String bcodmo_name "site";
    String description "where Sargassum fronds were transplanted to: MPA = marine protected area; NON-MPA = non-protected area";
    String long_name "Location";
    String units "unitless";
  origin {
    String bcodmo_name "origin";
    String description "where Sargassum fronds were collected for the transplant: MPA = marine protected area; NON-MPA = non-protected area";
    String long_name "Origin";
    String units "unitless";
  treatment {
    String bcodmo_name "treatment";
    String description "herbivory exclusion: Caged = ramets protected by cages; Exposed = ramets exposed to grazing in cages that lacked the lateral walls";
    String long_name "Treatment";
    String units "unitless";
  average_days_survived {
    Float32 _FillValue NaN;
    Float32 actual_range 4.32, 113.0;
    String bcodmo_name "unknown";
    String description "average number of days survived by the four MPA ramets and by the four non-MPA ramets in each cage";
    String long_name "Average Days Survived";
    String units "days";
    String access_formats ".htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson";
    String acquisition_description 
"[Reference cited below are from Dell et al (2016) Plos One.]  
Study site and species:  
 This study was conducted between January and May in 2013 and 2015 on the
coral coast of Fiji\\u2019s main island, Viti Levu, in the villages of Votua
and Vatu-o-lailai (18\\u00b012\\u201932S, 177\\u00b042\\u201900E and
18\\u00b012\\u201913S, 177\\u00b041\\u201929E respectively; Fig 1). These villages
are ~3km apart and each has jurisdiction over their stretch of reef flat; a
habitat ranging between ~1.5 and 3m deep at high tide and between ~0 and 1.5m
deep at low tide. In 2002, these villages established small areas (0.8km2 in
Votua and 0.5 km2 in Vatu-o-lailai; Fig 1) as no-take MPAs [25]. Though MPA
and non-MPA areas were initially similar in coral and macroalgal cover (33-42%
macroalgal cover; 3-12% coral cover [25]), MPAs now differ significantly from
the adjacent non-MPAs in benthic cover and fish diversity and abundance. MPAs
now have ~56% live coral cover on hard substrate, ~2% macroalgal cover, ~8
fold higher biomass of herbivorous fishes, and higher recruitment of both
fishes and corals than the non-MPAs [5,22]. Meanwhile the non-MPAs have lower
fish biomass, 5-16% live coral cover on hard substrates and 51-92% macroalgal
cover, the majority of which is comprised by Phaeophytes (primarily Sargassum
polycystum C. Agardh [22]). In the MPAs, macroalgal cover is restricted to the
shallowest, most shoreward areas (where access by herbivorous fishes appears
limited), whereas macroalgal cover in the non-MPAs extends throughout the
habitat. Thus, over distances of only a few hundred metres, there are dramatic
differences in community composition that may impact the efficacy of factors
controlling macroalgal populations, without the confounding factors of great
differences in space or time.
Effect of habitat and origin on the survival and growth of recruit-sized S.
polycystum fronds
Small S. polycystum ramets ~1cm long (range between 0.5cm and 1.5cm) were
collected from both the MPA and non-MPA using a nail and hammer so that a
small piece of bedrock remained attached to each alga\\u2019s holdfast,
allowing four ramets from either the MPA or the non-MPA to be affixed to
~25cm2 tiles by attaching the rock pieces using aquarium glue (Ecotech Marine,
USA). The ramets were selected so that the four on each tile were of equal
origin and size and were arranged in a square pattern 1cm distance from each
other. The tiles were placed in coolers, containing a few centimetres of
seawater and left for 12 hours in the shade to allow the glue to set before
moving the tiles to the reef. The tiles were paired so the MPA and non-MPA
ramets were of equal size and one tile of each was affixed in a cage so they
were 30cm from each other.
These cages were either complete, so the ramets would be protected from fish
grazing, or open-sided, so the ramets would be exposed to fish grazing. The
open cages lacked the 2 walls parallel to the current direction so that fish
access was permitted, while cage effects on flow and shading would be as
similar as possible between treatments. The base of each cage was 0.75m x
0.75m, the height was 0.75m and the mesh size was 1cm2 thus excluding all but
the smallest fishes and invertebrates. Ten replicates of each treatment were
distributed in Votua\\u2019s MPA and 10 in Votua\\u2019s non-MPA so that the
complete and open cages were paired and the cages in each pair were about one
metre apart, while the distance between pairs was \\u2265 two metres. These
cages were distributed ~25 to 50m from shore at a depth of ~1 to 1.5m at low
The experiment was established mid- January 2013, ran for 4 months (112 days),
and was checked for ramet mortality every 3 days for the first month and then
every week. If an alga was missing but the stone remained, this was noted as
mortality. If the stone was also missing this could have been due to failure
of the glue, dislodgement by turbulence, or some unknown agent, so we recorded
these as \\u2018lost\\u2019 and excluded them from analysis. Only ten ramets
(3.1%) were lost which reduced the total number of ramets in the experiment
from 320 to 310.
Despite running for four months and being checked at intervals of 3-7 days
throughout this period, we could detect no growth in this experiment so we
report only mean duration of survival. Duration of survival was calculated as
the average number of days survived by the four MPA ramets and by the four
non-MPA ramets in each cage, giving n=10 for each treatment in each habitat.
Difference scores (mean survival duration for MPA versus non-MPA sub-samples
in each replicate) were normally distributed (p\\u22650.200; Shapiro-Wilk) so
the effect of origin was analysed by paired t-test run separately for each
treatment in each location.";
    String awards_0_award_nid "480718";
    String awards_0_award_number "OCE-0929119";
    String awards_0_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=0929119";
    String awards_0_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_0_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_0_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_0_program_manager "David L. Garrison";
    String awards_0_program_manager_nid "50534";
    String cdm_data_type "Other";
    String comment 
"recruitment and survival 
   Survival of recruit-sized ramets of Sargassum polycystum reciprocally  
     transplanted between MPA and non-MPA when caged or exposed 
   These data were published in Dell et al (2016) PLOS ONE, Fig. 3 
   version: 2016-05-02 
   M. Hay (GA Tech)";
    String Conventions "COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3";
    String creator_email "info@bco-dmo.org";
    String creator_name "BCO-DMO";
    String creator_type "institution";
    String creator_url "https://www.bco-dmo.org/";
    String data_source "extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3  19 Dec 2019";
    String date_created "2016-05-02T14:50:48Z";
    String date_modified "2016-05-03T17:24:47Z";
    String defaultDataQuery "&time<now";
    String doi "10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.644664";
    Float64 Easternmost_Easting 177.7;
    Float64 geospatial_lat_max -18.208;
    Float64 geospatial_lat_min -18.208;
    String geospatial_lat_units "degrees_north";
    Float64 geospatial_lon_max 177.7;
    Float64 geospatial_lon_min 177.7;
    String geospatial_lon_units "degrees_east";
    String history 
"2020-07-12T03:12:06Z (local files)
2020-07-12T03:12:06Z https://erddap.bco-dmo.org/tabledap/bcodmo_dataset_644035.das";
    String infoUrl "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/644035";
    String institution "BCO-DMO";
    String instruments_0_acronym "Scale";
    String instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid "644042";
    String instruments_0_description "An instrument used to measure weight or mass.";
    String instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB13/";
    String instruments_0_instrument_name "Scale";
    String instruments_0_instrument_nid "714";
    String keywords "average, average_days_survived, bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, data, dataset, days, dmo, erddap, latitude, longitude, management, oceanography, office, origin, preliminary, survived, treatment";
    String license "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/644035/license";
    String metadata_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/644035";
    Float64 Northernmost_Northing -18.208;
    String param_mapping "{'644035': {'lat': 'master - latitude', 'lon': 'master - longitude'}}";
    String parameter_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/644035/parameters";
    String people_0_affiliation "Georgia Institute of Technology";
    String people_0_affiliation_acronym "Georgia Tech";
    String people_0_person_name "Mark Hay";
    String people_0_person_nid "480720";
    String people_0_role "Principal Investigator";
    String people_0_role_type "originator";
    String people_1_affiliation "Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution";
    String people_1_affiliation_acronym "WHOI BCO-DMO";
    String people_1_person_name "Nancy Copley";
    String people_1_person_nid "50396";
    String people_1_role "BCO-DMO Data Manager";
    String people_1_role_type "related";
    String project "Killer Seaweeds";
    String projects_0_acronym "Killer Seaweeds";
    String projects_0_description 
"Extracted from the NSF award abstract:
Coral reefs are in dramatic global decline, with reefs commonly converting from species-rich and topographically-complex communities dominated by corals to species- poor and topographically-simplified communities dominated by seaweeds. These phase-shifts result in fundamental loss of ecosystem function. Despite debate about whether coral-to-algal transitions are commonly a primary cause, or simply a consequence, of coral mortality, rigorous field investigation of seaweed-coral competition has received limited attention. There is limited information on how the outcome of seaweed-coral competition varies among species or the relative importance of different competitive mechanisms in facilitating seaweed dominance. In an effort to address this topic, the PI will conduct field experiments in the tropical South Pacific (Fiji) to determine the effects of seaweeds on corals when in direct contact, which seaweeds are most damaging to corals, the role allelopathic lipids that are transferred via contact in producing these effects, the identity and surface concentrations of these metabolites, and the dynamic nature of seaweed metabolite production and coral response following contact. The herbivorous fishes most responsible for controlling allelopathic seaweeds will be identified, the roles of seaweed metabolites in allelopathy vs herbivore deterrence will be studied, and the potential for better managing and conserving critical reef herbivores so as to slow or reverse conversion of coral reef to seaweed meadows will be examined.
Preliminary results indicate that seaweeds may commonly damage corals via lipid- soluble allelochemicals. Such chemically-mediated interactions could kill or damage adult corals and produce the suppression of coral fecundity and recruitment noted by previous investigators and could precipitate positive feedback mechanisms making reef recovery increasingly unlikely as seaweed abundance increases. Chemically-mediated seaweed-coral competition may play a critical role in the degradation of present-day coral reefs. Increasing information on which seaweeds are most aggressive to corals and which herbivores best limit these seaweeds may prove useful in better managing reefs to facilitate resilience and possible recovery despite threats of global-scale stresses. Fiji is well positioned to rapidly use findings from this project for better management of reef resources because it has already erected >260 MPAs, Fijian villagers have already bought-in to the value of MPAs, and the Fiji Locally-Managed Marine Area (FLMMA) Network is well organized to get information to villagers in a culturally sensitive and useful manner.
The broader impacts of this project are far reaching. The project provides training opportunities for 2-2.5 Ph.D students and 1 undergraduate student each year in the interdisciplinary areas of marine ecology, marine conservation, and marine chemical ecology. Findings from this project will be immediately integrated into classes at Ga Tech and made available throughout Fiji via a foundation and web site that have already set-up to support marine conservation efforts in Fiji and marine education efforts both within Fiji and internationally. Business and community leaders from Atlanta (via Rotary International Service efforts) have been recruited to help organize and fund community service and outreach projects in Fiji -- several of which are likely to involve marine conservation and education based in part on these efforts there. Media outlets (National Geographic, NPR, Animal Planet, Audubon Magazine, etc.) and local Rotary clubs will be used to better disseminate these discoveries to the public.
Rasher DB, Stout EP, Engel S, Kubanek J, and ME Hay. \"Macroalgal terpenes function as allelopathic agents against reef corals\", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 108, 2011, p. 17726.
Beattie AJ, ME Hay, B Magnusson, R de Nys, J Smeathers, JFV Vincent. \"Ecology and bioprospecting,\" Austral Ecology, v.36, 2011, p. 341.
Rasher DB and ME Hay. \"Seaweed allelopathy degrades the resilience and function of coral reefs,\" Communicative and Integrative Biology, v.3, 2010.
Hay ME, Rasher DB. \"Corals in crisis,\" The Scientist, v.24, 2010, p. 42.
Hay ME and DB Rasher. \"Coral reefs in crisis: reversing the biotic death spiral,\" Faculty 1000 Biology Reports 2010, v.2, 2010.
Rasher DB and ME Hay. \"Chemically rich seaweeds poison corals when not controlled by herbivores\", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v.107, 2010, p. 9683.";
    String projects_0_end_date "2014-08";
    String projects_0_geolocation "Viti Levu, Fiji (18�13.049’S, 177�42.968’E)";
    String projects_0_name "Killer Seaweeds: Allelopathy against Fijian Corals";
    String projects_0_project_nid "480717";
    String projects_0_start_date "2009-09";
    String publisher_name "Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)";
    String publisher_type "institution";
    String sourceUrl "(local files)";
    Float64 Southernmost_Northing -18.208;
    String standard_name_vocabulary "CF Standard Name Table v55";
    String subsetVariables "latitude,longitude";
    String summary 
"Raw data on the survival of recruit-sized ramets of Sargassum polycystum
originated from marine protected and non-protected areas (MPAs and non-MPAs,
respectively) in Fiji, reciprocally transplanted between these areas in two
conditions: protected by closed cages or exposed to grazing in partially open
cages. Survival data is the average number of days survived by the four MPA
ramets and by the four non-MPA ramets in each of the cages. Details in Dell et
al. 2016 Plos One.
Related Datasets:  
[Sargassum mature growth - figure 2](\\\\http://www.bco-
[Sargassum mature growth conspecific - figure 4](\\\\http://www.bco-
[Sargassum recruit-sized growth and survival with conspecifics - figures 5 and
    String title "Effect of habitat, origin, and herbivory on the survival and growth of recruit-sized S. polycystum fronds from MPAs and non-MPAs when reciprocally transplanted";
    String version "1";
    Float64 Westernmost_Easting 177.7;
    String xml_source "osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3";


Using tabledap to Request Data and Graphs from Tabular Datasets

tabledap lets you request a data subset, a graph, or a map from a tabular dataset (for example, buoy data), via a specially formed URL. tabledap uses the OPeNDAP (external link) Data Access Protocol (DAP) (external link) and its selection constraints (external link).

The URL specifies what you want: the dataset, a description of the graph or the subset of the data, and the file type for the response.

Tabledap request URLs must be in the form
For example,
Thus, the query is often a comma-separated list of desired variable names, followed by a collection of constraints (e.g., variable<value), each preceded by '&' (which is interpreted as "AND").

For details, see the tabledap Documentation.

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