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Title Sum-
RSS Institution Dataset ID
   set  data   graph     files  public Effect of habitat, origin, and herbivory on the survival and growth of recruit-sized S.
polycystum fronds from MPAs and non-MPAs when reciprocally transplanted
   ?     I   M   background (external link) RSS BCO-DMO bcodmo_dataset_644035

The Dataset's Variables and Attributes

Row Type Variable Name Attribute Name Data Type Value
attribute NC_GLOBAL access_formats String .htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv,.esriCsv,.geoJson
attribute NC_GLOBAL acquisition_description String [Reference cited below are from Dell et al (2016) Plos One.]
Study site and species:
This study was conducted between January and May in 2013 and 2015 on the
coral coast of Fiji\u2019s main island, Viti Levu, in the villages of Votua
and Vatu-o-lailai (18\u00b012\u201932S, 177\u00b042\u201900E and
18\u00b012\u201913S, 177\u00b041\u201929E respectively; Fig 1). These villages
are ~3km apart and each has jurisdiction over their stretch of reef flat; a
habitat ranging between ~1.5 and 3m deep at high tide and between ~0 and 1.5m
deep at low tide. In 2002, these villages established small areas (0.8km2 in
Votua and 0.5 km2 in Vatu-o-lailai; Fig 1) as no-take MPAs [25]. Though MPA
and non-MPA areas were initially similar in coral and macroalgal cover (33-42%
macroalgal cover; 3-12% coral cover [25]), MPAs now differ significantly from
the adjacent non-MPAs in benthic cover and fish diversity and abundance. MPAs
now have ~56% live coral cover on hard substrate, ~2% macroalgal cover, ~8
fold higher biomass of herbivorous fishes, and higher recruitment of both
fishes and corals than the non-MPAs [5,22]. Meanwhile the non-MPAs have lower
fish biomass, 5-16% live coral cover on hard substrates and 51-92% macroalgal
cover, the majority of which is comprised by Phaeophytes (primarily Sargassum
polycystum C. Agardh [22]). In the MPAs, macroalgal cover is restricted to the
shallowest, most shoreward areas (where access by herbivorous fishes appears
limited), whereas macroalgal cover in the non-MPAs extends throughout the
habitat. Thus, over distances of only a few hundred metres, there are dramatic
differences in community composition that may impact the efficacy of factors
controlling macroalgal populations, without the confounding factors of great
differences in space or time.

Effect of habitat and origin on the survival and growth of recruit-sized S.
polycystum fronds

Small S. polycystum ramets ~1cm long (range between 0.5cm and 1.5cm) were
collected from both the MPA and non-MPA using a nail and hammer so that a
small piece of bedrock remained attached to each alga\u2019s holdfast,
allowing four ramets from either the MPA or the non-MPA to be affixed to
~25cm2 tiles by attaching the rock pieces using aquarium glue (Ecotech Marine,
USA). The ramets were selected so that the four on each tile were of equal
origin and size and were arranged in a square pattern 1cm distance from each
other. The tiles were placed in coolers, containing a few centimetres of
seawater and left for 12 hours in the shade to allow the glue to set before
moving the tiles to the reef. The tiles were paired so the MPA and non-MPA
ramets were of equal size and one tile of each was affixed in a cage so they
were 30cm from each other.

These cages were either complete, so the ramets would be protected from fish
grazing, or open-sided, so the ramets would be exposed to fish grazing. The
open cages lacked the 2 walls parallel to the current direction so that fish
access was permitted, while cage effects on flow and shading would be as
similar as possible between treatments. The base of each cage was 0.75m x
0.75m, the height was 0.75m and the mesh size was 1cm2 thus excluding all but
the smallest fishes and invertebrates. Ten replicates of each treatment were
distributed in Votua\u2019s MPA and 10 in Votua\u2019s non-MPA so that the
complete and open cages were paired and the cages in each pair were about one
metre apart, while the distance between pairs was \u2265 two metres. These
cages were distributed ~25 to 50m from shore at a depth of ~1 to 1.5m at low

The experiment was established mid- January 2013, ran for 4 months (112 days),
and was checked for ramet mortality every 3 days for the first month and then
every week. If an alga was missing but the stone remained, this was noted as
mortality. If the stone was also missing this could have been due to failure
of the glue, dislodgement by turbulence, or some unknown agent, so we recorded
these as \u2018lost\u2019 and excluded them from analysis. Only ten ramets
(3.1%) were lost which reduced the total number of ramets in the experiment
from 320 to 310.

Despite running for four months and being checked at intervals of 3-7 days
throughout this period, we could detect no growth in this experiment so we
report only mean duration of survival. Duration of survival was calculated as
the average number of days survived by the four MPA ramets and by the four
non-MPA ramets in each cage, giving n=10 for each treatment in each habitat.
Difference scores (mean survival duration for MPA versus non-MPA sub-samples
in each replicate) were normally distributed (p\u22650.200; Shapiro-Wilk) so
the effect of origin was analysed by paired t-test run separately for each
treatment in each location.
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_nid String 480718
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_award_number String OCE-0929119
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_data_url String http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=0929119 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funder_name String NSF Division of Ocean Sciences
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_acronym String NSF OCE
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_funding_source_nid String 355
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager String Dr David L. Garrison
attribute NC_GLOBAL awards_0_program_manager_nid String 50534
attribute NC_GLOBAL cdm_data_type String Other
attribute NC_GLOBAL comment String recruitment and survival
Survival of recruit-sized ramets of Sargassum polycystum reciprocally
transplanted between MPA and non-MPA when caged or exposed
These data were published in Dell et al (2016) PLOS ONE, Fig. 3
version: 2016-05-02

M. Hay (GA Tech)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Conventions String COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_email String info at bco-dmo.org
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_name String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_type String institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL creator_url String https://www.bco-dmo.org/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL data_source String extract_data_as_tsv version 2.2d 13 Jun 2019
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_created String 2016-05-02T14:50:48Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL date_modified String 2016-05-03T17:24:47Z
attribute NC_GLOBAL defaultDataQuery String &time
attribute NC_GLOBAL doi String 10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.644664
attribute NC_GLOBAL Easternmost_Easting double 177.7
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_max double -18.208
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_min double -18.208
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lat_units String degrees_north
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_max double 177.7
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_min double 177.7
attribute NC_GLOBAL geospatial_lon_units String degrees_east
attribute NC_GLOBAL infoUrl String https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/644035 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL institution String BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_acronym String Scale
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_dataset_instrument_nid String 644042
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_description String An instrument used to measure weight or mass.
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_external_identifier String https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/L05/current/LAB13/ (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_name String Scale
attribute NC_GLOBAL instruments_0_instrument_nid String 714
attribute NC_GLOBAL keywords String average, average_days_survived, bco, bco-dmo, biological, chemical, data, dataset, days, dmo, erddap, latitude, longitude, management, oceanography, office, origin, preliminary, survived, time, treatment
attribute NC_GLOBAL license String The data may be used and redistributed for free but is not intended
for legal use, since it may contain inaccuracies. Neither the data
Contributor, ERD, NOAA, nor the United States Government, nor any
of their employees or contractors, makes any warranty, express or
implied, including warranties of merchantability and fitness for a
particular purpose, or assumes any legal liability for the accuracy,
completeness, or usefulness, of this information.
attribute NC_GLOBAL metadata_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/644035 (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Northernmost_Northing double -18.208
attribute NC_GLOBAL param_mapping String {'644035': {'lat': 'master - latitude', 'lon': 'master - longitude'}}
attribute NC_GLOBAL parameter_source String https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/644035/parameters (external link)
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation String Georgia Institute of Technology
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_affiliation_acronym String Georgia Tech
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_name String Dr Mark Hay
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_person_nid String 480720
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role String Principal Investigator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_0_role_type String originator
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation String Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_affiliation_acronym String WHOI BCO-DMO
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_name String Nancy Copley
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_person_nid String 50396
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager
attribute NC_GLOBAL people_1_role_type String related
attribute NC_GLOBAL project String Killer Seaweeds: Allelopathy against Fijian Corals
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_acronym String Killer Seaweeds
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_description String Extracted from the NSF award abstract:
Coral reefs are in dramatic global decline, with reefs commonly converting from species-rich and topographically-complex communities dominated by corals to species- poor and topographically-simplified communities dominated by seaweeds. These phase-shifts result in fundamental loss of ecosystem function. Despite debate about whether coral-to-algal transitions are commonly a primary cause, or simply a consequence, of coral mortality, rigorous field investigation of seaweed-coral competition has received limited attention. There is limited information on how the outcome of seaweed-coral competition varies among species or the relative importance of different competitive mechanisms in facilitating seaweed dominance. In an effort to address this topic, the PI will conduct field experiments in the tropical South Pacific (Fiji) to determine the effects of seaweeds on corals when in direct contact, which seaweeds are most damaging to corals, the role allelopathic lipids that are transferred via contact in producing these effects, the identity and surface concentrations of these metabolites, and the dynamic nature of seaweed metabolite production and coral response following contact. The herbivorous fishes most responsible for controlling allelopathic seaweeds will be identified, the roles of seaweed metabolites in allelopathy vs herbivore deterrence will be studied, and the potential for better managing and conserving critical reef herbivores so as to slow or reverse conversion of coral reef to seaweed meadows will be examined.
Preliminary results indicate that seaweeds may commonly damage corals via lipid- soluble allelochemicals. Such chemically-mediated interactions could kill or damage adult corals and produce the suppression of coral fecundity and recruitment noted by previous investigators and could precipitate positive feedback mechanisms making reef recovery increasingly unlikely as seaweed abundance increases. Chemically-mediated seaweed-coral competition may play a critical role in the degradation of present-day coral reefs. Increasing information on which seaweeds are most aggressive to corals and which herbivores best limit these seaweeds may prove useful in better managing reefs to facilitate resilience and possible recovery despite threats of global-scale stresses. Fiji is well positioned to rapidly use findings from this project for better management of reef resources because it has already erected >260 MPAs, Fijian villagers have already bought-in to the value of MPAs, and the Fiji Locally-Managed Marine Area (FLMMA) Network is well organized to get information to villagers in a culturally sensitive and useful manner.
The broader impacts of this project are far reaching. The project provides training opportunities for 2-2.5 Ph.D students and 1 undergraduate student each year in the interdisciplinary areas of marine ecology, marine conservation, and marine chemical ecology. Findings from this project will be immediately integrated into classes at Ga Tech and made available throughout Fiji via a foundation and web site that have already set-up to support marine conservation efforts in Fiji and marine education efforts both within Fiji and internationally. Business and community leaders from Atlanta (via Rotary International Service efforts) have been recruited to help organize and fund community service and outreach projects in Fiji -- several of which are likely to involve marine conservation and education based in part on these efforts there. Media outlets (National Geographic, NPR, Animal Planet, Audubon Magazine, etc.) and local Rotary clubs will be used to better disseminate these discoveries to the public.
Rasher DB, Stout EP, Engel S, Kubanek J, and ME Hay. "Macroalgal terpenes function as allelopathic agents against reef corals", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 108, 2011, p. 17726.
Beattie AJ, ME Hay, B Magnusson, R de Nys, J Smeathers, JFV Vincent. "Ecology and bioprospecting," Austral Ecology, v.36, 2011, p. 341.
Rasher DB and ME Hay. "Seaweed allelopathy degrades the resilience and function of coral reefs," Communicative and Integrative Biology, v.3, 2010.
Hay ME, Rasher DB. "Corals in crisis," The Scientist, v.24, 2010, p. 42.
Hay ME and DB Rasher. "Coral reefs in crisis: reversing the biotic death spiral," Faculty 1000 Biology Reports 2010, v.2, 2010.
Rasher DB and ME Hay. "Chemically rich seaweeds poison corals when not controlled by herbivores", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v.107, 2010, p. 9683.
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_end_date String 2014-08
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_geolocation String Viti Levu, Fiji (18�13.049’S, 177�42.968’E)
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_name String Killer Seaweeds: Allelopathy against Fijian Corals
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_project_nid String 480717
attribute NC_GLOBAL projects_0_start_date String 2009-09
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_name String Nancy Copley
attribute NC_GLOBAL publisher_role String BCO-DMO Data Manager(s)
attribute NC_GLOBAL sourceUrl String (local files)
attribute NC_GLOBAL Southernmost_Northing double -18.208
attribute NC_GLOBAL standard_name_vocabulary String CF Standard Name Table v29
attribute NC_GLOBAL subsetVariables String latitude, longitude
attribute NC_GLOBAL summary String Raw data on the survival of recruit-sized ramets of Sargassum polycystum
originated from marine protected and non-protected areas (MPAs and non-MPAs,
respectively) in Fiji, reciprocally transplanted between these areas in two
conditions: protected by closed cages or exposed to grazing in partially open
cages. Survival data is the average number of days survived by the four MPA
ramets and by the four non-MPA ramets in each of the cages. Details in Dell et
al. 2016 Plos One.

Related Datasets:
[Sargassum mature growth - figure 2](\\http://www.bco-
[Sargassum mature growth conspecific - figure 4](\\http://www.bco-
[Sargassum recruit-sized growth and survival with conspecifics - figures 5 and
attribute NC_GLOBAL title String Effect of habitat, origin, and herbivory on the survival and growth of recruit-sized S. polycystum fronds from MPAs and non-MPAs when reciprocally transplanted
attribute NC_GLOBAL version String 1
attribute NC_GLOBAL Westernmost_Easting double 177.7
attribute NC_GLOBAL xml_source String osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.5-beta
variable latitude   double  
attribute latitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lat
attribute latitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute latitude actual_range double -18.208, -18.208
attribute latitude axis String Y
attribute latitude colorBarMaximum double 90.0
attribute latitude colorBarMinimum double -90.0
attribute latitude description String latitude; north is positive
attribute latitude ioos_category String Location
attribute latitude long_name String Latitude
attribute latitude standard_name String latitude
attribute latitude units String degrees_north
variable longitude   double  
attribute longitude _CoordinateAxisType String Lon
attribute longitude _FillValue double NaN
attribute longitude actual_range double 177.7, 177.7
attribute longitude axis String X
attribute longitude colorBarMaximum double 180.0
attribute longitude colorBarMinimum double -180.0
attribute longitude description String longitude; east is positive
attribute longitude ioos_category String Location
attribute longitude long_name String Longitude
attribute longitude standard_name String longitude
attribute longitude units String degrees_east
variable location   String  
attribute location description String where Sargassum fronds were transplanted to: MPA = marine protected area; NON-MPA = non-protected area
attribute location ioos_category String Location
attribute location long_name String Location
attribute location units String unitless
variable origin   String  
attribute origin description String where Sargassum fronds were collected for the transplant: MPA = marine protected area; NON-MPA = non-protected area
attribute origin ioos_category String Unknown
attribute origin long_name String Origin
attribute origin units String unitless
variable treatment   String  
attribute treatment description String herbivory exclusion: Caged = ramets protected by cages; Exposed = ramets exposed to grazing in cages that lacked the lateral walls
attribute treatment ioos_category String Unknown
attribute treatment long_name String Treatment
attribute treatment units String unitless
variable average_days_survived   float  
attribute average_days_survived _FillValue float NaN
attribute average_days_survived actual_range float 4.32, 113.0
attribute average_days_survived description String average number of days survived by the four MPA ramets and by the four non-MPA ramets in each cage
attribute average_days_survived ioos_category String Time
attribute average_days_survived long_name String Average Days Survived
attribute average_days_survived units String days

The information in the table above is also available in other file formats (.csv, .htmlTable, .itx, .json, .jsonlCSV, .jsonlKVP, .mat, .nc, .nccsv, .tsv, .xhtml) via a RESTful web service.

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