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Dataset Title:  Initial lionfish behaviors at different densities of local lionfish and prey
fish on reefs in Eleuthera, Bahamas during 2012
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Institution:  BCO-DMO   (Dataset ID: bcodmo_dataset_653662)
Information:  Summary ? | License ? | ISO 19115 | Metadata | Background (external link) | Files | Make a graph
Variable ?   Optional
Constraint #1 ?
Constraint #2 ?
   Minimum ?
   Maximum ?
 time_period (unitless) ?          "Dawn"    "Midday"
 behavior (unitless) ?          "Hover"    "Rest"
 date (unitless) ?          "7/16/12"    "8/9/12"
 reef (unitless) ?          "CEI_83"    "CT-7B"
 PTVO_size (centimeters) ?          6    30
 specific_location (unitless) ?          "Between_heads"    "on_top_of_head"
 location_code (unitless) ?          0    1
Server-side Functions ?
 distinct() ?
? ("Hover here to see a list of options. Click on an option to select it.Hover here to see a list of options. Click on an option to select it.Hover here to see a list of options. Click on an option to select it.Hover here to see a list of options. Click on an option to select it.Hover here to see a list of options. Click on an option to select it.")

File type: (more info)

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The Dataset Attribute Structure (.das) for this Dataset

Attributes {
 s {
  time_period {
    String bcodmo_name "time";
    String description "time of day when lionfish were observed";
    String long_name "Time Period";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/AHMSAA01/";
    String units "unitless";
  behavior {
    String bcodmo_name "behav_code";
    String description "Behavior of lionfish; classified as either resting hovering swimming or hunting";
    String long_name "Behavior";
    String units "unitless";
  date {
    String bcodmo_name "date";
    String description "date that reef was surveyed; mm/dd/yy";
    String long_name "Date";
    String nerc_identifier "https://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/P01/current/ADATAA01/";
    String units "unitless";
  reef {
    String bcodmo_name "site";
    String description "reef id where lionfish were observed";
    String long_name "Reef";
    String units "unitless";
  PTVO_size {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 6, 30;
    String bcodmo_name "fish_len";
    String description "total length of lionfish";
    String long_name "PTVO Size";
    String units "centimeters";
  specific_location {
    String bcodmo_name "site_descrip";
    String description "location of lionfish within the reef";
    String long_name "Specific Location";
    String units "unitless";
  location_code {
    Byte _FillValue 127;
    Byte actual_range 0, 1;
    String bcodmo_name "behav_code";
    String description "Binary response: 0 = lionfish sheltering (hidden under structure) 1 = lionfish exposed (on top of the reef or in surrounding area)";
    String long_name "Location Code";
    String units "unitless";
    String access_formats ".htmlTable,.csv,.json,.mat,.nc,.tsv";
    String acquisition_description 
"This was an observational field study conducted from June - August 2012 to
determine whether lionfish behavior and movements change at different local
lionfish and prey fish densities. \\u00a0The study was conducted on sixteen
reefs in Rock Sound, Elethera, The Bahamas.\\u00a0 All reefs were at least 300
m from any reef on which lionfish removals had occurred, and were selected to
encompass a range of natural lionfish densities and reef sizes. \\u00a0
A pair of divers visited each reef at three times of day: within 2 hours of
sunrise (\\u2018dawn\\u2019), greater than 3 hours from sunrise or sunset
(\\u2018midday\\u2019), and within 2 hours of sunset (\\u2018dusk\\u2019).\\u00a0
Upon arriving at a reef, observers counted the number of lionfish present by
conducting lionfish-focused searches.\\u00a0 For each lionfish, observers
recorded the size (total length, visually estimated to the nearest cm),
behavior, and location the moment it was sighted.\\u00a0 Behaviors were
categorized as resting (sitting on the substrate, not moving), hovering (in
the water column oriented parallel to the bottom, but not moving), swimming
(actively moving), or hunting (oriented head down with pectoral fins
flared).\\u00a0 Location was categorized as the microhabitat on which lionfish
were observed (e.g. under a ledge, on top of the reef, in the surrounding
seagrass) and later divided into two major categories: sheltering (hidden
under structure) or exposed (on top of reef or in surrounding area).\\u00a0
Then, 10-minute focal observations were conducted on two randomly-selected
lionfish or a single lionfish when there was only one individual present per
reef.\\u00a0 During focal observations, a trained observer recorded the
behavior of lionfish at 30-second intervals for 10 minutes using the same
categories as above.\\u00a0 The observers also noted any strikes at prey,
successful kills, and obviously aggressive interactions (chases, posturing)
between lionfish or between lionfish and other species.\\u00a0 Throughout the
entire visit to each reef, divers noted the time when any lionfish departed
from or arrived at the reef and its behavior.\\u00a0 A lionfish was defined as
departing from the reef if it traveled at least 10 m from the reef.\\u00a0 A
lionfish was considered arriving at a reef if it swam in from the surrounding
areas and had not been previously observed at that reef during that
observation period.\\u00a0 At the conclusion of the focal observations, the
divers re-counted the number of lionfish present while conducting a survey of
resident native fishes.\\u00a0 Divers recorded the abundance and body size (TL)
of all fish 1 - 15 cm TL, native mesopredators that are ecologically similar
to lionfish (e.g. Cephalopholis cruentata [graysby grouper]), and top
predators (e.g. Epinephelus striatus [Nassau grouper]) on and within 1 m of
the reef.";
    String awards_0_award_nid "561016";
    String awards_0_award_number "OCE-1233027";
    String awards_0_data_url "http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=1233027";
    String awards_0_funder_name "NSF Division of Ocean Sciences";
    String awards_0_funding_acronym "NSF OCE";
    String awards_0_funding_source_nid "355";
    String awards_0_program_manager "David L. Garrison";
    String awards_0_program_manager_nid "50534";
    String cdm_data_type "Other";
    String comment 
"Behavior and Movement - Initial Behaviors 
   Lead PI: Mark Hixon 
   Sub-Project Lead: Casey Benkwitt 
   Version 9 August 2016 
 Species codes are first two letters of genus and species; See species key.";
    String Conventions "COARDS, CF-1.6, ACDD-1.3";
    String creator_email "info@bco-dmo.org";
    String creator_name "BCO-DMO";
    String creator_type "institution";
    String creator_url "https://www.bco-dmo.org/";
    String data_source "extract_data_as_tsv version 2.3  19 Dec 2019";
    String date_created "2016-08-09T19:50:40Z";
    String date_modified "2019-05-22T18:48:43Z";
    String defaultDataQuery "&time<now";
    String doi "10.1575/1912/bco-dmo.653662.1";
    String history 
"2022-08-17T10:44:09Z (local files)
2022-08-17T10:44:09Z https://erddap.bco-dmo.org/erddap/tabledap/bcodmo_dataset_653662.html";
    String infoUrl "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/653662";
    String institution "BCO-DMO";
    String keywords "bco, bco-dmo, behavior, biological, chemical, code, data, dataset, date, dmo, erddap, location_code, management, oceanography, office, period, preliminary, ptvo, PTVO_size, reef, size, specific, specific_location, time, time_period";
    String license "https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/653662/license";
    String metadata_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/api/dataset/653662";
    String param_mapping "{'653662': {}}";
    String parameter_source "https://www.bco-dmo.org/mapserver/dataset/653662/parameters";
    String people_0_affiliation "University of Hawaii";
    String people_0_person_name "Mark Hixon";
    String people_0_person_nid "51647";
    String people_0_role "Principal Investigator";
    String people_0_role_type "originator";
    String people_1_affiliation "Oregon State University";
    String people_1_affiliation_acronym "OSU";
    String people_1_person_name "Cassandra E. Benkwitt";
    String people_1_person_nid "51706";
    String people_1_role "Contact";
    String people_1_role_type "related";
    String people_2_affiliation "Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution";
    String people_2_affiliation_acronym "WHOI BCO-DMO";
    String people_2_person_name "Hannah Ake";
    String people_2_person_nid "650173";
    String people_2_role "BCO-DMO Data Manager";
    String people_2_role_type "related";
    String project "BiodiversityLossEffects_lionfish";
    String projects_0_acronym "BiodiversityLossEffects_lionfish";
    String projects_0_description 
"The Pacific red lionfish (Pterois volitans), a popular aquarium fish, was introduced to the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Florida in the late 20th century. Voraciously consuming small native coral-reef fishes, including the juveniles of fisheries and ecologically important species, the invader has undergone a population explosion that now ranges from the U.S. southeastern seaboard to the Gulf of Mexico and across the greater Caribbean region. The PI's past research determined that invasive lionfish (1) have escaped their natural enemies in the Pacific (lionfish are much less abundant in their native range); (2) are not yet controlled by Atlantic predators, competitors, or parasites; (3) have strong negative effects on populations of native Atlantic fishes; and (4) locally reduce the diversity (number of species) of native fishes. The lionfish invasion has been recognized as one of the major conservation threats worldwide.
The Bahamas support the highest abundances of invasive lionfish globally. This system thus provides an unprecedented opportunity to understand the direct and indirect effects of a major invader on a diverse community, as well as the underlying causative mechanisms. The PI will focus on five related questions: (1) How does long-term predation by lionfish alter the structure of native reef-fish communities? (2) How does lionfish predation destabilize native prey population dynamics, possibly causing local extinctions? (3) Is there a lionfish-herbivore-seaweed trophic cascade on invaded reefs? (4) How do lionfish modify cleaning mutualisms on invaded reefs? (5) Are lionfish reaching densities where natural population limits are evident?";
    String projects_0_end_date "2016-07";
    String projects_0_geolocation "Three Bahamian sites: 24.8318, -076.3299;  23.8562, -076.2250; 23.7727, -076.1071; Caribbean Netherlands: 12.1599, -068.2820";
    String projects_0_name "Mechanisms and Consequences of Fish Biodiversity Loss on Atlantic Coral Reefs Caused by Invasive Pacific Lionfish";
    String projects_0_project_nid "561017";
    String projects_0_project_website "http://hixon.science.oregonstate.edu/content/highlight-lionfish-invasion";
    String projects_0_start_date "2012-08";
    String publisher_name "Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO)";
    String publisher_type "institution";
    String sourceUrl "(local files)";
    String standard_name_vocabulary "CF Standard Name Table v55";
    String summary "Initial lionfish behaviors at different densities of local lionfish and prey fish on reefs in Eleuthera, Bahamas during 2012";
    String title "Initial lionfish behaviors at different densities of local lionfish and prey fish on reefs in Eleuthera, Bahamas during 2012";
    String version "1";
    String xml_source "osprey2erddap.update_xml() v1.3";


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